Anatomy And Physiology Questions - Metabolism And Nutrition

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Anatomy And Physiology Questions - Metabolism And Nutrition - Quiz

Questions about metabolism and nutrition. Linked to the "Maturity 2" case unit.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Chemical reactions that break down compolex organic molecules into simpler ones are called:

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Anabolism

    • C.

      Catabolism

    • D.

      Metatheses

    • E.

      Oxidation reactions

    Correct Answer
    C. Catabolism
    Explanation
    Catabolism is the correct answer because it refers to the chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones. This process releases energy and is essential for the maintenance and growth of cells. Anabolism, on the other hand, is the opposite process where complex molecules are built from simpler ones. Metabolism is the overall set of chemical reactions that occur in an organism, including both catabolic and anabolic reactions. Metatheses and oxidation reactions are not specific terms for the breakdown of complex organic molecules.

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  • 2. 

    Chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers to form complex structures are known as

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Anabolism

    • C.

      Catabolism

    • D.

      Metatheses

    • E.

      Oxidation reactions

    Correct Answer
    B. Anabolism
    Explanation
    Anabolism refers to the chemical reactions in which simple molecules and monomers are combined to form complex structures. It is the process of building up molecules and requires energy input. This is in contrast to catabolism, which involves the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones. Metabolism, on the other hand, encompasses all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism, including both anabolism and catabolism. Metatheses and oxidation reactions are not specifically related to the combination of simple molecules and monomers to form complex structures.

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  • 3. 

    When the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP what is formed?

    • A.

      Adenosine diphosphate

    • B.

      GTP

    • C.

      Adenosine monophosphate

    • D.

      Metabolic water

    • E.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    A. Adenosine diphosphate
    Explanation
    When the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP, it forms Adenosine diphosphate. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a molecule that stores and releases energy in cells. When one of the phosphate groups is removed from ATP, it becomes ADP (adenosine diphosphate). This release of the terminal phosphate group releases energy that can be used for cellular processes. ADP can then be converted back into ATP through cellular respiration, replenishing the energy stores in the cell.

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  • 4. 

    Oxidation is

    • A.

      The removal of protons

    • B.

      The removal of electrons

    • C.

      The removal of neutrons

    • D.

      The addition of protons

    • E.

      The addition of electrons

    Correct Answer
    B. The removal of electrons
    Explanation
    Oxidation is the process of losing or removing electrons from an atom or molecule. This process results in an increase in the oxidation state of the atom or molecule. Therefore, the correct answer is "The removal of electrons."

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  • 5. 

    Reduction is the

    • A.

      Removal of protons

    • B.

      Removal of electrons

    • C.

      Removal of neutrons

    • D.

      Addition of protons

    • E.

      Addition of electrions

    Correct Answer
    E. Addition of electrions
    Explanation
    Reduction is a chemical process that involves the gain of electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule. This is supported by the answer choice "Addition of electrons." When an atom or molecule gains electrons, it becomes negatively charged, which is the characteristic of a reduction reaction. Therefore, the correct answer is "Addition of electrons."

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  • 6. 

    This is a derivative of vitamin B.

    • A.

      NAD

    • B.

      FAD

    • C.

      Lactic acid

    • D.

      Pyruvic acid

    • E.

      ADP

    Correct Answer
    A. NAD
    Explanation
    NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a coenzyme that functions as an electron carrier in cellular respiration and plays a crucial role in energy metabolism. It is derived from vitamin B3 and is involved in several important biochemical reactions, including the conversion of glucose to energy in the form of ATP. NAD is essential for the proper functioning of various enzymes and is required for the synthesis of DNA and repair of damaged DNA. Therefore, NAD is a derivative of vitamin B.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not a form of phosphorylation?

    • A.

      Reduction phosphorylation

    • B.

      Substrate level phosphorylation

    • C.

      Oxidative phosphorylation

    • D.

      Photophosphorylation

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Reduction phosphorylation
    Explanation
    Reduction phosphorylation is not a form of phosphorylation because phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule, typically a protein or a nucleotide. Reduction, on the other hand, is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state. Therefore, reduction phosphorylation does not occur.

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  • 8. 

    Glycogenesis is NOT

    • A.

      Performed by the hepatocytes

    • B.

      Performed by muscle fibres

    • C.

      A way to make glycogen

    • D.

      A way to make glucose

    • E.

      Only seen in the liver

    Correct Answer
    D. A way to make glucose
    Explanation
    Glycogenesis is the process of converting glucose into glycogen for storage. It is not a way to make glucose, but rather a way to store glucose in the form of glycogen. This process occurs in both hepatocytes (liver cells) and muscle fibers, not just in the liver. Therefore, the correct answer is that glycogenesis is not a way to make glucose.

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  • 9. 

    This process is the synthesis of triglycerides.

    • A.

      Glucogenesis

    • B.

      Lipogenesis

    • C.

      Phosphorylation

    • D.

      Glycolysis

    • E.

      Lipolysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Lipogenesis
    Explanation
    Lipogenesis is the process of synthesizing triglycerides, which are a type of fat molecule. During lipogenesis, excess glucose or fatty acids are converted into triglycerides for storage in adipose tissue. This process occurs when there is an excess of energy in the body, and it is an important mechanism for regulating energy balance. Lipogenesis plays a crucial role in the formation of fat stores and is essential for maintaining energy reserves in the body.

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  • 10. 

    This reaction oxidizes acetyl co-A to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH=H and FADH2.

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Formation of acety co-A

    • C.

      Krebs cycle

    • D.

      Electron transport chain

    • E.

      Phosphorylation

    Correct Answer
    C. Krebs cycle
    Explanation
    The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria of cells. It is an important part of cellular respiration, where glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP. In the Krebs cycle, acetyl co-A is further oxidized to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH=H, and FADH2. This cycle plays a crucial role in generating energy for the cell and is an essential step in the overall process of cellular respiration.

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  • 11. 

    Glycolysis, formation of acety co-A, Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain are all involved in:

    • A.

      Lipogenesis

    • B.

      Gluconeogenesis

    • C.

      Glucose catabolism

    • D.

      Formation of glycogen

    • E.

      Formation of vitamin C

    Correct Answer
    C. Glucose catabolism
    Explanation
    Glycolysis, formation of acetyl Co-A, Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain are all involved in glucose catabolism. Glucose catabolism refers to the breakdown of glucose molecules to produce energy. Glycolysis is the initial step of glucose catabolism, where glucose is converted into pyruvate. Pyruvate then enters the mitochondria and is converted into acetyl Co-A, which enters the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle generates energy-rich molecules, and the electron transport chain uses these molecules to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell. Therefore, all these processes are part of glucose catabolism.

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  • 12. 

    This is the key regulator of the rate of glycolysis.

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      NADH

    • C.

      Phosphofructokinase

    • D.

      Glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate

    • E.

      FAD

    Correct Answer
    C. Phosphofructokinase
    Explanation
    Phosphofructokinase is the correct answer because it is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating the rate of glycolysis. It catalyzes the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, which is an important step in the glycolytic pathway. The activity of phosphofructokinase is tightly regulated by various factors, including ATP levels. High levels of ATP inhibit phosphofructokinase, slowing down glycolysis, while low levels of ATP activate the enzyme, promoting glycolysis. Therefore, phosphofructokinase acts as a key regulator of the rate of glycolysis.

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  • 13. 

    Where can pyruvate dehydrogenase be found?

    • A.

      Cytosol of the cell

    • B.

      Plasma membrane

    • C.

      Lysozyme

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    • E.

      Interstitial fluid

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase can be found in the mitochondria. This enzyme is responsible for converting pyruvate, a product of glycolysis, into acetyl-CoA, which is then used in the citric acid cycle to produce energy. The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell and is where most of the cellular respiration takes place, making it the appropriate location for pyruvate dehydrogenase to be found.

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  • 14. 

    The most abundant product of the reactions of the Krebs cycle is

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide

    • B.

      GTP

    • C.

      Reduced co-enzymes

    • D.

      Pyruvate

    • E.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    C. Reduced co-enzymes
    Explanation
    The Krebs cycle is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria of cells, and it plays a crucial role in the production of energy. One of the main products of the Krebs cycle is reduced co-enzymes. These co-enzymes, such as NADH and FADH2, carry high-energy electrons that are used in the electron transport chain to generate ATP, the cell's main source of energy. Carbon dioxide is also produced in the Krebs cycle, but it is not the most abundant product. GTP is a high-energy molecule that is generated during the cycle, but it is not the most abundant product either. Pyruvate is a molecule that is produced in the process of glycolysis, not the Krebs cycle. Water is not a product of the Krebs cycle.

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  • 15. 

    The net result of the complete oxidation of glucose does not include

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Carbon dioxide

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      Oxygen

    • E.

      Waste heat

    Correct Answer
    D. Oxygen
    Explanation
    During the complete oxidation of glucose, oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. It combines with hydrogen ions to form water. Therefore, the net result of this process does not include oxygen, as it is consumed rather than produced. The other byproducts of glucose oxidation include carbon dioxide, ATP (energy currency of cells), and waste heat.

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  • 16. 

    How many reactions take place during the Krebs cycle?

    • A.

      4

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      8

    • D.

      10

    • E.

      12

    Correct Answer
    C. 8
    Explanation
    During the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a series of chemical reactions occur. These reactions involve the oxidation of acetyl-CoA, which is derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The cycle begins with the combination of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, forming citrate. Through a series of reactions, citrate is converted back to oxaloacetate, producing ATP, NADH, and FADH2 in the process. Overall, there are 8 reactions that take place during the Krebs cycle.

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  • 17. 

    Large amount of H+ accumulation between the inner and outer mitochondria membranes induces

    • A.

      Proton pump

    • B.

      Chemiosmosis

    • C.

      Krebs cycle

    • D.

      ATP synthesis

    • E.

      Glycolysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Chemiosmosis
    Explanation
    Chemiosmosis is the process in which the movement of protons across a membrane is coupled with the synthesis of ATP. In this case, the large amount of H+ accumulation between the inner and outer mitochondria membranes creates a proton gradient. This proton gradient is then used by the ATP synthase enzyme to generate ATP. Therefore, chemiosmosis is the correct answer as it explains how the H+ accumulation leads to ATP synthesis.

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  • 18. 

    What is the net production of ATP molecule that can come from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      1

    • C.

      2

    • D.

      3

    • E.

      4

    Correct Answer
    C. 2
    Explanation
    During glycolysis, there are two substrate level phosphorylation reactions that occur. In these reactions, a phosphate group is transferred from a substrate molecule to ADP, forming ATP. Therefore, the net production of ATP molecules from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis is 2.

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  • 19. 

    What hormone stimulates glycogenesis?

    • A.

      Insulin

    • B.

      Glucase

    • C.

      Oestrogen

    • D.

      Lactic acid

    • E.

      Glucagon

    Correct Answer
    A. Insulin
    Explanation
    Insulin is the hormone that stimulates glycogenesis. Glycogenesis is the process of converting glucose into glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles for later use. Insulin is released by the pancreas in response to high levels of glucose in the blood, such as after a meal. It helps to lower blood sugar levels by promoting the uptake of glucose into cells and stimulating the conversion of glucose into glycogen. This allows the body to store excess glucose for energy when needed.

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  • 20. 

    Which hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?

    • A.

      Insulin

    • B.

      Human growth hormone

    • C.

      Adrenaline

    • D.

      Thyroid

    • E.

      Cortisol

    Correct Answer
    D. Thyroid
    Explanation
    The hormone that stimulates gluconeogenesis is the thyroid hormone. Gluconeogenesis is the process of synthesizing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol. The thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism, including the conversion of these non-carbohydrate sources into glucose. Insulin, human growth hormone, adrenaline, and cortisol may have other roles in metabolism but are not directly involved in stimulating gluconeogenesis.

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  • 21. 

    Glycogenolysis is __________ and is stimulated by ______________.

    • A.

      Anabolic, insulin

    • B.

      Catabolic, adrenaline

    • C.

      Catabolic, insulin

    • D.

      Anabolic, adrenaline

    • E.

      Metathesis, insulin

    Correct Answer
    B. Catabolic, adrenaline
    Explanation
    Glycogenolysis is a catabolic process that involves the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. It is stimulated by adrenaline, which is a hormone released during times of stress or physical activity. Adrenaline activates enzymes that initiate the breakdown of glycogen, providing a source of glucose for energy production. This catabolic process helps to increase blood glucose levels, allowing the body to meet the increased energy demands during stressful situations or exercise.

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  • 22. 

    Thyroid hormones:

    • A.

      Aid in glycogenesis

    • B.

      Inhibit gluconeogenesis

    • C.

      Inhibit lipogenesis

    • D.

      Promote glycolysis

    • E.

      Promote gluconeogenesis

    Correct Answer
    D. Promote glycolysis
    Explanation
    Thyroid hormones promote glycolysis, which is the process of breaking down glucose into pyruvate to produce energy. This is achieved by increasing the activity of enzymes involved in glycolysis and enhancing glucose uptake by cells. By promoting glycolysis, thyroid hormones help in generating energy and maintaining metabolic activity in the body.

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  • 23. 

    These transport dietary lipids.

    • A.

      Apoproteins

    • B.

      Low density lipoproteins

    • C.

      Chylomicrons

    • D.

      Very low density lipoproteins

    • E.

      High density lipoproteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Chylomicrons
    Explanation
    Chylomicrons are responsible for transporting dietary lipids. They are large molecules composed of triglycerides, cholesterol, and proteins called apoproteins. Chylomicrons are formed in the small intestine after the absorption of dietary fats and are released into the bloodstream. They deliver triglycerides to various tissues in the body, including adipose tissue and muscle, where they are used for energy or stored. Chylomicrons are eventually broken down by enzymes, and their remnants are taken up by the liver.

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  • 24. 

    Most cholesterol medications are designed to

    • A.

      Inhibit excretion of bile in the faeces

    • B.

      Promote the absorption of cholesterol

    • C.

      Decrease the filtration of cholesterol

    • D.

      Inhibit glucose absorption

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    Most cholesterol medications are designed to lower cholesterol levels in the blood by inhibiting the production of cholesterol in the liver. They do this by blocking certain enzymes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol or by increasing the liver's ability to remove LDL cholesterol from the blood. Therefore, none of the options provided accurately describe the action of cholesterol medications.

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  • 25. 

    Where does glycolysis take place?

    • A.

      Cytosol

    • B.

      Plasma membrane

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    • E.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytosol
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose into pyruvate. It is the first step in cellular respiration and occurs in the cytosol of the cell. The cytosol is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm, where many metabolic reactions take place. This is where enzymes responsible for glycolysis are located and where glucose is converted into pyruvate through a series of enzymatic reactions. Therefore, glycolysis takes place in the cytosol of the cell.

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  • 26. 

    Where does the Kreb's cycle take place?

    • A.

      Cytosol

    • B.

      Plasma membrane

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    • E.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    The Kreb's cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, takes place in the mitochondria. This cycle is an important part of cellular respiration, where it plays a crucial role in the breakdown of glucose to produce energy in the form of ATP. The mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell and are responsible for generating most of the cell's energy. Therefore, it is logical for the Kreb's cycle to occur in the mitochondria where it can efficiently produce ATP for the cell's energy needs.

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  • 27. 

    Lipogenesis occurs when

    • A.

      More calories are consumed than required for ATP need

    • B.

      Less calories area consumed than required for ATP need

    • C.

      More cholesterol is consumed than required for ATP need

    • D.

      Less cholesterol is consumed than required for ATP need

    • E.

      More lipid is consumed than required for ATP need

    Correct Answer
    A. More calories are consumed than required for ATP need
    Explanation
    Lipogenesis is the process of converting excess calories into fat for storage. When more calories are consumed than the body needs for energy production (ATP), the excess calories are converted into lipids (fat) through lipogenesis. This stored fat can be used as an energy reserve for later use.

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  • 28. 

    Excess amino acids in the body are

    • A.

      Excreted in urine

    • B.

      Excreted in faeces

    • C.

      Converted into glucose

    • D.

      Converted into lipids

    • E.

      Converted into proteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Converted into glucose
    Explanation
    When there is an excess of amino acids in the body, they are converted into glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis occurs primarily in the liver and helps to maintain blood glucose levels within a normal range. The excess amino acids are broken down and their carbon skeletons are used to synthesize glucose molecules. This glucose can then be used as a source of energy by the body or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles for later use.

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  • 29. 

    Liver cells convert

    • A.

      Urea into ammonia

    • B.

      Ammonia into lactic acid

    • C.

      Lactic acid into pyruvic acid

    • D.

      Pyruvic acid into urea

    • E.

      Ammonia into urea

    Correct Answer
    E. Ammonia into urea
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ammonia into urea. Liver cells play a crucial role in the process of converting toxic ammonia, which is produced during the breakdown of proteins, into less harmful urea. This conversion occurs in the liver through a series of biochemical reactions known as the urea cycle. Ammonia is first combined with carbon dioxide to form carbamoyl phosphate, which then reacts with ornithine to produce citrulline. Citrulline is further converted into argininosuccinate, and finally, argininosuccinate is broken down to produce urea and regenerate ornithine. Urea is then transported to the kidneys for excretion from the body.

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  • 30. 

    Glucose-6-phosphate can be

    • A.

      Used to make ribose-5-phosphate

    • B.

      Dephosphorylated to glucose

    • C.

      Used to synthesize glycogen

    • D.

      Converted to pyruvic acid

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Glucose-6-phosphate can be used to make ribose-5-phosphate, which is important for nucleotide synthesis. It can also be dephosphorylated to glucose, which can be used as a source of energy. Additionally, glucose-6-phosphate can be used to synthesize glycogen, which is a storage form of glucose in the body. Finally, it can be converted to pyruvic acid through glycolysis, which is an important step in cellular respiration. Therefore, all of the given options are correct.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is used in 'metabolic crossroads'?

    • A.

      Pyruvic acid

    • B.

      Glycogen

    • C.

      Ribose

    • D.

      ATP

    • E.

      Lipase

    Correct Answer
    A. Pyruvic acid
    Explanation
    Pyruvic acid is used in 'metabolic crossroads'. In cellular respiration, pyruvic acid is produced during glycolysis and serves as a key molecule in both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. It can be further converted into acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle to produce ATP. Additionally, pyruvic acid can also be converted into lactic acid in anaerobic conditions. Therefore, pyruvic acid plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathways of energy production.

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  • 32. 

    In the absorptive state

    • A.

      Storage of energy is important

    • B.

      Filtration is important

    • C.

      Reabsorption is important

    • D.

      Synthesis is important

    • E.

      Production of heat is important

    Correct Answer
    A. Storage of energy is important
    Explanation
    In the absorptive state, the body is actively storing energy from the food that has been consumed. During this state, the excess glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles for later use. This process is crucial for maintaining energy levels and ensuring a steady supply of fuel for the body's functions. Therefore, storage of energy is important in the absorptive state.

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  • 33. 

    Most glucose that enters the liver is converted to

    • A.

      Pyruvic acid

    • B.

      Glycogen

    • C.

      Amino acids

    • D.

      Insulin

    • E.

      Glucase

    Correct Answer
    B. Glycogen
    Explanation
    The liver plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels. When glucose enters the liver, it is converted into glycogen through a process called glycogenesis. Glycogen serves as a storage form of glucose in the liver, allowing the body to maintain stable blood sugar levels between meals or during periods of fasting. This conversion of glucose to glycogen helps to prevent blood sugar levels from becoming too high. Therefore, the correct answer is glycogen.

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  • 34. 

    Keto-acids

    • A.

      Can enter the Krebs cycle

    • B.

      Are used for ATP production

    • C.

      Can be used to make lipids

    • D.

      Can enter Krebs cycle or be used for ATP production

    • E.

      Convert into aldehydes in the liver

    Correct Answer
    D. Can enter Krebs cycle or be used for ATP production
    Explanation
    Keto-acids are molecules that can enter the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This cycle is an important part of cellular respiration and is responsible for generating energy in the form of ATP. Additionally, keto-acids can also be used for ATP production directly. Therefore, the correct answer is that keto-acids can enter the Krebs cycle or be used for ATP production.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is not a postabsorptive state reaction?

    • A.

      Braekdown of liver glycogen

    • B.

      Lipogenesis

    • C.

      Gluconeogenesis using lactic acid

    • D.

      Gluconeogenesis using amino acids

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Lipogenesis
    Explanation
    Lipogenesis is the process of converting excess glucose into fatty acids for storage as triglycerides. It occurs during the absorptive state when the body has excess nutrients available. In contrast, the postabsorptive state is characterized by the breakdown of stored energy sources to maintain blood glucose levels. Therefore, lipogenesis is not a postabsorptive state reaction as it involves the storage of energy rather than the breakdown of stored energy sources.

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  • 36. 

    Under basal aerobic conditions, cardiac muscles produce ATP primarily from

    • A.

      Lactic acid

    • B.

      Pyruvic acid

    • C.

      Glucose-6-phosphate

    • D.

      Proteins

    • E.

      Lipids

    Correct Answer
    E. Lipids
    Explanation
    Under basal aerobic conditions, cardiac muscles produce ATP primarily from lipids. This is because lipids are a rich source of energy and can provide a high amount of ATP when oxidized. The heart relies on fatty acids as its main fuel source, breaking them down through beta-oxidation to generate ATP. This preference for lipid metabolism allows the heart to efficiently produce energy and sustain its high workload.

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  • 37. 

    The most dramatic metabolic change that occurs with fasting is

    • A.

      Decrease in the formation of ketone bodies

    • B.

      Increase in ATP production

    • C.

      Inhibition of insulin

    • D.

      Decrease in heart rate and blood pressure

    • E.

      Increase in lipolysis

    Correct Answer
    E. Increase in lipolysis
    Explanation
    During fasting, the body goes into a state of energy conservation. One of the major metabolic changes that occur is an increase in lipolysis. Lipolysis is the breakdown of stored fats into fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be used as an energy source. This increase in lipolysis allows the body to utilize its fat stores for energy, helping to maintain blood glucose levels and provide fuel for various bodily functions. Therefore, the increase in lipolysis is the most dramatic metabolic change that occurs with fasting.

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  • 38. 

    Why is Calorie always spelled with a capital 'C'?

    • A.

      It is named after the person who first discovered it

    • B.

      It is named for the country where it was discovered

    • C.

      It is named after the provence hwere it was discovered

    • D.

      To distinguish it from the chemistry term calory

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
  • 39. 

    Which of the following is a factor that does NOT affect heat production?

    • A.

      Exercise

    • B.

      Hormones

    • C.

      Nervous system

    • D.

      Ingestion of food

    • E.

      Blood volume

    Correct Answer
    E. Blood volume
    Explanation
    Blood volume does not directly affect heat production. While blood volume can influence body temperature regulation through its effect on circulation and blood flow, it is not a direct factor in heat production. Heat production is primarily influenced by factors such as exercise, hormones, and the nervous system, which play a more direct role in regulating metabolic processes and generating heat within the body.

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  • 40. 

    This is a mechanism of heat transfer that involves direct contact.

    • A.

      Conduction

    • B.

      Convection

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Evaporation

    • E.

      Metabolic rate

    Correct Answer
    A. Conduction
    Explanation
    Conduction is the correct answer because it is a mechanism of heat transfer that involves direct contact. In conduction, heat is transferred from one object to another through physical contact and the transfer occurs due to the collision of particles. This process occurs mainly in solids and is responsible for the transfer of heat within objects or between objects in contact. Unlike convection and radiation, conduction does not involve the movement of fluid or electromagnetic waves.

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  • 41. 

    The higher the relative humidity

    • A.

      The higher the rate of radiation

    • B.

      The lower the rate of conduction

    • C.

      The higher the rate of convection

    • D.

      The lower the rate of thermoregulation

    • E.

      The lower the rate of evaporation

    Correct Answer
    E. The lower the rate of evaporation
    Explanation
    Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas. When the relative humidity is higher, the air already contains more water vapor, making it more difficult for water to evaporate. Therefore, the rate of evaporation decreases as relative humidity increases.

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  • 42. 

    The heat promoting centre stimulates parts of the brain that

    • A.

      Decreases smooth muscle tone

    • B.

      Increase blood glucose

    • C.

      Stimulates skeletal muscle activity

    • D.

      Inhibits the sympathetic division

    • E.

      Stimulates digestion

    Correct Answer
    C. Stimulates skeletal muscle activity
    Explanation
    The heat promoting center in the brain stimulates skeletal muscle activity. This means that when the body needs to generate heat, this center activates the skeletal muscles to produce movement and generate heat as a byproduct. This helps to increase the body's overall temperature.

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  • 43. 

    Thyrotropin-releaseing hormone is secreted by the

    • A.

      Anterior pituitary

    • B.

      Hypothalamus

    • C.

      Cerebral cortex

    • D.

      Liver

    • E.

      Kidney

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. The hypothalamus is responsible for producing and secreting TRH, which then travels to the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate the release of TSH. The cerebral cortex is not involved in the production or secretion of TRH. The liver and kidney also do not play a role in the secretion of TRH. Therefore, the correct answer is the hypothalamus.

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  • 44. 

    Food induced thermogenesis

    • A.

      Accounts or 30% of total energy expended

    • B.

      Is known as insensible loss

    • C.

      Is inhibited by the hypothalamus

    • D.

      Is the opposite of ketosis

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The given statement "Food induced thermogenesis" does not match any of the options provided. The options discuss different concepts such as the percentage of total energy expended, insensible loss, inhibition by the hypothalamus, and the opposite of ketosis. Therefore, none of the provided options correctly explain the given statement.

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  • 45. 

    Neuropeptide Y stimulates

    • A.

      Release of insulin

    • B.

      Inhibition of glucagons

    • C.

      Thirst centres

    • D.

      Thermogenesis

    • E.

      Food intake

    Correct Answer
    E. Food intake
    Explanation
    Neuropeptide Y is known to stimulate food intake. It is a neurotransmitter that is released in the brain and has been found to increase appetite and promote feeding behavior. Studies have shown that neuropeptide Y levels are elevated during periods of fasting and decrease after a meal. This suggests that it plays a role in regulating food intake and energy balance. Therefore, the correct answer is food intake.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is not a major nutrient the body needs?

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Phosphates

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Minerals

    • E.

      Vitamins

    Correct Answer
    B. Phosphates
    Explanation
    Phosphates are not considered a major nutrient that the body needs. While they do play a role in various bodily functions, such as energy production and bone health, they are not classified as a major nutrient like carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. These major nutrients are essential for the body's growth, development, and overall functioning, whereas phosphates are considered more of a secondary nutrient.

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  • 47. 

    Provitamins are

    • A.

      Building blocks of vitamins

    • B.

      Broken down glucose molecules

    • C.

      Derivatives of minerals

    • D.

      Found only in the blood

    • E.

      Not stored in the body

    Correct Answer
    A. Building blocks of vitamins
    Explanation
    Provitamins are substances that can be converted into active vitamins within the body. They serve as the building blocks for vitamins, which are essential for various bodily functions. Unlike vitamins, provitamins are not active and need to undergo a chemical transformation to become biologically active. Provitamins are typically found in food sources and are converted into vitamins during digestion and metabolism. Therefore, they are not stored in the body and need to be regularly consumed through a balanced diet to meet the body's vitamin requirements.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following is NOT a fat-soluble vitamin?

    • A.

      Vitamin A

    • B.

      Vitamin B

    • C.

      Vitamin D

    • D.

      Vitamin E

    • E.

      Vitamin K

    Correct Answer
    B. Vitamin B
    Explanation
    Vitamin B is not a fat-soluble vitamin. Fat-soluble vitamins are those that can dissolve in fats and oils, and are stored in the body's fatty tissues. They require the presence of fat in order to be absorbed and utilized by the body. Vitamin B, on the other hand, is a water-soluble vitamin. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are not stored in the body, as any excess is excreted through urine. They need to be replenished regularly through diet.

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  • 49. 

    Antioxidant vitamins

    • A.

      Are found in plasma membranes

    • B.

      Are vitamin derivatives

    • C.

      Can inactivate oxygen free radicals

    • D.

      Are all excreted in faeces

    • E.

      Are all stored in adipose cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Can inactivate oxygen free radicals
    Explanation
    Antioxidant vitamins have the ability to neutralize or inactivate oxygen free radicals, which are highly reactive molecules that can cause damage to cells and tissues. By neutralizing these free radicals, antioxidant vitamins help protect the body from oxidative stress and potential damage. This is why they are often recommended for their potential health benefits and as a way to prevent certain diseases.

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  • 50. 

    What is NOT the possible fate of glucose in a healthy body?

    • A.

      Immediate oxidation for ATP production

    • B.

      Synthesis of amino acids for protein synthesis

    • C.

      Synthesis of glycogen for storage in liver and skeletal muscle

    • D.

      Formation of triglycerides via lipogenesis for long-term storage after glycogen stores are full

    • E.

      Excretrion in urine

    Correct Answer
    E. Excretrion in urine
    Explanation
    Glucose is an important source of energy in the body and is typically utilized for various purposes. It can be immediately oxidized to produce ATP, which is the primary energy currency of cells. Glucose can also be used for the synthesis of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Additionally, glucose can be converted into glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscles, serving as a short-term energy reserve. When glycogen stores are full, excess glucose can be converted into triglycerides through lipogenesis for long-term storage in adipose tissue. However, glucose is not normally excreted in urine in a healthy body, as it is actively reabsorbed by the kidneys to maintain glucose homeostasis.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 19, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Hermine0817
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