Acute Respiratory Failure And ARDS N180 Stokke

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Respiratory Quizzes & Trivia

Acute respiratory failure when it occurs can be either hypoxemic or hypersonic. As we just covered acute respiratory failure in class today there will be a text in some time. The quiz below is designed to check what we have covered and help you note areas to polish up on. Give it a try and all the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Acute Respiratory Failure can be defined as _____________________________.

    • A.

      Sudden life-threatening deterioration of gas exchange in the lungs

    • B.

      Non-cardiac pulmonary edema with increasing hypoxemia despite treatment with O2

    • C.

      Sudden life-threatening pulmonary edema that causes a deterioration of gas exchange despite treatment with O2

    Correct Answer
    A. Sudden life-threatening deterioration of gas exchange in the lungs
    Explanation
    Acute Respiratory Failure refers to a sudden and life-threatening deterioration of gas exchange in the lungs. This means that there is a significant impairment in the ability of the lungs to take in oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the body. This condition can be caused by various factors such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prompt medical intervention and treatment with oxygen therapy are necessary to prevent further deterioration and potential complications.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is NOT a type of ARF?

    • A.

      Ventilatory failure

    • B.

      Atelectasis

    • C.

      Oxygenation failure

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Atelectasis
    Explanation
    Atelectasis is not a type of ARF (Acute Respiratory Failure). ARF is a condition in which the respiratory system fails to provide adequate oxygenation to the body or fails to remove carbon dioxide effectively. Ventilatory failure and oxygenation failure are both types of ARF, characterized by different mechanisms of respiratory system dysfunction. Atelectasis, on the other hand, refers to the collapse or closure of a part or all of the lung, which can lead to decreased oxygenation but is not specifically classified as a type of ARF.

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  • 3. 

    In ventilatory failure, all of the following are true EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Perfusion is normal, but ventilation is inadequate

    • B.

      Air morvement in/out of the lungs is the problem

    • C.

      Less oxygen in the alveoli

    • D.

      Low CO2 levels in blood

    • E.

      None of the above

    • F.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Low CO2 levels in blood
    Explanation
    In ventilatory failure, all of the following statements are true except for low CO2 levels in the blood. Ventilatory failure refers to a condition where the lungs are unable to adequately remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. This results in a buildup of CO2 in the blood, leading to high levels of CO2 (hypercapnia). The other statements are true in ventilatory failure: perfusion is normal but ventilation is inadequate, there is a problem with air movement in and out of the lungs, and there is less oxygen in the alveoli.

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  • 4. 

    All of the following are possible causes of Ventilatory failure EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Pulmonary embolism

    • B.

      Pneumo/hemothorax

    • C.

      Kyphoscoliosis

    • D.

      Damage to the respiratory control center in the brain

    • E.

      Decreased function of respiratory muscles

    • F.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Pulmonary embolism
    Explanation
    Ventilatory failure occurs when the respiratory system is unable to maintain adequate gas exchange. Possible causes of ventilatory failure include pneumo/hemothorax, kyphoscoliosis, damage to the respiratory control center in the brain, and decreased function of respiratory muscles. However, pulmonary embolism is not typically associated with ventilatory failure. A pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries, which can lead to impaired blood flow and oxygenation, but it does not directly cause ventilatory failure.

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  • 5. 

    All of the following are true of oxygenation failure ARF EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Movement of air is adequate

    • B.

      It can be caused by a PE

    • C.

      Perfusion is inadequate

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "none of the above". This means that all of the statements provided in the question are true of oxygenation failure acute respiratory failure (ARF). This includes the movement of air being adequate, it being caused by a pulmonary embolism (PE), and inadequate perfusion. Therefore, none of the statements are exceptions to the true characteristics of oxygenation failure ARF.

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  • 6. 

    CHECK ALL THAT APPLY: Which of the following are EARLY signs and symptoms of ARF?

    • A.

      Confusion

    • B.

      Lethargy

    • C.

      Dyspnea

    • D.

      Anxiety

    • E.

      Diaphoresis

    • F.

      Accessory muscle use

    • G.

      Restlessness

    • H.

      Tachycardia

    • I.

      Decreased breath sounds

    • J.

      Elevated BP

    • K.

      Cyanosis

    • L.

      Respiratory arrest/failure

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Dyspnea
    D. Anxiety
    G. Restlessness
    H. Tachycardia
    J. Elevated BP
    Explanation
    The early signs and symptoms of ARF include dyspnea (difficulty breathing), anxiety, restlessness, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), and elevated blood pressure. These symptoms indicate that the patient is experiencing respiratory distress and their body is trying to compensate for the decreased oxygen levels.

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  • 7. 

    CHECK ALL THAT APPLY: Which of the following are ADVANCED signs and symptoms of ARF?

    • A.

      Confusion

    • B.

      Lethargy

    • C.

      Dyspnea

    • D.

      Anxiety

    • E.

      Diaphoresis

    • F.

      Accessory muscle use

    • G.

      Restlessness

    • H.

      Tachycardia

    • I.

      Decreased breath sounds

    • J.

      Elevated BP

    • K.

      Cyanosis

    • L.

      Respiratory arrest/failure

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Confusion
    B. Lethargy
    E. Diaphoresis
    F. Accessory muscle use
    I. Decreased breath sounds
    K. Cyanosis
    L. Respiratory arrest/failure
    Explanation
    Advanced signs and symptoms of Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) include confusion, lethargy, diaphoresis (excessive sweating), accessory muscle use (using additional muscles to assist with breathing), decreased breath sounds, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin), and respiratory arrest/failure. These signs indicate severe respiratory distress and impaired oxygenation, which can be life-threatening if not promptly addressed. Tachycardia (rapid heart rate), elevated blood pressure, and anxiety may also be present, but they are not specific to ARF and can be seen in other conditions as well.

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  • 8. 

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) can be defined as _____________________________.

    • A.

      Sudden life-threatening deterioration of gas exchange in the lungs

    • B.

      Non-cardiac pulmonary edema with increasing hypoxemia despite treatment with O2

    • C.

      Sudden life-threatening pulmonary edema that causes a deterioration of gas exchange despite treatment with O2

    Correct Answer
    B. Non-cardiac pulmonary edema with increasing hypoxemia despite treatment with O2
    Explanation
    ARDS is a condition characterized by non-cardiac pulmonary edema, which means fluid accumulation in the lungs not caused by heart failure. This fluid accumulation leads to increasing hypoxemia, which is a low level of oxygen in the blood. Despite treatment with oxygen, the patient's condition worsens, indicating a sudden and life-threatening deterioration of gas exchange in the lungs. This explanation aligns with the given answer choice.

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  • 9. 

    CHECK ALL THAT APPLY: Which of the following are the 5 characteristics of ARDS?

    • A.

      Dyspnea

    • B.

      Myasthenia Gravis

    • C.

      Refractory hypoxemia

    • D.

      Cyanosis

    • E.

      Dense pulmonary infiltrates on CXR

    • F.

      Decreased pulmonary compliance

    • G.

      Non-cardiac pulmonary edema

    • H.

      Chest pain

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dyspnea
    C. Refractory hypoxemia
    E. Dense pulmonary infiltrates on CXR
    F. Decreased pulmonary compliance
    G. Non-cardiac pulmonary edema
    Explanation
    The correct answer is: Dyspnea, Refractory hypoxemia, Dense pulmonary infiltrates on CXR, Decreased pulmonary compliance, Non-cardiac pulmonary edema.

    ARDS, or Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, is characterized by several key features. Dyspnea, or difficulty breathing, is a common symptom. Refractory hypoxemia refers to low oxygen levels in the blood that do not improve with supplemental oxygen. Dense pulmonary infiltrates on a chest X-ray indicate fluid or inflammation in the lungs. Decreased pulmonary compliance means that the lungs are stiff and not expanding properly. Non-cardiac pulmonary edema is the presence of fluid in the lungs not due to heart failure. These characteristics help to diagnose and classify ARDS.

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  • 10. 

    During the Acute Exudate Phase of ARDS, ____________________ .

    • A.

      Fluids shift into the alveoli, the alveoli and bronchii collapse, and lose lung compliance

    • B.

      The lung starts to repair itself; this is where the patient starts to get better or the condition deteriorates.

    • C.

      Fibrous tissue forms and lungs don't expand well; the effort to breathe increases O2 demand which causes more effort to breathe.

    Correct Answer
    A. Fluids shift into the alveoli, the alveoli and bronchii collapse, and lose lung compliance
    Explanation
    During the Acute Exudate Phase of ARDS, fluids shift into the alveoli, causing them to become filled with fluid. This leads to the collapse of the alveoli and bronchii, resulting in a loss of lung compliance. The loss of lung compliance makes it difficult for the patient to breathe effectively. This can lead to an increased demand for oxygen, causing the patient to exert more effort to breathe. Overall, this phase is characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli, collapse of the alveoli and bronchii, and a decrease in lung compliance.

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  • 11. 

    During the Proliferative Phase of ARDS, ____________________ .

    • A.

      Fluids shift into the alveoli, the alveoli and bronchii collapse, and lose lung compliance

    • B.

      The lung starts to repair itself; this is where the patient starts to get better or the condition deteriorates.

    • C.

      Fibrous tissue forms and lungs don't expand well; the effort to breathe increases O2 demand which causes more effort to breathe.

    Correct Answer
    B. The lung starts to repair itself; this is where the patient starts to get better or the condition deteriorates.
    Explanation
    During the Proliferative Phase of ARDS, the lung starts to repair itself. This phase is crucial as it determines whether the patient will start to recover or if the condition will worsen. The repair process involves the formation of fibrous tissue, which can lead to decreased lung expansion and increased effort to breathe. This increased effort increases the demand for oxygen, further complicating the breathing process. Therefore, the Proliferative Phase is a critical stage in the progression of ARDS.

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  • 12. 

    During the Fibrotic Phase of ARDS, ____________________ .

    • A.

      Fluids shift into the alveoli, the alveoli and bronchii collapse, and lose lung compliance

    • B.

      The lung starts to repair itself; this is where the patient starts to get better or the condition deteriorates.

    • C.

      Fibrous tissue forms and lungs don't expand well; the effort to breathe increases O2 demand which causes more effort to breathe.

    Correct Answer
    C. Fibrous tissue forms and lungs don't expand well; the effort to breathe increases O2 demand which causes more effort to breathe.
    Explanation
    During the Fibrotic Phase of ARDS, fibrous tissue forms and lungs don't expand well. This leads to a decrease in lung compliance, making it harder for the patient to breathe. The effort to breathe increases, causing an increased demand for oxygen. This increased demand for oxygen further exacerbates the difficulty in breathing, creating a vicious cycle.

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  • 13. 

    CHECK ALL THAT APPLY: Which of the following are early s/sx of ARDS?

    • A.

      Retractions - not always (tissues between ribs and above sternum pull in)

    • B.

      Dyspneic

    • C.

      Non-productive cough

    • D.

      Accessory muscle used

    • E.

      Pallor or cyanosis

    • F.

      Significant CXR changes; pulmonary infiltrates

    • G.

      Restlessness

    • H.

      CXR clear

    • I.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • J.

      Respiratory acidosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Dyspneic
    C. Non-productive cough
    G. Restlessness
    H. CXR clear
    I. Respiratory alkalosis
    Explanation
    Early signs and symptoms of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) include dyspnea (difficulty breathing), non-productive cough, restlessness, clear chest X-ray (CXR), and respiratory alkalosis (low carbon dioxide levels in the blood). These symptoms may occur before significant CXR changes or respiratory acidosis (high carbon dioxide levels) are present. Retractions (tissues between ribs and above sternum pulling in) and pallor or cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin) are not always early signs of ARDS.

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  • 14. 

    CHECK ALL THAT APPLY: Which of the following are advanced s/sx of ARDS?

    • A.

      Retractions - though not always (tissues between ribs and above sternum pull in)

    • B.

      Dyspneic

    • C.

      Non-productive cough

    • D.

      Accessory muscle used

    • E.

      Pallor or cyanosis

    • F.

      Significant CXR changes; pulmonary infiltrates

    • G.

      Restlessness

    • H.

      CXR clear

    • I.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • J.

      Respiratory acidosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Retractions - though not always (tissues between ribs and above sternum pull in)
    D. Accessory muscle used
    E. Pallor or cyanosis
    F. Significant CXR changes; pulmonary infiltrates
    J. Respiratory acidosis
    Explanation
    The advanced signs and symptoms of ARDS include the following: Retractions (though not always), which refers to the pulling in of tissues between the ribs and above the sternum; accessory muscle used, indicating the need for additional muscles to assist with breathing; pallor or cyanosis, which is a sign of inadequate oxygenation; significant CXR changes, specifically pulmonary infiltrates, which are abnormal findings on a chest X-ray; and respiratory acidosis, which is an imbalance in blood pH due to inadequate removal of carbon dioxide. These signs and symptoms suggest a severe and progressive form of ARDS.

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  • 15. 

    CHECK ALL THAT APPLY: Which of the following are appropriate management interventions for ARDS?

    • A.

      O2 therapy

    • B.

      Maintain IV volume and IV access

    • C.

      Ambulation

    • D.

      Treat cause

    • E.

      Conserve energy

    • F.

      ABGs

    • G.

      Monitor vitals

    • H.

      Glucocorticoids

    • I.

      Antibiotics

    • J.

      Pulse Ox

    • K.

      Turn regularly

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. O2 therapy
    B. Maintain IV volume and IV access
    D. Treat cause
    E. Conserve energy
    F. ABGs
    G. Monitor vitals
    H. Glucocorticoids
    I. Antibiotics
    J. Pulse Ox
    K. Turn regularly
    Explanation
    Management interventions for ARDS include providing O2 therapy to improve oxygenation, maintaining IV volume and access to ensure adequate hydration and medication administration, treating the underlying cause of ARDS, conserving energy to reduce oxygen demand, monitoring ABGs to assess respiratory function and acid-base balance, monitoring vital signs to detect any changes in the patient's condition, considering the use of glucocorticoids to reduce inflammation, administering antibiotics if there is an infection present, using a pulse oximeter to continuously monitor oxygen saturation levels, and turning the patient regularly to prevent complications such as pressure ulcers.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following describes the condition when partial pressure of oxygen in the blood keeps decreasing despite treatment?

    • A.

      Treatment-resistant hypoxemia

    • B.

      Refractory hypoxemia

    • C.

      Refractory Hemo-deoxygenation

    Correct Answer
    B. Refractory hypoxemia
    Explanation
    Refractory hypoxemia is the correct answer because it refers to a condition where the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood continues to decrease despite treatment. This term is used when the patient's oxygen levels do not improve even with interventions such as supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation. It indicates a severe and difficult-to-treat form of hypoxemia that requires further investigation and alternative treatment approaches.

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  • 17. 

    True or False: Management of ARDS are usually only supportive, there is little we can do to reverse the process.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the management of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) primarily involves supportive care. ARDS is a serious condition where the lungs fail to provide enough oxygen to the body. Treatment mainly focuses on addressing the underlying cause, providing mechanical ventilation to support breathing, and maintaining the patient's fluid balance. While these measures can improve the patient's condition and increase the chances of recovery, there is currently no specific treatment that can completely reverse the process of ARDS. Therefore, the statement is correct.

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