Adrenal Gland

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Adrenal Gland - Quiz

This is a quiz on the pituitary gland lectures in Week 2 endocrine. Notes can be found in https://imueos. Blogspot. Com under the label: adrenal gland.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these is the best answer? The adrenal gland lies:

    • A.

      In the peritoneal cavity

    • B.

      Lateral to the liver

    • C.

      On the kidneys

    • D.

      In the abdominal cavity

    Correct Answer
    C. On the kidneys
    Explanation
    The adrenal gland is located on the kidneys. This is because the adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped organs that sit on top of each kidney. They are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including metabolism, stress response, and blood pressure.

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  • 2. 

    The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones. Which of these corticosteroids are mainly secreted by the adrenal cortex?

    • A.

      C1

    • B.

      C16

    • C.

      C19

    • D.

      C21

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. C19
    D. C21
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex mainly secretes corticosteroids of the C19 and C21 types. These include hormones such as cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone, which are involved in regulating metabolism, immune response, and stress response. These hormones play important roles in maintaining homeostasis in the body and are essential for various physiological processes.

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  • 3. 

    The adrenal medulla is composed of modified sympathetic ganglion cells, which is nervous in nature and secretes hormone upon stimulation. Which of these hormones are secreted?

    • A.

      Adrenaline

    • B.

      Cortisol

    • C.

      Norepinephrine

    • D.

      Catecholamines

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Adrenaline
    C. Norepinephrine
    D. Catecholamines
    Explanation
    E & NE are catecholamines

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  • 4. 

    For the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the adrenal cortex, adrenal cortex contain cells with large amounts of:

    • A.

      RER

    • B.

      SER

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Lipid

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. SER
    D. Lipid
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex is responsible for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. These hormones are derived from cholesterol, which is a type of lipid. Therefore, it makes sense that the adrenal cortex contains cells with large amounts of lipids, as they are necessary for the production of steroid hormones. Additionally, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) is involved in the synthesis of lipids, including cholesterol. Therefore, the presence of SER in the adrenal cortex further supports the production of steroid hormones.

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  • 5. 

    The adrenal cortex is divided into 3 zones:1) Zona Glomerulosa (outermost)2) Zona Fasciculata3) Zona reticularisWhat does the Zona glomerulosa secrete?

    • A.

      Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone)

    • B.

      Glucocorticoids (Cortisol, corticosterone)

    • C.

      Androgens

    Correct Answer
    A. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone)
    Explanation
    GFR : Glomerulosa, Fasciculata, Reticularis

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  • 6. 

    The adrenal cortex is divided into 3 zones:1) Zona Glomerulosa (outermost)2) Zona Fasciculata3) Zona reticularisWhat does the Zona Fasciculata & reticularis secrete?

    • A.

      Mineralocorticoids

    • B.

      Glucocorticoids

    • C.

      Androgens

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Glucocorticoids
    C. Androgens
    Explanation
    Both secrete glucocorticoids & androgens

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  • 7. 

    What is the arrangement of the cells of the zona glomerulosa?

    • A.

      Linear cords

    • B.

      Whorl of cells

    • C.

      Netlike

    Correct Answer
    B. Whorl of cells
    Explanation
    The arrangement of the cells in the zona glomerulosa is in a whorl pattern. This means that the cells are arranged in a circular or spiral shape, with each layer of cells overlapping the previous one. This arrangement allows for efficient secretion of aldosterone, which is the primary hormone produced in the zona glomerulosa. The whorl pattern ensures that the cells are closely packed together, maximizing their contact with blood vessels and facilitating the release of aldosterone into the bloodstream.

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  • 8. 

    What is the arrangement of the cells of the zona fasciculata?

    • A.

      Netlike

    • B.

      Whorls of cells

    • C.

      Linear cords

    Correct Answer
    C. Linear cords
    Explanation
    The arrangement of the cells in the zona fasciculata is in the form of linear cords. This means that the cells are aligned in a linear pattern, forming cords or strands. This arrangement allows for efficient secretion and production of hormones, as the cells are closely packed together and organized in a specific pattern. The linear cords arrangement is characteristic of the zona fasciculata, which is one of the three distinct layers of the adrenal cortex.

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  • 9. 

    What is the arrangement of the zona reticularis?

    • A.

      Netlike

    • B.

      Whorl of cells

    • C.

      Linear cord

    Correct Answer
    A. Netlike
    Explanation
    The arrangement of the zona reticularis is described as netlike. This suggests that the cells in this region are arranged in a network or mesh-like pattern. This arrangement may be important for the function of the zona reticularis, which is responsible for producing and secreting hormones such as androgens. The netlike arrangement may allow for efficient communication and interaction between the cells, ensuring the proper functioning of this endocrine gland.

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  • 10. 

    Which of these is the rate limiting step for the biosynthesis of cortisol?

    • A.

      Conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone by desmolase/SCC

    • B.

      Converstion of progesterone to 17 a-hydroxyprogesterone by enzyme hydroxylase

    • C.

      Converstion of 17 a-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol by enzyme hydroxylase

    • D.

      Conversion of 11-Deoxycortisol to cortisol by enzyme hydroxylase

    Correct Answer
    A. Conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone by desmolase/SCC
    Explanation
    In Cytoplasm, Cholesterol + Acetate = Cheolesteryl esters stored in storage vacuoles.

    Cholesteryl esters ---b/d---> Fatty acid + Cholesterol

    1st step : Cholesterol enter mitochondrion –--enzyme desmolase/ SCC---> convert to Pregnenolone (RATE LIMITING STEP)

    2nd step : Pregnenolone enters cytoplasm ---enzyme dehydrogenase, isomerase ---> Progesterone ----> Enter Endoplasmic reticulum

    3rd step : Progesterone --- enzyme hydroxylase ---> 17 a- hydroxyprogesterone

    4th step : 17a-hydroxyprogesterone --- enzyme hydroxylase ---> 11-Deoxycortisol

    5th step : 11-Deoxycortisol enters mitochondrion --- enzyme hydroxylase ---> Cortisol ----> Enter cytoplasm

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  • 11. 

    Which of these is the most potent mineralocorticoids?

    • A.

      Aldosterone

    • B.

      Deoxycorticosterone

    • C.

      Testosterone

    • D.

      Cortisol

    • E.

      Adrenaline

    Correct Answer
    A. Aldosterone
    Explanation
    Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid because it is primarily responsible for regulating the balance of water and electrolytes in the body. It acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium, leading to increased blood volume and blood pressure. This hormone also plays a role in maintaining the balance of other ions, such as chloride and hydrogen ions. Deoxycorticosterone is also a mineralocorticoid, but it is less potent than aldosterone. Testosterone, cortisol, and adrenaline are not mineralocorticoids and do not have the same effects on electrolyte balance.

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  • 12. 

    Why is it that aldosterone is rapidly cleared from plasma by liver forming tetrahydroaldosterone 3-gluocronide, which is then excreted in the urine?

    • A.

      Sensitive to liver receptors

    • B.

      Carried by plasma carrier protein to liver

    • C.

      No specific plasma carrier protein

    • D.

      All hormones will be rapidly cleared by liver

    Correct Answer
    C. No specific plasma carrier protein
    Explanation
    No specific plasma carrier protein, forms weak association with albumin.
    Due to lack of specific plasma carrier protein, aldosterone is rapidly cleared from plasma by liver (form tetrahydroaldosterone 3-gluocronide) which will be excreted in the urine.

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  • 13. 

    Which part of the kidney will aldosterone act on?

    • A.

      DCT & CD

    • B.

      DCT & PCT

    • C.

      LOH

    • D.

      LOH & PCT

    Correct Answer
    A. DCT & CD
    Explanation
    Same as ADH. It will increase no. of Na+ channels on the apical membrane. The reabsorption of Na will cause a decreased osmolality in the tubules. hence water will be reabsorbed as well via osmotic pull.

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  • 14. 

    Which other parts of the body does aldosterone act on beside the distal tubules of the kidney?

    • A.

      Tongue

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Blood vessel

    • D.

      Skin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Tongue
    B. Stomach
    C. Blood vessel
    Explanation
    It does not only act on kidney tubules for Na+ reabsorption, but also on blood vessels (perspiration), tongue (saliva) and stomach (gastric juice).

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  • 15. 

    For the Na+ to be reabsorbed, Na/K pump will require ATP which will be generated by mitochondrial enzymes (mitochondrial activity increased by aldosterone), therefore Na+ will be reabsorbed, and K+ will be eliminated instead. Therefore, there will be alterations in the acid-base balance of the blood. Loss in basic content (K+) will cause blood to be more..

    • A.

      Acidic

    • B.

      Basic

    Correct Answer
    A. Acidic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is acidic because the loss of K+ ions will result in an increase in H+ ions in the blood, leading to a decrease in pH and making the blood more acidic.

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  • 16. 

    The kidney compensate the loss of basic K+ from the reabsorption of Na+ by secreting:

    • A.

      HCO3-

    • B.

      K+

    • C.

      H+

    • D.

      NH3+

    • E.

      NH+

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. K+
    C. H+
    E. NH+
    Explanation
    The kidney compensates for the loss of basic K+ from the reabsorption of Na+ by secreting K+, H+, and NH+. This helps to maintain the acid-base balance in the body. K+ is secreted to regulate potassium levels, H+ is secreted to regulate pH levels, and NH+ is secreted to help eliminate excess ammonia. By secreting these ions, the kidney helps to maintain homeostasis and ensure that the body's electrolyte and acid-base levels remain within the normal range.

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  • 17. 

    How is aldosterone release stimulated?

    • A.

      Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

    • B.

      Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)

    • C.

      Low Na+

    • D.

      High K+

    • E.

      ACTH

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
    C. Low Na+
    D. High K+
    Explanation
    Aldosterone is needed to conserve Na & eliminate K.

    Stress will cause release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from hypothalamus ----> Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) from anterior pituitary ----> act on adrenal gland ----> produce aldosterone.

    Aldosterone release will cause increase in blood volume & BP, ensuring adequate delivery of O2/CO2 and nutrients during stressful period.

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  • 18. 

    What is the signs & symptoms of aldosteronism? (hypersecretion of aldosterone)

    • A.

      Hypotension

    • B.

      Hypernatremia

    • C.

      Hypokalemia

    • D.

      Alkalosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Hypernatremia
    C. Hypokalemia
    D. Alkalosis
    Explanation
    Hypernatremia, hypokalemia, and alkalosis are signs and symptoms of aldosteronism, which is the hypersecretion of aldosterone. Hypernatremia refers to an elevated level of sodium in the blood, which can occur due to aldosterone causing increased reabsorption of sodium in the kidneys. Hypokalemia is a condition characterized by low levels of potassium in the blood, which can also result from aldosterone's effect on the kidneys, leading to increased excretion of potassium. Alkalosis refers to an elevated pH level in the blood, which can be caused by aldosterone promoting the excretion of hydrogen ions in the kidneys. These symptoms collectively indicate the presence of aldosteronism.

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  • 19. 

    Glucocorticoids circulates in plasma in protein bouund/free form. Which of these is the plasma binding protein of glucocorticoids?

    • A.

      A-globulin

    • B.

      B-globulin

    • C.

      Albumin

    • D.

      Protein C

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. A-globulin
    C. Albumin
    Explanation
    Plasma binding protein : α-globulin/ transcortin/corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) produced in the liver (increased synthesis by estrogens)
    Only small amounts bound to albumin (weak association)
    Unbound: 8% of total cortisol (biologically active)

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  • 20. 

    Which of these are effect of cortisol?

    • A.

      Increase blood glucose

    • B.

      Increase lipogenesis in extremities

    • C.

      Promote protein metabolisme

    • D.

      Weaken immune system

    • E.

      Increase blood pressure via aldosterone release

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increase blood glucose
    C. Promote protein metabolisme
    D. Weaken immune system
    E. Increase blood pressure via aldosterone release
    Explanation
    Cortisol is a hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to stress. It has several effects on the body. Firstly, it increases blood glucose levels by promoting gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources such as amino acids and fats. Secondly, cortisol promotes protein metabolism by stimulating protein breakdown in muscles and inhibiting protein synthesis in other tissues. Thirdly, it weakens the immune system by suppressing inflammation and reducing the activity of immune cells. Lastly, cortisol increases blood pressure indirectly by stimulating the release of aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium and water retention, leading to increased blood volume and subsequently higher blood pressure.

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  • 21. 

    Does aldosterone inhibit ADH release?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      No

    Correct Answer
    A. Yes
    Explanation
    Inhibit ADH release

    Binds to cortisol receptors ---> inhibit ADH release ---> increase in free water loss ---> polyuria.

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  • 22. 

    Which of these are signs & symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?

    • A.

      Water & salt retention (aldosterone)

    • B.

      Polyuria (inhibit ADH)

    • C.

      Tendency to bruising

    • D.

      Pendulous abdomen

    • E.

      Crescentic face

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Water & salt retention (aldosterone)
    B. Polyuria (inhibit ADH)
    C. Tendency to bruising
    D. Pendulous abdomen
    Explanation
    persistent hyperglycemia (high glucose)
    loss in muscle & bone protein
    water & salt retention (hypertension, oedema) – aldosterone action
    swollen ‘moon’ face
    buffalo hump
    tendency to bruising
    poor wound gealing
    enhanced anti-inflammatory effects (lack of inflammatory cells)
    polyuria, polydipsia – Low ADH
    striae
    pendulous abdomen

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  • 23. 

    In Addison's disease, we will be able to see:

    • A.

      Deficiency in both glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids

    • B.

      Weight gain

    • C.

      Plasma glucose decrease

    • D.

      Dehydration

    • E.

      Hypotension

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Deficiency in both glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids
    C. Plasma glucose decrease
    D. Dehydration
    E. Hypotension
    Explanation
    Always remember, when there is increase in cortisol, there will be increase in aldosterone but decrease in ADH.

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  • 24. 

    The gonadocorticoids are sex hormones. Which of these are precursors to the sex hormones?

    • A.

      Androsterotenedione

    • B.

      DHAP

    • C.

      DHEA

    • D.

      DHT

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Androsterotenedione
    C. DHEA
    Explanation
    Androsterotenedione and DHEA are precursors to the sex hormones. Androsterotenedione is converted into testosterone and estrogen, while DHEA can be converted into both testosterone and estrogen as well. These precursors play a crucial role in the synthesis of sex hormones and are essential for the proper functioning of the reproductive system.

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  • 25. 

    Which of these are active androgens?

    • A.

      DHT

    • B.

      Progesterone

    • C.

      Testosterone

    • D.

      DHEA

    • E.

      Oestrogen

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. DHT
    C. Testosterone
    Explanation
    DHT (dihydrotestosterone) and testosterone are active androgens because they both play a crucial role in male sexual development and function. They are responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle growth. On the other hand, progesterone, DHEA, and estrogen are not active androgens. Progesterone is a female hormone involved in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, DHEA is a precursor to testosterone and estrogen, and estrogen is the primary female sex hormone.

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  • 26. 

    In post-menopausal women, the ovaries will be regressed and will be unable to produce oestrogens. However, there are hormones that will try to compensate for the lack of oestrogen production. Which of these are important precursors of oestrogens for post-menopausal woman?

    • A.

      Cortisol

    • B.

      Androgen

    • C.

      Progesteron

    • D.

      Aldosterone

    Correct Answer
    B. Androgen
    Explanation
    Post-menopausal women experience a decline in estrogen production due to the regression of the ovaries. However, other hormones, such as androgens, can act as important precursors for estrogen synthesis in these women. Androgens can be converted into estrogens through a process called aromatization, which occurs in various tissues including adipose tissue, liver, and the brain. Therefore, androgens play a crucial role in compensating for the lack of estrogen production in post-menopausal women.

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  • 27. 

    Gonadocorticoids hypersecretion will cause rapid maturation of reproductive organs & appearance of secondary sex characteristics earlier than most boys. Hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids also will affect females. Which of these are related to hypersecretion in woman?

    • A.

      Androgenesis syndrome

    • B.

      Androgenital syndrome

    • C.

      Testosteronism

    • D.

      Androgenism

    Correct Answer
    B. Androgenital syndrome
    Explanation
    Develop beard
    Masculine pattern of body hair distribution
    Clitoris grows to resemble small penis
    Also linked to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (another post)

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  • 28. 

    Which of these are physiological stressors?

    • A.

      Pregnancy

    • B.

      Acidosis

    • C.

      Trauma

    • D.

      Anger

    • E.

      Peer pressure

    Correct Answer
    A. Pregnancy
    Explanation
    Physiological stressors are factors that cause stress on the body's physical systems. Pregnancy can be considered a physiological stressor because it involves significant changes in hormone levels, physical discomfort, and increased demands on the body. These changes can put stress on various physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular and endocrine systems. Acidosis, trauma, and anger can also be considered physiological stressors as they can have direct physical effects on the body. Peer pressure, on the other hand, is more of a psychological stressor as it primarily affects one's emotional well-being rather than directly impacting the body's physiological systems.

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  • 29. 

    Which of these are physical stressors?

    • A.

      Pregnancy

    • B.

      Acidosis

    • C.

      Orthostasis

    • D.

      Air polution

    • E.

      Anger

    Correct Answer
    C. Orthostasis
    Explanation
    Orthostasis is a physical stressor because it refers to the body's response to changes in posture, particularly when standing up from a sitting or lying position. This change in position can cause a temporary drop in blood pressure, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, and even fainting. These physical changes and the body's response to them can be considered physical stressors as they put strain on the cardiovascular system.

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  • 30. 

    Which of these are receptors of pain?

    • A.

      Nocireceptor

    • B.

      Thermoreceptor

    • C.

      Mechanoreceptor

    • D.

      Baroreceptor

    • E.

      Chemoreceptor

    Correct Answer
    A. Nocireceptor
    Explanation
    Receptors:

    Nocireceptor: pain
    Thermo: temperature
    Mechano: physical
    Baro: blood pressure
    Chemo: glucose, acid, O2
    In Special senses: sight, smell

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  • 31. 

    During perception of stress, the action potential goes to which ascending pathways?

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Somatic sensory cortex

    • C.

      Motor cortex

    • D.

      Limbic cortex

    Correct Answer
    B. Somatic sensory cortex
    Explanation
    Action potential go to..

    -> hypothalamus (neuroendocrine response)
    -> somatic sensory cortex (perception/stress)
    -> motor cortex (voluntary action response)
    -> limbic cortex (emotions)

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  • 32. 

    During emotional stress, the action potential goes to which ascending pathways?

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Somatic sensory cortex

    • C.

      Motor cortex

    • D.

      Limbic cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Limbic cortex
    Explanation
    Action potential go to..

    -> hypothalamus (neuroendocrine response)
    -> somatic sensory cortex (perception/stress)
    -> motor cortex (voluntary action response)
    -> limbic cortex (emotions)

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  • 33. 

    During stress, which of these hormones will increase?

    • A.

      CRH, ACTH

    • B.

      GHRH

    • C.

      PIH

    • D.

      TRH

    • E.

      GnRH

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. CRH, ACTH
    B. GHRH
    Explanation
    Increase in CRH – ACTH
    Increase in GHRH, Decrease in somatostatin– Growth Hormone
    Decrease in PIH – Increase in Prolactin
    Decrease in TRH – TSH
    Decrease in GnRH – Gonadotropin

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  • 34. 

    Physical stress: Cold pressor test (immersion of hand in cold water for 3 minutes). What is the effect on blood pressure & heart rate according to the graph?

    • A.

      Increase

    • B.

      Decrease

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase
    Explanation
    According to the graph, the effect of the cold pressor test on blood pressure and heart rate is an increase. This means that when the hand is immersed in cold water for 3 minutes, both blood pressure and heart rate will go up.

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  • 35. 

    During stress, there are 2 pathways. One of it is the hypothalamo-sympatho-adrenalmedullary axis activation (Flight/fight response)The afferent sensory pathway is the limbic cortex (perception of stress), and the afferent sensory pathways are the sympathetic nervous system (hypothalamus) releasing NA and the adrenal medualla releasing A, NA, dopamine & opioid peptides. What is the role of the adrenal medulla in flight./fight response?

    • A.

      Release more NA

    • B.

      Rapid increase in stress hormones

    • C.

      Prolong effects of hypothalamus

    Correct Answer
    C. Prolong effects of hypothalamus
    Explanation
    Efferent Sensory Pathway:

    sympathetic nervous system -->Hypothalamus (release noradrenaline)
    Adrenal medulla (release A, NA, dopamine & opioid peptides) prolong effects of hypothalamus (EMERGENCY FUNCTION)
    Target organs: Skeletal muscles

    Increased energy demands by skeletal muscles
    more fuel & O2 needed for aerobic production of ATP
    More blood flow to skeletal msucles (supply o2, fuels, elimination of products of metabolism & heat)

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  • 36. 

    During stress, there are 2 pathways. One of it is the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activation (General adaptation syndrome)Based on the graph, there are 3 phases involved:1) Alarm state/Compensation phase2) Resistance phase 3) Exhaustion/Decompensation phaseWhich of these phases where both the sympatho-adrenal & hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis are activated?

    • A.

      Compensation phase

    • B.

      Resistance phase

    • C.

      Decomposition phase

    Correct Answer
    A. Compensation phase
    Explanation
    Alarm state/Compensation phase:

    When the stressor is noticed, there will be onset of shock and decreased resistance.
    During this time, both sympatho-adrenal & hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis are activated.
    Resistance phase:

    Resistance to the stressor increased as animal adapted & coped with it
    Lasts for as long as the animal can support this heightened resistance.
    Exhaustion/Decompensation phase:

    Resistance has exhausted

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  • 37. 

    Both adrenaline and noradernaline are secreted during stress. Which of these hormones are secreted when a known familiar stress is encountered?

    • A.

      Adrenaline

    • B.

      Noradrenaline

    Correct Answer
    B. Noradrenaline
    Explanation
    Noradrenalin & Adrenaline

    equally potent in increasing alertness (adrenaline evokes more anxiety & fear)
    Known familiar stress –> more Noradrenaline
    Unknown stress – > more Adrenaline

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  • 38. 

    Cortisol secreted during stress allows permissive effects on catecholamines & glucagon. Why is this important?

    • A.

      Essential for survival when stress is severe

    • B.

      Increase the flight/fight effect during stress

    • C.

      Main hormones involved in countering the effect of stress

    Correct Answer
    A. Essential for survival when stress is severe
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids (Cortisol)

    Stimulate protein catabolism –> liver uptake of amino acids –> conversion to glucose (gluconeogenesis)
    **Anti-insulin action on muscle (own local supply) & adipose tissue (inhibit uptake of glucose)
    Increase glucose supply to brain
    TG breakdown –> glycerol + FA (fuel for muscle activity)
    Increase plasma AA, glucose, glycerol & FA
    Permissive effects (gives permission) for:
    -Catecholamines (vasoconstriction, bronchodilation, lipolysis)
    -Glucagon (gluconeogenesis)
    Antiallergic effect
    Increase RBC count
    Increase neutrophil count
    Due to the permissive actions for catecholamines & glucagon, secretion of ACTH & glucocorticoids (cortisol) are essential for survival when stress is severe.

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  • 39. 

    Which of these are effect of prolonged stress on health?

    • A.

      Incontinence

    • B.

      Cardiovascular disease

    • C.

      Glucocorticoids in large amount can suppress immune system

    • D.

      Glucocorticoids in large amount can increase protein catabolisme (muscle loss)

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Cardiovascular disease
    C. Glucocorticoids in large amount can suppress immune system
    D. Glucocorticoids in large amount can increase protein catabolisme (muscle loss)
    Explanation
    Prolonged stress can have various effects on health, including cardiovascular disease. This is because stress can contribute to high blood pressure, inflammation, and the development of plaque in the arteries, all of which can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems. Additionally, prolonged stress can lead to the release of glucocorticoids in large amounts, which can suppress the immune system. This can make individuals more susceptible to infections and illnesses. Furthermore, excessive glucocorticoid production can also increase protein catabolism, leading to muscle loss.

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  • 40. 

    What is the effect of short term stressors?

    • A.

      Boost immune system

    • B.

      Suppress immune system

    • C.

      Increase incidence of cardiovascular disease

    Correct Answer
    A. Boost immune system
    Explanation
    Instead, long term stressors will suppress immune system. Effects are more serious on the elderly & those that are already ill.

    HIV +ve patients will experience rapid decline in T-helper cells if only provided with low social support.

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  • 41. 

    Negative emotional states will bring about these effects:

    • A.

      Decrease lymphocyte proliferation & reactivity

    • B.

      Decrease T-cell function

    • C.

      Decrease NK activity

    • D.

      Increase IgA

    • E.

      Decrease blood levels of Epstein-Barr virus

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Decrease lymphocyte proliferation & reactivity
    B. Decrease T-cell function
    C. Decrease NK activity
    Explanation
    IgA will decrease.

    Epstein-Barr virus will increase. (DAMAGING!)

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  • 42. 

    What is Cushing's syndrome?

    • A.

      High aldosterone

    • B.

      High cortisol

    • C.

      High corticosteroid

    Correct Answer
    B. High cortisol
    Explanation
    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by an excessive production of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. High cortisol levels can lead to a variety of symptoms such as weight gain, high blood pressure, and muscle weakness. It is caused by various factors such as long-term use of corticosteroid medications or tumors in the adrenal glands or pituitary gland. Therefore, the correct answer is "High cortisol" as it accurately reflects the hormonal imbalance associated with Cushing's syndrome.

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  • 43. 

    Pituitary Cushing's Syndrome is not due to hypercortisolism, but due to hyper-ACTH.Which of these are the likely causes of hyper-ACTH?

    • A.

      Pituitary corticotroph adenoma

    • B.

      Overactivity of pituitary

    • C.

      Excessive CRH secretion from hypothalamus

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pituitary corticotroph adenoma
    C. Excessive CRH secretion from hypothalamus
    Explanation
    Overactivity of pituitary alone is not enough to cause Cushing's, as it is not specific and constant in duration and volume.

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  • 44. 

    Adrenal Cushing's Syndrome is due to hypercortisolism (without high levels of ACTH) due to the hypersecretion which originates in the adrenal gland. Which of these are the likely cause of Adrenal Cushing's Syndrome?

    • A.

      Adrenal cortical adenoma

    • B.

      Adrenal cortical carcinoma

    • C.

      Adrenal overstimulation

    • D.

      Adrenal cortical hyperplasia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Adrenal cortical adenoma
    B. Adrenal cortical carcinoma
    D. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia
    Explanation
    Adrenal Cushing's is not indfluenced by hormonal stimulation of ACTH/CRH. If ACTH level is high, it is known as Pituitary Cushing's Syndrome.

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  • 45. 

    What will happen to the Adrenal Cortex if there is hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary?

    • A.

      Unilateral cortical hyperplasia

    • B.

      Cortical adenoma

    • C.

      Bilateral cortical hyperplasia

    • D.

      Cortical hypertrophy

    • E.

      Cortical inflammation

    Correct Answer
    C. Bilateral cortical hyperplasia
    Explanation
    If there is hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary, it will lead to an excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. This can result in bilateral cortical hyperplasia, which is the enlargement of both adrenal cortices. This occurs as a compensatory response to the increased stimulation from ACTH.

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  • 46. 

    What is the treatment for Pituitary Cushing's Syndrome?

    • A.

      Dexamethasone

    • B.

      Glucocorticoid

    Correct Answer
    A. Dexamethasone
    Explanation
    Dexamethasone is the treatment for Pituitary Cushing's Syndrome. Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid, which is a type of medication that mimics the effects of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. In Pituitary Cushing's Syndrome, there is an overproduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland, leading to excessive cortisol production. Dexamethasone works by suppressing the production of ACTH, thereby reducing cortisol levels and alleviating the symptoms of Cushing's Syndrome.

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  • 47. 

    For Adrenal Cushing's Syndrome, does it respond to high dose of glucocorticoid?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      No

    Correct Answer
    B. No
    Explanation
    Probably because glucocorticoid will stimulate the hypothalamus. In this case, adrenal cushing's is specifically due to an adrenal cortical lesion.

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  • 48. 

    Cushing's Syndrome can also be caused by an ectopic lesion. Which hormone will be in high levels?

    • A.

      CRH

    • B.

      ACTH

    • C.

      Cortisol

    Correct Answer
    B. ACTH
    Explanation
    Cushing's Syndrome is a condition characterized by excessive levels of cortisol in the body. It can be caused by various factors, including an ectopic lesion. In this case, the hormone that will be in high levels is ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). ACTH is produced by the pituitary gland and stimulates the production and release of cortisol from the adrenal glands. When there is an ectopic lesion causing Cushing's Syndrome, it leads to excessive production of ACTH, which in turn increases cortisol levels in the body.

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  • 49. 

    In Pituitary Cushing's syndrome, Dexamethasone can be used as a treatment to suppress the ACTH secretion. In the case of an Ectopic Cushing's syndrome which also hypersecretes ACTH, does Dexamethasone work as a treatment?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      No

    Correct Answer
    B. No
    Explanation
    Why?

    Dexamethasone acts on Pituitary alone.

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  • 50. 

    In organ transplant patients or with autoimmune diseases, glucocorticoids/ACTH is administered for therapeutic purposes. However, with prolonged administration of glucocorticoids/ACTH,  what problems will the patient develop?

    • A.

      Adrenal cortical adrenoma

    • B.

      Cushing's syndrome

    Correct Answer
    B. Cushing's syndrome
    Explanation
    This is a Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 12, 2010
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    Terrichan
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