A florist buys roses at $0.50 apiece and sells them
for $1.00 apiece. If there are no
other expenses, how many roses must be sold in order to make a profit of $300?
Tuning In During
began to develop after
the First World War. Before 1920, radio was simply
a useful way to send electrical signals ashore from
ship at sea, or, from one "ham" operator
The new technology associated with movies and
airplanes was already developing rapidly by the time
soldiers started returning from European trenches
in 1918. The vast potential of the airwaves,
had scarcely been touched.
 Then a vice
president of Westinghouse,
looking for a way to make the transmission of radio
signals more profitable, decided on a two-fold
strategy.  First, he would entice an audience
daily programming of great variety.  Second, he
would sell this audience the radio receivers
to listen to this entertainment.  The plan
beyond anyone's expectations.
The federal Radio
Division in Washington, D.C.,
was created to license stations, because it had no
power to regulate them. Broadcasters multiplied
wildly, some helping themselves to the more
frequencies, others increasing their transmission
power at will. Chaos means things were out of
Yet even in the midst
of such anarchy,
some commercial possibilities and
saw clearly of a medium whose regulation seemed
imminent. In 1926, RCA paid the American
Telephone & Telegraph Company one million
for station WEAF in New York City—and NBC was
born. Years later, the Radio Law of 1927 was
enacted. It authorized it's control for licensing
and of policing the broadcasters.
The RCA executives who
powerful NBC network were right to see that
sizable profits would come from this new medium.
Even in 1930 for example an hour's advertising on
nationwide radio to forty-seven cities cost $10,180.
Advertising turned broadcasting into an industry,
and the untapped potential of the airwaves
began to be realized.
The writer wishes to add the following sentence to the
Nowadays, no matter where you are, it’s hard to be far from
If added, this sentence would best support and most
logically be placed:
Before the first sentence of Paragraph 2.
After the last sentence of Paragraph 2.
Before the last sentence of Paragraph 3.
After the last sentence of Paragraph 4.
Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the
sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
Many of today’s physicians and patients are -------
high technology, captivated by computer-designed drugs and laser surgery.
In a shipment of 1,000 light bulbs, 1/40 of the bulbs were
What is the ratio of defective bulbs to
The following sentence contains either a single error or no
error at all. If the sentence contains an error, select the one underlined part
that must be changed to make the sentence correct. If the sentence contains no
error, select choice E.
(A) Except for the phonograph, the performances (B) of great musicians and the
voices of famous people (C) would have been lost (D) to history. (E) No error
SOCIAL SCIENCE: This passage is adapted from Leonard W.
Levy's Origins of the Fifth Amendment: The Right Against
Incrimination. (©1968 by Clio Enterprises Inc.).
Community courts and
community justice pre-
vailed in England at the time of the Norman Conquest
. The legal system was ritualistic, dependent
upon oaths at most stages of litigation, and permeated
5 by both religious and superstitious
notions. The pro-
ceedings were oral, very personal, and highly con-
frontative. Juries were unknown. One party publicly
"appealed," or accused, the other before the
meeting at which the presence of both was obligatory.
10 To be absent meant risking fines and
the preliminary statements of the parties, the court ren-
dered judgment, not on the merits of the issue nor the
question of guilt or innocence, but on the manner by
which it should be resolved. Judgment in other words
15 preceded trial because it was a decision
on what form
the trial should take. It might be by compurgation, by
ordeal, or, after the Norman Conquest, by battle.
Excepting trial by battle, only one party was tried or,
more accurately, was put to his "proof." Proof
20 regarded as an advantage, it was usually
awarded to the
accused party; in effect he had the privilege of proving
his own case.
Trial by compurgation consisted of a sworn state-
ment to the truth of one's claim or denial, supported by
25 the oaths of a certain number of fellow
Presumably they, no more than the claimant, would
endanger their immortal souls by the sacrilege of false
swearing. Originally the oath-helpers swore from their
own knowledge to the truth of the party's claim. Later
30 they became little more than character
swearing only to their belief that his oath was trust-
worthy. If he rounded up the requisite number of com-
purgators and the cumbrous swearing in very exact
form proceeded without a mistake, he won his case. A
35 mistake "burst" the oath,
Ordeals were usually reserved for more serious
crimes, for persons of bad reputation, for peasants, or
for those caught with stolen goods. As an invocation of
immediate divine judgment, ordeals were consecrated
40 by the Church and shrouded with solemn
tery. The accused underwent a physical trial in which
he called upon God to witness his innocence by putting
a miraculous sign upon his body. Cold water, boiling
water, and hot iron were the principal ordeals, all of
45 which the clergy administered. In the
ordeal of cold
water, the accused was trussed up and cast into a pool
to see whether he would sink or float. On the theory
that water which had been sanctified by a priest would
receive an innocent person but reject the guilty, inno-
50 cence was proved by sinking—and
hopefully a quick
retrieval—guilt by floating. In the other ordeals, one
had to plunge his hand into a cauldron of boiling water
or carry a red hot piece of iron for a certain distance, in
the hope that three days later, when the bandages were
55 removed, the priest would find a
"clean" wound, one
that was healing free of infection. How deeply one
plunged his arm into the water, how heavy the iron or
great the distance it was carried, depended mainly on
the gravity of the charge.
60 The Normans
brought to England still another
ordeal, trial by battle, paradigm of the adversary
system, which gave to the legal concept of
"defendant" a physical meaning. Trial by battle
savage yet sacred method of proof which was also
65 thought to involve divine intercession
on behalf of the
righteous. Rather than let a wrongdoer triumph, God
would presumably strengthen the arms of the party who
had sworn truly to the justice of his cause. Right, not
might, would therefore conquer. Trial by battle was
70 originally available for the settlement
of all disputes
but eventually was restricted to cases of serious crime.
Whether one proved his case by compurgation,
ordeal, or battle, the method was accusatory in char-
acter. There was always a definite and known accuser,
75 some private person who brought formal
openly confronted his antagonist. There was never any
secrecy in the proceedings, which were the same for
criminal as for civil litigation. The judges, who had no
role whatever in the making of the verdict, decided only
80 which party should be put to proof and
what its form
should be; thereafter the judges merely enforced an
observance of the rules. The oaths that saturated the
proceedings called upon God to witness to the truth of
the respective claims of the parties, or the justice of
85 their cause, or the reliability of their
word. No one gave
testimonial evidence nor was anyone questioned to test
Which of the following factors did all the trials discussed
have in common?
I. A definite and known accuser
III. Oaths and invocations of divine assistance
A 25-foot ladder is placed
against a vertical wall of a building, with the bottom of the ladder standing
on concrete 7 feet from the base of the building. If the top of the ladder
slips down 4 feet, then the bottom of the ladder will slide out
Abandoned cornfields have been the sites of investigations
concerning ecological succession, the orderly progression of changes in the
plant and/or animal life of an area over time (see Figure 1).
(Note: The plants are ordered according to their
appearance during ecological succession.)
During the early stages of
succession, the principal community (living unit) that dominates is the pioneer
community. Pioneer plants are depicted in Figure 2.
The final stage of
ecological succession is characterized by the presence of the climax community,
the oak-hickory forest. Figure 3 depicts the gradual change from pine to
Figures adapted from Eugene P. Odum, Fundamentals of
Ecology. ©1971 by Saunders College Publishing/Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc.
According to the information in Figure 3, a
150-year-old climax community would contain oak and hickory trees with a
density of approximately:
5,000 trees per unit area.
15,000 trees per unit area.
3,000 trees per unit area.
20,000 trees per unit area.