Anti-inflammatory Drugs

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Drug Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these is/are involved in the inflammatory process?

    • A.

      Histamine

    • B.

      Prostaglandin

    • C.

      Bradykinin

    • D.

      All of these

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    All of these substances, including histamine, prostaglandin, and bradykinin, are involved in the inflammatory process. Histamine is released by mast cells and causes blood vessels to dilate, leading to increased blood flow and swelling. Prostaglandins are lipid compounds that promote inflammation by causing blood vessels to dilate and increasing the permeability of blood vessels. Bradykinin is a peptide that causes blood vessels to dilate and increases vascular permeability, leading to swelling and pain. Therefore, all of these substances play a role in the inflammatory process.

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  • 2. 

    DMSO is approved for use in

    • A.

      Dogs

    • B.

      Cats

    • C.

      Horses

    • D.

      Cattle

    • E.

      Sheep

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dogs
    C. Horses
    Explanation
    DMSO is approved for use in dogs and horses. This means that it is safe and authorized to be used in these animals for various purposes. However, there is no information provided about its approval for use in cats, cattle, or sheep. Therefore, the correct answer is dogs and horses.

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  • 3. 

    Salicylates increase the clotting time by inhibiting ________ __________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    platelet adherence
    Explanation
    Salicylates, such as aspirin, are known to inhibit platelet adherence, which means they prevent platelets from sticking together and forming clots. This is achieved by interfering with the production of certain chemicals in the body that are involved in the clotting process. By inhibiting platelet adherence, salicylates effectively increase the clotting time, making it take longer for blood to form clots. This property of salicylates is often utilized in medical treatments to prevent excessive clotting, such as in the case of certain cardiovascular conditions.

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  • 4. 

    Histamine is released by

    • A.

      Mast cells

    • B.

      Basophils

    • C.

      Nautrophils

    • D.

      Lymphocytes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Mast cells
    B. Basophils
    Explanation
    Histamine is released by mast cells and basophils. Mast cells are found in connective tissues and are responsible for releasing histamine during allergic reactions. Basophils are a type of white blood cell that also release histamine as part of the immune response. Neutrophils and lymphocytes are not involved in histamine release.

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  • 5. 

    Which of these drugs block H1 receptors and block the binding of histamine?

    • A.

      Diphenhydramine

    • B.

      Chlorpheneramine

    • C.

      Pyrilamine maleate

    • D.

      Hydroxyzine

    • E.

      Deracoxib

    • F.

      Carprofen

    • G.

      Meloxicam

    • H.

      Etodolac

    • I.

      Tepoxalin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Diphenhydramine
    B. Chlorpheneramine
    C. Pyrilamine maleate
    D. Hydroxyzine
    Explanation
    Diphenhydramine, Chlorpheneramine, Pyrilamine maleate, and Hydroxyzine are all antihistamine drugs that block H1 receptors and prevent the binding of histamine. These drugs are commonly used to treat allergies, as they help reduce symptoms such as itching, sneezing, and runny nose by blocking the effects of histamine in the body.

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  • 6. 

    When tissue is damaged, phospholipids in the cell membrane are broken down by the enzyme _______, which produces ______ acid. Then the enzyme ________ breaks down this acid and produces  _____ and ______.

    • A.

      Phospholipase, thromboxane, prostaglandin, cyclogenase, arachidonic

    • B.

      Phospholipase, arachidonic, cyclogenase, prostaglandin, thromboxane

    • C.

      Thromboxane, arachidoic, prostaglandin, phospholipase, cyclogenase

    • D.

      Prostaglandin, thromboxane, phospholipase, arachidonic, cyclogenase

    Correct Answer
    B. Phospholipase, arachidonic, cyclogenase, prostaglandin, thromboxane
    Explanation
    When tissue is damaged, phospholipids in the cell membrane are broken down by the enzyme phospholipase and this produces arachidonic acid. Then the enzyme cyclogenase breaks down arachidonic acid and this produces prostaglandin and thromboxane.

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  • 7. 

    __________ is causes inflammation of the stomach and is called the "bad" prostaglandin

    • A.

      Cox-1

    • B.

      Cox-2

    Correct Answer
    B. Cox-2
    Explanation
    Cox-2 causes inflammation of the stomach and is referred to as the "bad" prostaglandin.

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  • 8. 

    Cox-1 aids in the repair of the

    • A.

      Heart

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Kidney

    • D.

      Bladder

    • E.

      Liver

    • F.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Stomach
    C. Kidney
    E. Liver
    F. Platelets
    Explanation
    Cox-1 aids in the repair of the stomach, kidney, liver, and platelets. Cox-1 is an enzyme that is responsible for producing prostaglandins, which are important for maintaining the health and function of these organs and cells. Prostaglandins play a role in promoting blood flow to the stomach and kidneys, protecting the liver from injury, and regulating platelet function. Therefore, Cox-1 is involved in the repair and maintenance of these organs and cells.

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  • 9. 

    Which of these NSAIDs causes sloughing and phlebitis in a horse when given perivascularly?

    • A.

      Phenylbutazone

    • B.

      Ketoprofen

    • C.

      Naproxen

    • D.

      Tepoxalin

    • E.

      Deracoxib

    Correct Answer
    A. Phenylbutazone
    Explanation
    Phenylbutazone is known to cause sloughing and phlebitis in horses when given perivascularly. This adverse reaction is a result of the drug's irritant properties, which can cause tissue damage and inflammation at the injection site. Ketoprofen, naproxen, tepoxalin, and deracoxib are not associated with this specific adverse effect in horses.

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  • 10. 

    Phenylbutazone can be given to horses

    • A.

      PO

    • B.

      IV

    • C.

      IM

    • D.

      SQ

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. PO
    B. IV
    Explanation
    Phenylbutazone can be given to horses orally (PO) or intravenously (IV). PO administration involves giving the medication by mouth, either in the form of a pill or liquid. IV administration involves injecting the medication directly into a vein. Both routes of administration are commonly used in horses to deliver phenylbutazone and achieve the desired therapeutic effect. Other routes such as intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SQ) are not mentioned as suitable options for administering phenylbutazone to horses in this question.

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  • 11. 

    Which of these drugs is used in horses to treat musculoskeletal and colic pain as well as endotoxic shock?

    • A.

      Flunixin meglumine

    • B.

      Phenylbutazone

    • C.

      Meloxicam

    • D.

      Ketoprofen

    Correct Answer
    A. Flunixin meglumine
    Explanation
    Flunixin meglumine is used in horses to treat musculoskeletal and colic pain as well as endotoxic shock. This drug is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that works by reducing inflammation and pain. It is commonly used in horses for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Phenylbutazone, meloxicam, and ketoprofen are also NSAIDs used in horses, but flunixin meglumine is specifically known for its effectiveness in treating colic pain and endotoxic shock in horses.

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  • 12. 

    Which of these is not a Cox-2 inhibitor?

    • A.

      Deracoxib

    • B.

      Carprofen

    • C.

      Meloxicam

    • D.

      Etodolac

    • E.

      Tepoxalin

    • F.

      They are all cox-2 inhibitors

    • G.

      None of these are cox-2 inhibitors

    Correct Answer
    F. They are all cox-2 inhibitors
    Explanation
    The given correct answer states that all of the options listed are Cox-2 inhibitors. Therefore, there is no option that is not a Cox-2 inhibitor.

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  • 13. 

    ______ is responsible for homeostatic functions in the GI tract, Renal tract as well in platelet function and macrophage differentiation

    • A.

      Cox-1

    • B.

      Cox-2

    Correct Answer
    A. Cox-1
    Explanation
    Cox-1 is responsible for homeostatic functions in the GI tract, renal tract, platelet function, and macrophage differentiation. Cox-1 is an enzyme that is constitutively expressed in various tissues and is involved in the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins play a crucial role in maintaining the normal functions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as protecting the stomach lining and regulating blood flow. They also regulate renal blood flow and are involved in platelet aggregation and macrophage differentiation. Cox-2, on the other hand, is an inducible enzyme that is primarily involved in inflammation and pain.

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  • 14. 

    Inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by blocking cox-1 or cox-2

    • A.

      NSAIDs

    • B.

      Salycilates

    • C.

      Corticosteroids

    Correct Answer
    A. NSAIDs
    Explanation
    NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by blocking the enzymes COX-1 or COX-2. Prostaglandins are responsible for inflammation, pain, and fever. By blocking the COX enzymes, NSAIDs reduce the production of prostaglandins, thus reducing inflammation, pain, and fever. Salicylates, such as aspirin, are a type of NSAID. Corticosteroids, on the other hand, work by suppressing the immune system and have a different mechanism of action.

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  • 15. 

    Corticosteroids are produced by the _______ ________.

    Correct Answer
    adrenal cortex
    Explanation
    Corticosteroids are a type of steroid hormone that are produced by the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex is the outer layer of the adrenal glands, which are small glands located on top of the kidneys. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes in the body, including metabolism, immune response, and stress response. Therefore, it is correct to say that corticosteroids are produced by the adrenal cortex.

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  • 16. 

    Which of these is not a purpose of inflammation?

    • A.

      Dilute the cause of the inflammation

    • B.

      Destroy the cause of inflammation

    • C.

      Isolate the cause of inflammation

    • D.

      To initiate repair of the tissue

    • E.

      To alert the organism of infection

    Correct Answer
    E. To alert the organism of infection
    Explanation
    The purpose of inflammation is to dilute, destroy, and isolate the cause of inflammation, as well as to initiate tissue repair. However, alerting the organism of infection is not a purpose of inflammation.

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  • 17. 

    Rubor and calor during inflammation is due to _______

    Correct Answer
    vasodilation
    Explanation
    During inflammation, the body's immune response is triggered, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators. One of these mediators is histamine, which causes vasodilation. Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels, allowing increased blood flow to the affected area. This increased blood flow causes redness (rubor) and warmth (calor) in the inflamed area. Therefore, the correct answer is vasodilation.

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  • 18. 

    Mast cells are ______ that have migrated on to the tissue.

    Correct Answer
    eosinophils
    Explanation
    Mast cells are a type of white blood cells that have migrated onto the tissue.

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  • 19. 

    Side effects for NSAIDs include

    • A.

      GI ulcers

    • B.

      Kidney problems

    • C.

      Clotting failure

    • D.

      Heart murmurs

    • E.

      Intestinal inflammation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. GI ulcers
    B. Kidney problems
    C. Clotting failure
    Explanation
    NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are known to have certain side effects. GI ulcers can occur due to the irritation of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Kidney problems may arise as NSAIDs can reduce blood flow to the kidneys and impair their function. Clotting failure is another potential side effect as NSAIDs can interfere with blood clotting mechanisms. However, heart murmurs and intestinal inflammation are not commonly associated with the use of NSAIDs.

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  • 20. 

    Antipyretic Causes decreased platelet aggregation Half-life 3-4hrs in dogs, 24-72 hrs in cats. SE: GI ulcers

    • A.

      Acetylsalicylic acid-aspirin

    • B.

      Dimethylsulfoxide

    • C.

      Hydrocortisone

    • D.

      Diphenhydramine

    Correct Answer
    A. Acetylsalicylic acid-aspirin
    Explanation
    Acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin, is the correct answer because it is an antipyretic and has the potential to cause decreased platelet aggregation. It also has a relatively short half-life in dogs (3-4 hours) and a longer half-life in cats (24-72 hours). Additionally, one of the side effects of aspirin is the development of gastrointestinal ulcers.

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  • 21. 

    Which of these NSAIDs would you give to a horse with skeletal pain?

    • A.

      Phenylbutazone

    • B.

      Aspirin

    • C.

      Meloxicam

    • D.

      Carprofen

    Correct Answer
    A. Phenylbutazone
    Explanation
    Phenylbutazone is the correct answer because it is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used in horses to relieve skeletal pain. It has potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, making it effective in reducing pain and inflammation associated with skeletal issues in horses. Aspirin, meloxicam, and carprofen are also NSAIDs, but they are not commonly used in horses for skeletal pain.

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  • 22. 

    Acidic solutions are more dangerous when give periascularly than alkaline solutions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Acidic solutions denature the proteins, causing them to bind together and create a wall that inhibit the spread of the solution. Alkaline solutions dissolve proteins, which allows the solution to spread further.

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  • 23. 

    __________ neutralizes phenylbutazone

    Correct Answer
    lidocaine
    Lidocaine
    Explanation
    Lidocaine neutralizes phenylbutazone.

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  • 24. 

    You should give H2 antagonists or omeprazole along with NSAIDs to lower gastric pH and lower the chance of gastric ulcers.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Giving H2 antagonists or omeprazole along with NSAIDs can help lower gastric pH and reduce the risk of gastric ulcers. H2 antagonists block the action of histamine, which stimulates acid secretion in the stomach, while omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that reduces the production of stomach acid. By lowering gastric pH, these medications can help protect the stomach lining from the damaging effects of NSAIDs, which are known to increase the risk of gastric ulcers. Therefore, it is true that giving H2 antagonists or omeprazole along with NSAIDs can lower the chance of gastric ulcers.

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  • 25. 

    Flunixin meglumine

    • A.

      Analgesic

    • B.

      Antipyretic

    • C.

      Anti-inflammatory

    • D.

      Used for musculoskeletal and colic pain

    • E.

      Used predominantly in horses

    • F.

      Prevents endotoxic shock in horses better than steroids

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Analgesic
    B. Antipyretic
    C. Anti-inflammatory
    D. Used for musculoskeletal and colic pain
    E. Used predominantly in horses
    F. Prevents endotoxic shock in horses better than steroids
    Explanation
    Flunixin meglumine is a medication that possesses analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is commonly used to relieve musculoskeletal and colic pain in horses. Compared to steroids, it is more effective in preventing endotoxic shock in horses.

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  • 26. 

    Flunixin meglumine can be given to dogs and cats only one time or else they will get gastric ulcers

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Flunixin meglumine is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used in veterinary medicine to relieve pain and inflammation in dogs and cats. However, prolonged or excessive use of this medication can lead to the development of gastric ulcers in these animals. Therefore, it is important to administer Flunixin meglumine only once and under the guidance of a veterinarian to avoid the risk of gastric ulcers.

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  • 27. 

    Inhibit cox and lipoxygenase Used in horses Extra label use in cats for fever Used for musculoskeletal pain

    • A.

      Ketoprofen

    • B.

      Naproxen

    • C.

      Carprofen

    • D.

      Omeprazole

    • E.

      Meloxicam

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ketoprofen
    B. Naproxen
    Explanation
    Ketoprofen and Naproxen are both nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that inhibit the enzymes cyclooxygenase (cox) and lipoxygenase. These enzymes are responsible for the production of inflammatory mediators in the body. Ketoprofen and Naproxen are commonly used in horses for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. They can also be used off-label in cats to treat fever. Additionally, both drugs are effective in relieving musculoskeletal pain in various species.

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  • 28. 

    Which of these has the least cox-1 inhibition?

    • A.

      Deracoxib

    • B.

      Carprofen

    • C.

      Meloxicam

    • D.

      Etodolac

    Correct Answer
    C. Meloxicam
    Explanation
    Meloxicam has the least cox-1 inhibition among the given options. Cox-1 is an enzyme that plays a role in the production of prostaglandins, which are involved in inflammation and pain. Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that selectively inhibits cox-2, another enzyme involved in inflammation, while having minimal effect on cox-1. This selective inhibition of cox-2 helps reduce inflammation and pain without causing significant gastrointestinal side effects, which are commonly associated with cox-1 inhibition. Therefore, Meloxicam is considered to have the least cox-1 inhibition among the given options.

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  • 29. 

    Labradors are sensitive to ___________

    Correct Answer
    carprofen
    Explanation
    Labradors are sensitive to carprofen, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used to relieve pain and inflammation in dogs. Labradors, like many other dog breeds, can have a genetic predisposition to certain sensitivities and reactions to medications. Carprofen can cause adverse reactions in Labradors, such as gastrointestinal upset, liver or kidney damage, or even allergic reactions. Therefore, it is important for Labrador owners to be cautious when administering carprofen or any other medication and consult with a veterinarian for proper dosage and monitoring.

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  • 30. 

    Which of these drugs is absorbed through the skin and enters the blood stream?

    • A.

      DMSO

    • B.

      Carprofen

    • C.

      Aspirin

    • D.

      Prednisolone

    Correct Answer
    A. DMSO
    Explanation
    DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) is a drug that is absorbed through the skin and enters the bloodstream. It is known for its ability to enhance the penetration of other drugs through the skin, making it a common ingredient in topical medications. DMSO has the ability to dissolve both polar and non-polar substances, allowing it to easily pass through the skin barrier and enter the bloodstream, where it can exert its therapeutic effects. Carprofen, aspirin, and prednisolone, on the other hand, are not typically absorbed through the skin and are usually administered orally or through injection.

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  • 31. 

    DMSO can be used IV to treat brain swelling.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    DMSO, or dimethyl sulfoxide, can indeed be used intravenously (IV) to treat brain swelling. This is because DMSO has anti-inflammatory properties and can help reduce the swelling in the brain. By administering DMSO through IV, it can quickly reach the affected area and provide relief. Therefore, the statement "DMSO can be used IV to treat brain swelling" is true.

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  • 32. 

    Corticosteroids

    • A.

      Stabilize cell membranes

    • B.

      Increase release of phospholipids

    • C.

      Decrease release of phospholipids

    • D.

      Destabilize cell membranes

    • E.

      Stimulate secrection of cortisone by stimulating ACTH release

    • F.

      Inhibit secretion of cortisone by inhibiting ACTH release

    • G.

      Reduce inflammation

    • H.

      Reduce scar tissue

    • I.

      Relieves pruritis

    • J.

      Causes a feeling of euphoria

    • K.

      Promotes wound healing

    • L.

      Delays wound healing

    • M.

      Can cause addison's

    • N.

      Depresses the immune system

    • O.

      Causes GI ulceration and bleeding

    • P.

      Delays healing of ulcers

    • Q.

      Can cause cushing's

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Stabilize cell membranes
    C. Decrease release of phospholipids
    F. Inhibit secretion of cortisone by inhibiting ACTH release
    G. Reduce inflammation
    H. Reduce scar tissue
    I. Relieves pruritis
    J. Causes a feeling of euphoria
    L. Delays wound healing
    M. Can cause addison's
    N. Depresses the immune system
    O. Causes GI ulceration and bleeding
    P. Delays healing of ulcers
    Q. Can cause cushing's
    Explanation
    Corticosteroids have multiple effects on the body, including stabilizing cell membranes, decreasing the release of phospholipids, and inhibiting the secretion of cortisone by inhibiting ACTH release. These actions help to reduce inflammation, scar tissue formation, pruritis, and promote wound healing. However, corticosteroids can also have negative effects such as delaying wound healing, causing Addison's disease, suppressing the immune system, causing GI ulceration and bleeding, and leading to Cushing's syndrome. Additionally, corticosteroids can cause a feeling of euphoria.

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  • 33. 

    Cortisol and NSAIDs should be used together to prevent GI ulcers

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The use of both together INCREASES the chance of GI ulcers because they both inhibit cox-1

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  • 34. 

    When you give a dog cortisol, you might get a call from the owner saying that the dog is peeing all over the place

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to stress. When cortisol levels are high, it can cause increased urination in dogs. Therefore, if a dog is given cortisol, it is likely to result in the dog peeing all over the place. Thus, the statement is true.

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  • 35. 

    A client comes in asking for an allergy shot. What do you give them?

    • A.

      Hydrocortisone

    • B.

      Prednisolone

    • C.

      Dexamethasone

    • D.

      Triamicinolone aetonide

    Correct Answer
    D. Triamicinolone aetonide
    Explanation
    Triamicinolone aetonide is the correct answer because it is a corticosteroid medication commonly used to treat allergies. It works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to allergens. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone are also corticosteroids, but they may not be as commonly used or as effective for allergy treatment as triamicinolone aetonide.

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  • 36. 

    Which of these is the longest acting cortisone?

    • A.

      Hydrocortisone

    • B.

      Prednisolone

    • C.

      Dexamethasone

    • D.

      Triamicinolone aetonide

    Correct Answer
    D. Triamicinolone aetonide
    Explanation
    Triamcinolone acetonide is the longest acting cortisone among the given options. It is a synthetic corticosteroid that has a longer duration of action compared to hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone. Triamcinolone acetonide is commonly used in various medical conditions, including allergies, skin disorders, and joint inflammation, due to its sustained release and prolonged effect.

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  • 37. 

    Antihistmaines block H1 by binding it.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    They bind the receptors

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