Let's Play Anatomy & Physiology II - Ch. Quiz16

132 Questions | Total Attempts: 161

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The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones. These hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function. Take the quiz below and see how much you understood in chapter 16 in the anatomy and physiology classes. All the best as you do.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    All of the following are true of the nervous system, except that it doesn't
    • A. 

      Respond rapidly to stimuli.

    • B. 

      Respond specifically to stimuli.

    • C. 

      Communicate by the release of neurotransmitters.

    • D. 

      Respond with motor output.

    • E. 

      Function independently of the endocrine system.

  • 2. 
    Endocrine structures
    • A. 

      Are a type of nerve cell.

    • B. 

      Release their secretions onto an epithelial surface.

    • C. 

      Release their secretions directly into body fluids.

    • D. 

      Contain few vesicles.

    • E. 

      Are modified connective-tissue cells.

  • 3. 
    Hormones known as "catecholamines" are
    • A. 

      Lipids.

    • B. 

      Peptides.

    • C. 

      Steroids.

    • D. 

      Amino acid derivatives.

    • E. 

      Derivatives of reproductive glands.

  • 4. 
    Peptide hormones are
    • A. 

      Composed of amino acids.

    • B. 

      Produced by the adrenal glands.

    • C. 

      Derived from the amino acid tyrosine.

    • D. 

      Lipids.

    • E. 

      Chemically related to cholesterol.

  • 5. 
    Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except
    • A. 

      Epinephrine.

    • B. 

      Norepinephrine.

    • C. 

      Thyroid hormone.

    • D. 

      Thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    • E. 

      Melatonin.

  • 6. 
    Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include
    • A. 

      Peptides.

    • B. 

      Steroids.

    • C. 

      Eicosanoids.

    • D. 

      Amino acid derivatives.

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 7. 
    Gap junctions
    • A. 

      Coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells.

    • B. 

      Coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells.

    • C. 

      Facilitate the propagation of action potentials from one cell to the next at electrical synapses.

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 8. 
    ________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.
    • A. 

      Hormones

    • B. 

      Neuropeptides

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitters

    • D. 

      Humoral antibodies

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 9. 
    Norepinephrine and epinephrine are considered to be ________ when released into the bloodstream, but ________ when released at synapses.
    • A. 

      Hormones; neurotransmitters

    • B. 

      Neuropeptides; neurotransmitters

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitters; hormones

    • D. 

      Neurotransmitters; neuropeptides

    • E. 

      Neuropeptides; neurohormones

  • 10. 
    The functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ________ system in many ways.
    • A. 

      Endocrine

    • B. 

      Cardiovascular

    • C. 

      Body

    • D. 

      Muscular

    • E. 

      Hepatic

  • 11. 
    Extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?
    • A. 

      Catecholamines

    • B. 

      Peptide hormones

    • C. 

      Eicosanoids

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 12. 
    Steroid hormones
    • A. 

      Are proteins.

    • B. 

      Cannot diffuse through cell membranes.

    • C. 

      Bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.

    • D. 

      Remain in circulation for relatively short periods of time.

    • E. 

      Are transported in the blood dissolved in the plasma.

  • 13. 
    When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the
    • A. 

      Hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.

    • B. 

      Cell membrane becomes depolarized.

    • C. 

      Second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.

    • D. 

      Cell becomes inactive.

    • E. 

      Hormone is transported to the nucleus where it alters the activity of DNA.

  • 14. 
    Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect
    • A. 

      Quantities of enzymes.

    • B. 

      Activities of enzymes.

    • C. 

      Synthesis of enzymes.

    • D. 

      Gating of ion channels.

    • E. 

      All of the above.

  • 15. 
    The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually
    • A. 

      CAMP.

    • B. 

      CGMP.

    • C. 

      ATP.

    • D. 

      A G protein.

    • E. 

      Calcium ion levels.

  • 16. 
    When a G protein becomes activated and causes an activation of enzymes,
    • A. 

      ATP is consumed.

    • B. 

      CAMP is formed.

    • C. 

      CAMP is broken down.

    • D. 

      ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed.

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 17. 
    Which of the following substances acts as a second messenger?
    • A. 

      Insulin

    • B. 

      Insulin

    • C. 

      Epinephrine

    • D. 

      Cyclic AMP

    • E. 

      TSH

  • 18. 
    All of the following are true of steroid hormones, except that they
    • A. 

      Are produced by the adrenal medulla.

    • B. 

      Are derived from cholesterol.

    • C. 

      Are produced by reproductive glands.

    • D. 

      Bind to receptors within the cell.

    • E. 

      Are lipids.

  • 19. 
    Cells can respond to ________ hormone(s) at a time.
    • A. 

      Only one

    • B. 

      One or two

    • C. 

      Two

    • D. 

      Several

  • 20. 
    An activated G protein can trigger
    • A. 

      The opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane.

    • B. 

      The release of calcium ions from intracellular stores.

    • C. 

      A fall in cAMP levels.

    • D. 

      A rise in cAMP levels.

    • E. 

      All of the above.

  • 21. 
    All target cells
    • A. 

      Have hormone receptors.

    • B. 

      Respond to chemical signals.

    • C. 

      Secrete hormones.

    • D. 

      Have hormone receptors and respond to chemical signals.

    • E. 

      Secrete hormones and have hormone receptors.

  • 22. 
    Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein
    • A. 

      Calcitonin.

    • B. 

      Calcitriol.

    • C. 

      Calmodulin.

    • D. 

      Calcium-binding globulin.

    • E. 

      Calcitropin.

  • 23. 
    After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex,
    • A. 

      Adenylyl cyclase is activated.

    • B. 

      Cyclic nucleotides are formed.

    • C. 

      G proteins are phosphorylated.

    • D. 

      Gene transcription is initiated.

    • E. 

      Protein kinases are activated.

  • 24. 
    The most complex endocrine responses that integrated the nervous and endocrine system involve the
    • A. 

      Thyroid gland.

    • B. 

      Pancreas.

    • C. 

      Adrenal glands.

    • D. 

      Hypothalamus.

    • E. 

      Thymus gland.

  • 25. 
    Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?
    • A. 

      Blood level of an ion-like potassium

    • B. 

      Blood level of glucose

    • C. 

      Blood level of a hormone

    • D. 

      Nervous stimuli

    • E. 

      All of the above

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