Endocrine System Part 2

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Endocrine System Quizzes & Trivia

Part 2 endocrine system


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    ____________ are a group of local hormones made by most body tissues.  They produce, act, and deactivate close to the site of origin.  Their role is to cause inflammation and they do not circulate!

    Explanation
    Prostaglandins are a group of local hormones that are produced by most body tissues. They have the ability to act and deactivate in close proximity to the site where they are produced. Their main role is to cause inflammation, and unlike other hormones, they do not circulate throughout the body.

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  • 2. 

    The kidney secretes both _________, which increases blood pressure, and ____________, which produces RBC's.

    Explanation
    The kidney secretes renin, which increases blood pressure by activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. It also secretes erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow.

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  • 3. 

    The placenta produced hormones to maintain pregnancy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The placenta is an organ that develops during pregnancy and plays a crucial role in maintaining the pregnancy. It produces hormones such as progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) that are essential for sustaining the pregnancy. These hormones help in preventing the shedding of the uterine lining, supporting the growth of the fetus, and regulating various physiological changes in the mother's body during pregnancy. Therefore, it is true that the placenta produces hormones to maintain pregnancy.

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  • 4. 

    This is a mass of lymphoid tissue that lies in the upper portion of the chest, above the heart.

    Correct Answer
    thymus
    Explanation
    The thymus is a mass of lymphoid tissue located in the upper portion of the chest, above the heart. It is responsible for the development and maturation of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell involved in immune responses. The thymus plays a crucial role in the immune system, particularly during childhood and adolescence. It gradually decreases in size and activity as a person reaches adulthood.

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  • 5. 

    The thymus secretes ________ which matures T- cells.

    Correct Answer
    thymasin
    Explanation
    The thymus is a gland located in the upper chest that plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. Thymasin is a hormone secreted by the thymus that is responsible for the maturation of T-cells. This hormone helps in the differentiation and selection of T-cells, ensuring that only those with appropriate receptors and functions are allowed to mature and participate in the immune response.

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  • 6. 

    This disorder is common in Alaska during winter months, is a disorder of melatonin and causes depression, anxiety, and sleepiness.

    Correct Answer
    seasonal affect disorder
    Explanation
    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs during specific seasons, commonly in winter months. It is believed to be caused by a disruption in the body's production of melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep and mood. SAD is characterized by symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and excessive sleepiness. The given information aligns with the description of SAD, making it the correct answer.

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  • 7. 

    This is a small gland attached to the roof of the 3rd ventricle in the brain, which secretes melatonin.

    Correct Answer
    pineal gland
    Explanation
    The pineal gland is a small gland located on the roof of the third ventricle in the brain. It is responsible for secreting melatonin, a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle and plays a role in the body's internal clock. The pineal gland receives signals from the retina and adjusts melatonin production accordingly, helping to regulate sleep patterns and circadian rhythms.

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  • 8. 

    Ovaries produce _________ and ____________.

    Correct Answer
    estrogen, progesterone
    Explanation
    The ovaries are responsible for producing hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen plays a crucial role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, including the growth of the uterus lining and the maturation of eggs. Progesterone, on the other hand, helps prepare the uterus for potential pregnancy and maintains the uterine lining during pregnancy. These hormones are essential for the proper functioning of the female reproductive system and play a vital role in the menstrual cycle and fertility.

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  • 9. 

    Testes produce ___________.

    Correct Answer
    testosterone
    Explanation
    Testes are the male reproductive organs responsible for producing testosterone. Testosterone is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the development of male reproductive tissues and secondary sexual characteristics. It is responsible for the growth and maintenance of male sex organs, the production of sperm, and the development of masculine features such as deep voice, facial hair, and muscle mass. Therefore, the correct answer is testosterone.

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  • 10. 

    This is an endocrine and exocrine gland:

    Correct Answer
    pancreas
    Explanation
    The pancreas is an endocrine and exocrine gland. As an endocrine gland, it secretes hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to regulate blood sugar levels. These hormones are produced by specialized cells called islets of Langerhans. As an exocrine gland, the pancreas releases digestive enzymes into the small intestine through a duct. These enzymes help break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in the food we eat. Therefore, the pancreas serves both endocrine and exocrine functions in the body.

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  • 11. 

    The endocrine function of the pancreas is to secrete ________ and ________ by the ______ of __________ cells.

    Correct Answer
    insulin, glucagon, islets of langerhans
    Explanation
    The pancreas has an endocrine function, which means it secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream. Two important hormones secreted by the pancreas are insulin and glucagon. Insulin helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells to take in glucose from the bloodstream. Glucagon, on the other hand, raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release stored glucose. These hormones are produced by specialized cells called the islets of Langerhans, which are clusters of cells scattered throughout the pancreas.

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  • 12. 

    Glucagon does not accelerate the breakdown of glycogen into glucose

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    accelerates

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  • 13. 

    Insulin transports ________ into our tissue where it is needed. 

    Correct Answer
    glucose
    Explanation
    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. It acts as a key to unlock the cells and allows glucose to enter the tissues, where it is utilized for energy. Without insulin, glucose would not be able to enter the cells, leading to high blood sugar levels and potential complications. Therefore, insulin transports glucose into our tissues where it is needed.

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  • 14. 

    The adrenal medulla secretes __________ (adrenaline) and __________, which are both referred to as the "fight or flight" hormones.

    Correct Answer
    epinephrine, norepinephrine
    Explanation
    The adrenal medulla is responsible for secreting epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are commonly known as adrenaline. These hormones are often referred to as the "fight or flight" hormones because they play a crucial role in preparing the body for stressful or dangerous situations. When released, epinephrine and norepinephrine increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, while also dilating the airways and redirecting blood flow to the muscles, enabling the body to respond quickly and effectively to potential threats.

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  • 15. 

    The hypersecretion of cortisol, in which results in round faces, buffalo hump, muscle weakness, bone loss, and elevated blood sugar, is referred to as ________ syndrome.

    Correct Answer
    cushing's
    Explanation
    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by the excessive production of cortisol, a hormone that regulates various bodily functions. This overproduction of cortisol leads to several symptoms, including round faces, buffalo hump (fat accumulation on the upper back), muscle weakness, bone loss, and elevated blood sugar levels. Therefore, the given answer, "Cushing's," correctly identifies the syndrome associated with the hypersecretion of cortisol and its corresponding symptoms.

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  • 16. 

    ___________ disease is the hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex, characterized by muscle atrophy, weakness, skin pigmentation, and disturbances in salt and water balance.

    Correct Answer
    addison's
    Explanation
    Addison's disease is a condition characterized by the underproduction (hyposecretion) of hormones from the adrenal cortex. This leads to muscle atrophy, weakness, skin pigmentation changes, and imbalances in salt and water levels. The correct answer, "addison's," accurately identifies this disease.

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  • 17. 

    Adrenals are also known as _____________ glands.

    Correct Answer
    suprarenal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "suprarenal" because the term "suprarenal" is used to describe the location of the adrenal glands. The prefix "supra-" means above, and "renal" refers to the kidneys. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys, hence they are also known as suprarenal glands.

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  • 18. 

    ___________ are 2 small glands located above the kidneys.  Each gland has __ parts that act as _________ glands.  The inner area is called the ______ and the outer portion is called the _________.

    Correct Answer
    adrenals, 2, separate, medulla, cortex
    Explanation
    The given answer is correct. The adrenals are two small glands located above the kidneys. Each gland has two parts that act as separate glands. The inner area is called the medulla and the outer portion is called the cortex.

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  • 19. 

    The adrenal cortex is comprised of the following: (check all the apply)

    • A.

      Mineralocorticoids

    • B.

      Glucocorticoids

    • C.

      Sex hormones

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Mineralocorticoids
    B. Glucocorticoids
    C. Sex hormones
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex is a part of the adrenal gland that produces various hormones. It is composed of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones. Mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, regulate the balance of electrolytes and water in the body. Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, play a role in metabolism, immune response, and stress regulation. Sex hormones, including androgens and estrogens, contribute to the development and functioning of reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics.

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