Anatomy And Physiology Test #1 - Body Structures And Molecular Cellular Biology

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Anatomy And Physiology Test #1 - Body Structures And Molecular Cellular Biology - Quiz

Choose the best answer for the questions given. This test covers chapters 1, 2 and 3.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The most abundant and widely distributed type of body tissue is:

    • A.

      Epithelial

    • B.

      Connective

    • C.

      Muscle

    • D.

      Nerve

    Correct Answer
    B. Connective
    Explanation
    Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed type of body tissue. It is found throughout the body and serves to support, connect, and protect other tissues and organs. Connective tissue is made up of cells, fibers, and a ground substance, and it includes various types such as bone, cartilage, adipose tissue, and blood. This tissue type plays a crucial role in providing structural support, maintaining the shape of organs, and facilitating the transport of nutrients and waste products.

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  • 2. 

    Simple, squamous epithelial tissue is made up of:

    • A.

      A single layer of long, narrow cells

    • B.

      Several layers of long, narrow cells

    • C.

      A single layer of flat, scale-like cells

    • D.

      Several lavers of flat, scale-like cells

    Correct Answer
    C. A single layer of flat, scale-like cells
    Explanation
    Simple, squamous epithelial tissue is made up of a single layer of flat, scale-like cells. This type of tissue is found in areas where filtration and diffusion occur, such as the lining of blood vessels and air sacs in the lungs. The flat shape of the cells allows for easy transport of substances across the tissue.

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  • 3. 

    The synthesis of proteins by ribosomes using information coded in the mRNA molecule is called:

    • A.

      Translation

    • B.

      Transcription

    • C.

      Replication

    • D.

      Crenation

    Correct Answer
    A. Translation
    Explanation
    Translation is the correct answer because it refers to the process by which ribosomes synthesize proteins using the information encoded in the mRNA molecule. During translation, the ribosomes read the mRNA sequence and use it as a template to assemble amino acids in the correct order, forming a polypeptide chain. This process is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms. Transcription, on the other hand, is the process of synthesizing mRNA from DNA, while replication is the process of copying DNA. Crenation is unrelated to protein synthesis and refers to the shrinking of cells due to water loss.

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  • 4. 

    Chromatin granules:

    • A.

      Exist in the cell cytoplasm

    • B.

      Are made up of DNA

    • C.

      Form spindle fibers

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Are made up of DNA
    Explanation
    Chromatin granules are made up of DNA. Chromatin is a complex of DNA and proteins that condenses to form chromosomes during cell division. These granules contain the genetic material of the cell and play a crucial role in gene regulation and DNA packaging. They are not found in the cell cytoplasm or involved in the formation of spindle fibers.

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  • 5. 

    A lengthwise plane running from front to back that divides the body into right and left sides is known as:

    • A.

      Transverse

    • B.

      Coronal

    • C.

      Frontal

    • D.

      Sagittal

    Correct Answer
    D. Sagittal
    Explanation
    A lengthwise plane running from front to back that divides the body into right and left sides is known as sagittal. This plane divides the body into two symmetrical halves, allowing for the examination of structures on either side of the body. The other options, transverse, coronal, and frontal, refer to planes that divide the body in different ways. Transverse divides the body into upper and lower sections, coronal divides it into front and back sections, and frontal divides it into anterior and posterior sections.

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  • 6. 

    The study of the functions of living organisms and their parts is called:

    • A.

      Physiology

    • B.

      Chemistry

    • C.

      Biology

    • D.

      Pathology

    Correct Answer
    A. Physiology
    Explanation
    Physiology is the study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. It involves understanding how different organs and systems work together to maintain homeostasis and carry out vital processes such as respiration, digestion, and circulation. This field of study helps us understand the normal functioning of the human body and provides insights into the mechanisms underlying various diseases and disorders.

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  • 7. 

    The organization of varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged together to perform a complex function is called:

    • A.

      Cell

    • B.

      Tissue

    • C.

      System

    • D.

      Region

    Correct Answer
    C. System
    Explanation
    The correct answer is system. A system refers to the organization of different organs that work together to perform a specific function. It is a higher level of organization than cells or tissues, as it involves the coordination and integration of multiple organs. Systems can be found throughout the body, such as the respiratory system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system. Each system has a specific function and is made up of different organs working together to achieve that function.

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  • 8. 

    The bodies continuous ability to respond to changes in the environment and to maintain constant internal environment is called:

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Superficial

    • C.

      Structural levels

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Homeostasis
    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment. It involves various physiological processes that work together to regulate temperature, pH levels, blood pressure, and other vital functions. Homeostasis is crucial for the body to function properly and ensure optimal health.

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  • 9. 

    The plane that divides superior from inferior is known as:

    • A.

      Transverse plane

    • B.

      Sagittal plane

    • C.

      Frontal plane

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Transverse plane
    Explanation
    The plane that divides superior from inferior is known as the transverse plane. This plane runs horizontally, dividing the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions. It is also referred to as the horizontal plane or axial plane. The other options, sagittal and frontal planes, divide the body in different ways and are not specifically related to separating superior from inferior.

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  • 10. 

    Which one of the following structures does not lie within the abdominal cavity:

    • A.

      Spleen

    • B.

      Most of the small intestine

    • C.

      Urimary bladder

    • D.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    C. Urimary bladder
    Explanation
    The urinary bladder does not lie within the abdominal cavity. It is located in the pelvic cavity, which is the lower part of the abdominal cavity. The spleen, most of the small intestine, and the stomach are all organs that are located within the abdominal cavity.

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  • 11. 

    The dorsal body cavity contains components of the:

    • A.

      Reproductive

    • B.

      Digestive

    • C.

      Respiratory

    • D.

      Nervous

    Correct Answer
    D. Nervous
    Explanation
    The dorsal body cavity contains components of the nervous system. This cavity is located along the posterior side of the body and includes the cranial cavity, which houses the brain, and the vertebral cavity, which contains the spinal cord. These structures are vital for the functioning of the nervous system, which controls and coordinates various bodily activities. The reproductive, digestive, and respiratory systems are not typically located within the dorsal body cavity, making the nervous system the correct answer.

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  • 12. 

    Similar cells acting together to perform a common function exist at a level of organization called:

    • A.

      Organ

    • B.

      Chemical

    • C.

      Tissue

    • D.

      System

    Correct Answer
    C. Tissue
    Explanation
    Similar cells acting together to perform a common function exist at a level of organization called tissue. Tissues are groups of cells that work together to perform specific functions in the body. They can be classified into four main types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues. Each type of tissue has specialized cells and extracellular materials that enable them to carry out their specific functions. Examples of tissues include epithelial tissue that lines the surfaces of organs and blood vessels, connective tissue that provides support and protection, muscle tissue that allows for movement, and nervous tissue that transmits electrical signals.

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  • 13. 

    If your reference point is "nearest the trunk of the body" vs. "farthest from the trunk of the body" where does the elbow lie in relation to the wrist:

    • A.

      Anterior

    • B.

      Posterior

    • C.

      Distal

    • D.

      Proximal

    Correct Answer
    D. Proximal
    Explanation
    The elbow lies proximal to the wrist. Proximal means nearer to the trunk or point of origin of a body part. In this case, the trunk of the body is the reference point, and since the elbow is closer to the trunk than the wrist, it is considered proximal.

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  • 14. 

    In the anatomical position:

    • A.

      The dorsal body cavity is anterior to the ventral

    • B.

      Palms face toward the back of the body

    • C.

      The body is erect

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. The body is erect
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above". In the anatomical position, the body is indeed erect, meaning it is standing upright. Additionally, the dorsal body cavity is located towards the back of the body, while the ventral body cavity is located towards the front. Lastly, in the anatomical position, the palms of the hands face towards the back of the body.

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  • 15. 

    In the human body, the chest region:

    • A.

      Can be referred to as the thoracic

    • B.

      Is a component of the ventral body cavity

    • C.

      Contains the mediastinum

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above". The chest region in the human body can be referred to as the thoracic region, which is a component of the ventral body cavity. It also contains the mediastinum, which is the space between the lungs that houses the heart, major blood vessels, esophagus, and other structures. Therefore, all of these statements are true about the chest region in the human body.

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  • 16. 

    The study of disease is called:

    • A.

      Autopsy

    • B.

      Postmortem

    • C.

      Physiology

    • D.

      Pathology

    Correct Answer
    D. Pathology
    Explanation
    Pathology is the correct answer because it is the branch of medical science that studies the nature, causes, and effects of diseases. It involves examining tissues, organs, and body fluids to diagnose and understand diseases. Autopsy and postmortem refer to the examination of a body after death to determine the cause of death, while physiology is the study of how the body functions. Therefore, pathology specifically focuses on the study of diseases.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following cellular structures has the ability to secrete digestive enzymes:

    • A.

      Lysosomes

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Golgi bodies

    • D.

      Ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    A. Lysosomes
    Explanation
    Lysosomes have the ability to secrete digestive enzymes. Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in animal cells that contain enzymes responsible for breaking down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. These enzymes are capable of breaking down various macromolecules, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The process of breaking down and recycling cellular components is known as autophagy. Lysosomes fuse with the material to be digested, releasing their enzymes and breaking down the substances into smaller molecules that can be used by the cell for energy or excreted.

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  • 18. 

    Karen has been complaining of a stomach ache and is now in the emergency room.  After conducting several lab tests the doctor suspects an appendicitis.  When asked to point to the area of pain, she points to her lower right side.  You can tell Karen that her appendix is in the:

    • A.

      Thoracic cavity

    • B.

      Cranial cavity

    • C.

      Right lower quadrant

    • D.

      Right hypochondriac region

    Correct Answer
    C. Right lower quadrant
    Explanation
    Karen can be told that her appendix is located in the right lower quadrant. This is because the doctor suspects appendicitis and when asked to point to the area of pain, Karen points to her lower right side. The right lower quadrant is the region where the appendix is typically located in the abdominal cavity.

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  • 19. 

    Karen says that her pain is less if she stands straight with her hands at her side. She is describing:

    • A.

      The anatomical position

    • B.

      The coronal plane

    • C.

      The transverse plane

    • D.

      Midsagital plane

    Correct Answer
    A. The anatomical position
    Explanation
    Karen is describing the anatomical position, which is a standard reference posture used in anatomy. In this position, the body is upright, facing forward, with the arms at the sides and the palms facing forward. This position allows for accurate communication and description of the body's structures and movements. Karen's statement about her pain being less when she stands straight with her hands at her side indicates that she is referring to the anatomical position.

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  • 20. 

    Ventral is:

    • A.

      Front

    • B.

      Cutaneous

    • C.

      Back

    • D.

      Equal

    • E.

      Horizontal

    Correct Answer
    A. Front
    Explanation
    The term "ventral" refers to the front side of an animal or organism. It is the opposite of "dorsal," which refers to the back side. In this context, "front" is the correct answer as it best describes the meaning of the term "ventral."

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  • 21. 

    Skin is:

    • A.

      Front

    • B.

      Cutaneous

    • C.

      Back

    • D.

      Equal

    • E.

      Horizontal

    Correct Answer
    B. Cutaneous
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "cutaneous" because it refers to the skin. "Front" and "back" are not specific to the skin, "equal" and "horizontal" do not describe the skin.

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  • 22. 

    Dorsal is:

    • A.

      Front

    • B.

      Cutaneous

    • C.

      Back

    • D.

      Equal

    • E.

      Horizontal

    Correct Answer
    C. Back
    Explanation
    The term "dorsal" refers to the back side or the upper side of an organism. It is the opposite of "ventral," which refers to the front or belly side. Therefore, the correct answer is "back."

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  • 23. 

    Midsagital is:

    • A.

      Front

    • B.

      Cutaneous

    • C.

      Back

    • D.

      Equal

    • E.

      Horizontal

    Correct Answer
    D. Equal
    Explanation
    Midsagital refers to the midline that divides the body or any organ into equal left and right halves. Therefore, the correct answer is "equal."

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  • 24. 

    Transverse is:

    • A.

      Front

    • B.

      Cutaneous

    • C.

      Back

    • D.

      Equal

    • E.

      Horizontal

    Correct Answer
    E. Horizontal
    Explanation
    The term "transverse" refers to a position or direction that is perpendicular or at a right angle to the vertical or longitudinal axis. In this context, "horizontal" is the only option that fits this definition. "Front," "cutaneous," "back," and "equal" do not describe a transverse position or direction.

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  • 25. 

    The cytoplasm is:

    • A.

      Control center

    • B.

      Fluid of the cell

    • C.

      Surrounds the cell

    • D.

      Power plants

    • E.

      Digestive bags

    Correct Answer
    B. Fluid of the cell
    Explanation
    The cytoplasm is the fluid of the cell. It is a gel-like substance that fills the cell and surrounds the organelles. It contains various molecules, such as proteins, ions, and nutrients, that are necessary for cellular processes to occur. The cytoplasm also acts as a medium for the movement of organelles within the cell and provides support and structure to the cell.

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  • 26. 

    The nucleus is:

    • A.

      The control center

    • B.

      Fluid of the cell

    • C.

      Surrounds the cell

    • D.

      Power plants

    • E.

      Digestive bags

    Correct Answer
    A. The control center
    Explanation
    The nucleus is considered the control center of the cell because it contains the genetic material, DNA, which carries the instructions for the cell's activities and functions. It regulates the cell's growth, development, and reproduction by controlling the synthesis of proteins and other molecules. The nucleus also plays a crucial role in cellular processes such as gene expression and cell division. Therefore, it can be said that the nucleus acts as the control center of the cell, coordinating and regulating its various functions.

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  • 27. 

    The cell membrane:

    • A.

      Control center

    • B.

      Fluid of the cell

    • C.

      Surrounds the cell

    • D.

      Power plants

    • E.

      Digestive bags

    Correct Answer
    C. Surrounds the cell
    Explanation
    The cell membrane is a protective layer that surrounds the cell, separating its internal environment from the external environment. It acts as a barrier, controlling the movement of substances in and out of the cell. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's shape and providing support. Therefore, the statement "surrounds the cell" accurately describes the function of the cell membrane.

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  • 28. 

    The lysosomes are:

    • A.

      Control center

    • B.

      Fluid of the cell

    • C.

      Surrounds the cell

    • D.

      Power plants

    • E.

      Digestive bags

    Correct Answer
    E. Digestive bags
    Explanation
    Lysosomes are organelles within cells that contain enzymes responsible for breaking down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. They act as "digestive bags" by fusing with these materials and breaking them down into smaller components that can be recycled or eliminated from the cell. This process is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper functioning of the cell.

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  • 29. 

    The mitochondria are:

    • A.

      Control centers

    • B.

      Fluid of the cell

    • C.

      Surrounds the cell

    • D.

      Power plants

    • E.

      Digestive bags

    Correct Answer
    D. Power plants
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are often referred to as the "power plants" of the cell because they are responsible for producing the majority of the cell's energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through a process called cellular respiration. This energy is essential for various cellular activities and metabolic processes. The mitochondria have their own DNA and are believed to have originated from ancient bacteria that formed a symbiotic relationship with eukaryotic cells. Therefore, the term "power plants" accurately describes the function of mitochondria in generating energy for the cell.

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  • 30. 

    In which stage of mitosis do chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cells along the spindle fibers:

    • A.

      Anaphase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Prophase

    • D.

      Telophase

    • E.

      Interphase

    Correct Answer
    A. Anaphase
    Explanation
    During anaphase, the sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles of the cell along the spindle fibers. This movement is facilitated by the shortening of the spindle fibers, which pulls the chromatids towards the centrosomes located at the opposite ends of the cell. As a result, each pole of the cell receives a complete set of chromosomes, ensuring that each daughter cell will have the correct number of chromosomes.

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  • 31. 

    Identify the phase of mitosis from the picture below:

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      Prophase

    • C.

      Metaphase

    • D.

      Anaphase

    • E.

      Telophase

    Correct Answer
    C. Metaphase
    Explanation
    The correct answer is metaphase. In metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell, forming a single line called the metaphase plate. This is clearly shown in the picture, where the chromosomes are aligned in the middle of the cell. This phase is crucial for ensuring that each daughter cell receives the correct number of chromosomes during cell division.

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  • 32. 

    Identify the phase of mitosis from the picture below:

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      Prophase

    • C.

      Metaphase

    • D.

      Anaphase

    • E.

      Telophase

    Correct Answer
    D. Anaphase
    Explanation
    The correct answer is anaphase. In anaphase, the sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles of the cell. This can be observed in the picture where the chromosomes are clearly seen moving away from each other towards opposite ends of the cell. This phase occurs after metaphase and before telophase in the process of mitosis.

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  • 33. 

    Identify the phase of mitosis from the picture below:

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      Prophase

    • C.

      Metaphase

    • D.

      Anaphase

    • E.

      Telophase

    Correct Answer
    A. Interphase
    Explanation
    The given picture shows a cell with a clearly visible nucleus and chromatin spread throughout the nucleus, indicating that it is in the interphase stage of mitosis. During interphase, the cell prepares for division by growing, replicating its DNA, and carrying out normal cellular functions. This stage is characterized by the presence of a distinct nucleus and dispersed chromatin rather than condensed chromosomes, as seen in other phases of mitosis.

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  • 34. 

    Identify the phase of mitosis from the picture below:

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      Prophase

    • C.

      Metaphase

    • D.

      Anaphase

    • E.

      Telophase

    Correct Answer
    B. Prophase
    Explanation
    The picture shows condensed chromosomes, which indicates that the cell is in the early stages of mitosis. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible under a microscope. Additionally, the nuclear membrane starts to break down, and spindle fibers begin to form. Therefore, based on these characteristics observed in the picture, the correct phase of mitosis is prophase.

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  • 35. 

    Identify the phase of mitosis from the picture below:

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      Prophase

    • C.

      Metaphase

    • D.

      Anaphase

    • E.

      Telophase

    Correct Answer
    E. Telophase
    Explanation
    The picture shows a stage in mitosis where the chromosomes have already separated and are moving towards opposite ends of the cell. This is characteristic of the telophase stage, which is the final stage of mitosis. During telophase, the nuclear envelope reforms around the separated chromosomes and the cell begins to divide into two daughter cells.

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  • 36. 

    Identify the tissue from the picture below:

    • A.

      Adipose tissue

    • B.

      Bone tissue

    • C.

      Skeletal muscle tissue

    • D.

      Connective tissue

    • E.

      Nervous tissue

    Correct Answer
    B. Bone tissue
    Explanation
    Based on the given picture, the tissue appears to have a dense and rigid structure with a network of small cavities. This is characteristic of bone tissue, which provides support and protection to the body. Adipose tissue is a loose connective tissue that stores fat, skeletal muscle tissue has long, striated fibers for movement, connective tissue is a broad category that includes bone tissue, and nervous tissue is made up of neurons and is responsible for transmitting signals. Therefore, based on the characteristics observed in the picture, the tissue is most likely bone tissue.

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  • 37. 

    Identify the tissue from the picture below:

    • A.

      Adipose tissue

    • B.

      Bone tissue

    • C.

      Skeletal tissue

    • D.

      Connective tissue

    • E.

      Nervous tissue

    Correct Answer
    A. Adipose tissue
    Explanation
    The picture likely shows adipose tissue because it appears to contain large, round cells with small nuclei, which is characteristic of adipocytes. Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue that stores fat and provides insulation and cushioning.

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  • 38. 

    Identify the tissue from the picture below:

    • A.

      Adipose tissue

    • B.

      Bone tissue

    • C.

      Skeletal muscle tissue

    • D.

      Connective tissue

    • E.

      Nervous tissue

    Correct Answer
    E. Nervous tissue
    Explanation
    The picture provided does not give any information about the tissue type. Therefore, an explanation cannot be generated.

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  • 39. 

    Identify the tissue from the picture below:

    • A.

      Adipose tissue

    • B.

      Bone tissue

    • C.

      Skeletal muscle tissue

    • D.

      Connective tissue

    • E.

      Nervous tissue

    Correct Answer
    D. Connective tissue
    Explanation
    The tissue in the picture appears to be connective tissue. Connective tissue is characterized by its ability to connect, support, and protect different structures in the body. It is made up of cells and extracellular matrix, which includes fibers and ground substance. Connective tissue can be found throughout the body, providing structural support to organs, surrounding blood vessels, and nerves. It also plays a role in immune response and wound healing.

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  • 40. 

    Identify the tissue from the picture below:

    • A.

      Adipose tissue

    • B.

      Bone tissue

    • C.

      Muscular tissue

    • D.

      Connective tissue

    • E.

      Nervous tissue

    Correct Answer
    C. Muscular tissue
    Explanation
    The tissue in the picture appears to be striated, indicating the presence of muscle fibers. This suggests that the tissue is muscular tissue. Muscular tissue is responsible for movement in the body and can be either voluntary or involuntary.

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  • 41. 

    All of the bodies cells are genetically similar except:

    • A.

      Liver cells

    • B.

      Skin cells

    • C.

      Sex cells

    • D.

      Bone cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Sex cells
    Explanation
    Sex cells, also known as gametes, are genetically different from other cells in the body. This is because they undergo a process called meiosis, which results in the formation of haploid cells with half the number of chromosomes. This genetic variation is crucial for sexual reproduction, as it allows for the combination of genetic material from two parents to produce offspring with unique characteristics. In contrast, liver cells, skin cells, and bone cells are somatic cells that undergo mitosis and are genetically similar to each other.

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  • 42. 

    Excessive cell reproduction is termed:

    • A.

      Hypertrophy

    • B.

      Atrophy

    • C.

      Hyperplasia

    Correct Answer
    C. Hyperplasia
    Explanation
    Hyperplasia refers to the excessive cell reproduction, leading to an increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue. This can occur in response to certain stimuli or as a part of the body's normal growth and development. Hypertrophy, on the other hand, refers to an increase in the size of individual cells, while atrophy refers to a decrease in the size of cells or tissue. Therefore, hyperplasia is the correct term to describe excessive cell reproduction.

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  • 43. 

    A decrease in cell size due to lack of use is termed:

    • A.

      Hypertrophy

    • B.

      Atrophy

    • C.

      Hyperplasia

    Correct Answer
    B. Atrophy
    Explanation
    Atrophy refers to the decrease in cell size due to lack of use. It occurs when cells shrink in size and can happen to various tissues and organs in the body. This can be caused by factors such as disuse, lack of nerve stimulation, inadequate blood supply, or hormonal changes. Atrophy is the opposite of hypertrophy, which is an increase in cell size, and hyperplasia, which is an increase in the number of cells.

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  • 44. 

    A harmless mass of abnormal cells is termed:

    • A.

      Benign

    • B.

      Malignant

    • C.

      Neoplasm

    • D.

      Metastasis

    Correct Answer
    A. Benign
    Explanation
    The term "benign" refers to a mass of abnormal cells that is not cancerous and does not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. It is usually localized and does not pose a significant threat to health.

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  • 45. 

    This type of lipid is good for your body because it contains many carbon-carbon double bonds:

    • A.

      Cholesterol

    • B.

      High density lipoproteins

    • C.

      Low density lipoproteins

    • D.

      Glutamic acids

    Correct Answer
    B. High density lipoproteins
    Explanation
    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered "good" cholesterol because they contain a high proportion of protein and a low proportion of cholesterol. They help transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues back to the liver, where it can be processed and removed from the body. HDL also has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which can help protect against cardiovascular diseases. The presence of many carbon-carbon double bonds in HDL is not accurate, as it is the unsaturated fats like omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that contain multiple double bonds.

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  • 46. 

    Tumors incased in a sack are usually called:

    • A.

      Benign

    • B.

      Malignant

    • C.

      Neoplasm

    • D.

      Metastasis

    Correct Answer
    A. Benign
    Explanation
    A tumor encased in a sack is usually called "benign." This term refers to a non-cancerous growth that remains localized and does not invade or spread to other parts of the body. Unlike malignant tumors, which are cancerous and can spread to surrounding tissues or distant organs, benign tumors typically have a slow growth rate and do not pose a significant threat to a person's health.

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  • 47. 

    Using the translation box below, what amino acid is coded for by UAU:

    • A.

      Tyrosine (tyr)

    • B.

      Cysteine (cys)

    • C.

      Isoleucine (iso)

    • D.

      Glutamic acid (glu)

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Tyrosine (tyr)
    Explanation
    UAU is the mRNA codon for the amino acid tyrosine. The question is asking which amino acid is coded for by UAU, and the correct answer is tyrosine.

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  • 48. 

    Using the translation box below, what amino acid is coded for by UGU:

    • A.

      Tyrosine (tyr)

    • B.

      Cysteine (cys)

    • C.

      Isoleucine (iso)

    • D.

      Glutamic acid (glu)

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Cysteine (cys)
    Explanation
    UGU is the mRNA codon for cysteine (cys). Each codon in the genetic code corresponds to a specific amino acid, and UGU specifically codes for cysteine. Therefore, the correct answer is cysteine (cys).

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  • 49. 

    Using the translation box below, what amino acid is coded for by AUG:

    • A.

      Tyrosine (tyr)

    • B.

      Cysteine (cys)

    • C.

      Isoleucine (iso)

    • D.

      Glutamic acid (glu)

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is none of the above because AUG codes for the amino acid methionine. Methionine is typically the first amino acid in a protein sequence and serves as a signal for the ribosome to start protein synthesis.

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  • 50. 

    Using the translation box below, what amino acid is coded for by GAA:

    • A.

      Tyrosine (tyr)

    • B.

      Cysteine (cys)

    • C.

      Isoleucine (iso)

    • D.

      Glutamic acid (glu)

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Glutamic acid (glu)
    Explanation
    GAA is the codon for glutamic acid (glu). Codons are sequences of three nucleotides in mRNA that code for specific amino acids during protein synthesis. In the genetic code, GAA specifically codes for glutamic acid. Therefore, the correct answer is glutamic acid (glu).

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