ACE Exercise Science Test

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ACE Exercise Science Test - Quiz

Focuses on the Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals text.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which blood vessels carry blood that is rich in oxygen from the lungs back to the heart? 

    • A.

      Coronary arteries

    • B.

      Pulmonary arteries

    • C.

      Coronary veins

    • D.

      Pulmonary veins

    Correct Answer
    D. Pulmonary veins
    Explanation
    The pulmonary veins carry blood that is rich in oxygen from the lungs back to the heart. After oxygen is taken up by the red blood cells in the lungs, it is transported through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium of the heart. From there, it is pumped into the left ventricle and then circulated to the rest of the body through the systemic circulation. The pulmonary veins are the only blood vessels in the body that carry oxygenated blood, as all other veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

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  • 2. 

    Which blood vessels carry blood that is rich in oxygen from the lungs back to the heart? 

    • A.

      Coronary arteries

    • B.

      Pulmonary arteries

    • C.

      Coronary veins

    • D.

      Pulmonary veins

    Correct Answer
    D. Pulmonary veins
    Explanation
    The pulmonary veins carry blood that is rich in oxygen from the lungs back to the heart. After oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the lungs, the oxygenated blood is transported by the pulmonary veins to the left atrium of the heart. From there, it is pumped into the left ventricle and then circulated throughout the body via the systemic circulation. The pulmonary veins are responsible for returning oxygenated blood to the heart, allowing it to be distributed to the rest of the body's tissues and organs.

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  • 3. 

    Which muslces or muscle group is MOST important for respiration in humans? 

    • A.

      Internal intercostals

    • B.

      Diaphragm

    • C.

      External intercostals

    • D.

      Transverse abdominis

    Correct Answer
    B. Diaphragm
    Explanation
    The diaphragm is the main muscle responsible for respiration in humans. It is a dome-shaped muscle located at the base of the lungs, separating the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. When we inhale, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, creating more space in the chest cavity and allowing the lungs to expand. This contraction of the diaphragm creates a vacuum effect, drawing air into the lungs. When we exhale, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upward, pushing air out of the lungs. Therefore, the diaphragm plays a crucial role in the process of breathing.

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  • 4. 

    A synovial joint has which major chracteristics?

    • A.

      Has a space, or joint, between the bones that form them, a variety of movements can occurs with this joint

    • B.

      Has no joint cavity and is held together by cartilage, little or no movement occurs

    • C.

      Has no joint cavity and is held together by fibrous tissue, very little movement occurs

    Correct Answer
    A. Has a space, or joint, between the bones that form them, a variety of movements can occurs with this joint
    Explanation
    A synovial joint is characterized by having a space, or joint, between the bones that form them. This allows for a variety of movements to occur with this joint.

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  • 5. 

    A Cartilaginous joint has which characteristics? 

    • A.

      Has no joint cavity and is held together by fibrous tissue, very little movement occurs

    • B.

      Has no joint cavity and is held together by cartilage, little or no movement occurs

    • C.

      Has a space, or joint, between the bones that form them, a variety of movements can occurs with this joint

    Correct Answer
    B. Has no joint cavity and is held together by cartilage, little or no movement occurs
    Explanation
    A Cartilaginous joint is characterized by the absence of a joint cavity and being held together by cartilage. This type of joint allows for little or no movement to occur.

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  • 6. 

    A Fibrous joint has which characteristics? 

    • A.

      Has a space, or joint, between the bones that form them, a variety of movements can occurs with this joint

    • B.

      Has no joint cavity and is held together by cartilage, little or no movement occurs

    • C.

      Has no joint cavity and is held together by fibrous tissue, very little movement

    Correct Answer
    C. Has no joint cavity and is held together by fibrous tissue, very little movement
    Explanation
    A fibrous joint is characterized by the absence of a joint cavity and being held together by fibrous tissue. This type of joint allows for very little movement.

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  • 7. 

    Identify the characterisitcs of the connective properties of a tendon. 

    • A.

      Transmits force from muscle to bone thereby producing motion

    • B.

      Support joints by attaching bone to bone

    • C.

      Provides framework that ensures proper alignment of muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves

    Correct Answer
    A. Transmits force from muscle to bone thereby producing motion
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "transmits force from muscle to bone thereby producing motion." This answer accurately describes one of the main functions of tendons, which is to transmit the force generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing for movement. Tendons are strong and flexible connective tissues that connect muscles to bones, enabling the transfer of force and facilitating motion.

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  • 8. 

    Identify the characteristics of the connective properties of ligaments. 

    • A.

      Provides framework that ensures proper alignment of muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves.

    • B.

      Support joints by attaching bone to bone

    • C.

      Transmits force from muscle to bone thereby producing motion

    Correct Answer
    B. Support joints by attaching bone to bone
    Explanation
    Ligaments are connective tissues that support joints by attaching bone to bone. This means that ligaments play a crucial role in stabilizing joints and preventing excessive movement, which can lead to injury. Ligaments also help to maintain proper alignment of muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves, ensuring that they function optimally. Additionally, ligaments transmit force from muscles to bones, allowing for coordinated movement and motion.

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  • 9. 

    Identify the characteristics of the connective properties of Fasciae.

    • A.

      Transmits force from muscle to bone thereby producing motion

    • B.

      Support joints by attaching bone to bone

    • C.

      Provides framework that ensures proper alignment of muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves

    Correct Answer
    C. Provides framework that ensures proper alignment of muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves
    Explanation
    The connective properties of Fasciae include providing a framework that ensures proper alignment of muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves. This means that Fasciae helps to organize and maintain the structure of these components, ensuring they are in the correct position and orientation for optimal function. This characteristic is important for the coordination and efficiency of movement, as well as for the proper functioning of blood vessels and nerves.

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  • 10. 

    It is important for fitness professionals to have a general understanding of Wolff's law because it explains how ___________.

    • A.

      Regular endurance exercise increases the oxidative capacity of the respiratory muscles.

    • B.

      Intervertebral disks are better prepared for external loads following rehydration during sleep

    • C.

      Bones increase density in response to the stress applied through weightbearing exercise

    • D.

      Functional training improves kinesthetic awareness by stimulating the proprioceptors in the joints.

    Correct Answer
    C. Bones increase density in response to the stress applied through weightbearing exercise
    Explanation
    Wolff's law states that bones adapt to the stress placed upon them. When weightbearing exercise is performed, it puts stress on the bones, causing them to respond by increasing their density. This adaptation is important for fitness professionals to understand because it explains how weightbearing exercise can lead to stronger, denser bones.

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  • 11. 

    Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) can affect a static stretch by causing _________.

    • A.

      Relaxation of the muscles(s) being stretched through autogenic inhibition.

    • B.

      Contraction of the muscles(s) being stretched through autogenic inhibition.

    • C.

      Relaxation of the antagonist(s) through reciprocal inhibition

    • D.

      Contraction of the antagonist(s) through reciprocal inhibition

    Correct Answer
    A. Relaxation of the muscles(s) being stretched through autogenic inhibition.
    Explanation
    Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) are sensory receptors located in the tendons that connect muscles to bones. When a muscle is stretched, the GTOs detect the increase in tension within the tendon. This information is then sent to the central nervous system, which triggers a reflex called autogenic inhibition. Autogenic inhibition causes the muscles being stretched to relax and lengthen, which helps prevent injury and allows for a greater range of motion. Therefore, the correct answer is relaxation of the muscles being stretched through autogenic inhibition.

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  • 12. 

    What organ is PRIMARILY responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients?

    • A.

      Stomach

    • B.

      Pancreas

    • C.

      Small intestine

    • D.

      Large intestine

    Correct Answer
    C. Small intestine
    Explanation
    The small intestine is primarily responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. It is a long tube-like organ located between the stomach and the large intestine. The inner lining of the small intestine is covered with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. The small intestine receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues the process of breaking down the food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. It also absorbs nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals, which are then transported to the cells of the body for energy and other functions.

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  • 13. 

    The forward-backward movements of the arms and legs during walking occur in which of the planes? 

    • A.

      Frontal

    • B.

      Sagittal

    • C.

      Longitudinal

    • D.

      Transverse

    Correct Answer
    B. Sagittal
    Explanation
    The forward-backward movements of the arms and legs during walking occur in the sagittal plane. The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves, and movements in this plane involve flexion and extension. When walking, the arms and legs move forward and backward in a swinging motion, which is a sagittal plane movement.

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  • 14. 

    What type of muscle fiber is the MOST highly adaptive to different training stimuli, making it able to increase oxidative capacities or increase force production and speed?  

    • A.

      Type I

    • B.

      Type IIa

    • C.

      Type IIb

    • D.

      Type IIx

    Correct Answer
    B. Type IIa
    Explanation
    Type IIa muscle fibers are the most highly adaptive to different training stimuli. These fibers have a combination of oxidative and glycolytic capacities, allowing them to increase both oxidative capacities and force production and speed. They can adapt to endurance training by increasing their oxidative capacities and to strength and power training by increasing their force production and speed. This versatility makes them the most adaptable muscle fiber type.

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  • 15. 

    During dynamic and static stretching, which of the following soft tissues contribute LEAST to the total resistance encountered by the joint during movement through its range of motion? 

    • A.

      Muscle fascia

    • B.

      Tendons

    • C.

      Skin

    • D.

      Joint capsule

    Correct Answer
    C. Skin
    Explanation
    During dynamic and static stretching, the skin contributes the least to the total resistance encountered by the joint during movement through its range of motion. This is because the skin is relatively elastic and can easily stretch and move with the joint, providing minimal resistance compared to muscle fascia, tendons, and the joint capsule.

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  • 16. 

    Which muscles are prime movers for the should joint adduction performed during a wide-grip-pull-up? 

    • A.

      Trapezius and rhomboids

    • B.

      Deltoid and latissimus dorsi

    • C.

      Teres major and serratus anterior

    • D.

      Pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi

    Correct Answer
    D. Pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi
    Explanation
    During a wide-grip pull-up, the prime movers for shoulder joint adduction are the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles. The pectoralis major is responsible for adducting the shoulder joint, while the latissimus dorsi helps in both adduction and extension of the shoulder. These muscles work together to pull the arms towards the body during a wide-grip pull-up exercise.

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  • 17. 

    How does the pancreas help regulate blood glucose levels? 

    • A.

      It secretes glucagon to increase blood glucose levels and insulin to increase glucose uptake by the cells

    • B.

      It releases glucocorticoids that aid in the utilization of glucose and metabolism of fatty acids

    • C.

      It secretes insulin to increase blood glucose levels and stimulate uptake of the glucose by the cells

    • D.

      It releases pancreatic enzymes into the small instestine to aid in the digestion of protein, carbohydrates, and fat

    Correct Answer
    A. It secretes glucagon to increase blood glucose levels and insulin to increase glucose uptake by the cells
    Explanation
    The pancreas helps regulate blood glucose levels by secreting glucagon, which increases blood glucose levels, and insulin, which increases glucose uptake by the cells. This balance of hormones ensures that blood glucose levels stay within a normal range.

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  • 18. 

    Dumbbell lateral raises take place in which plane?

    • A.

      Frontal

    • B.

      Sagittal

    • C.

      Longitudinal

    • D.

      Transverse

    Correct Answer
    A. Frontal
    Explanation
    Dumbbell lateral raises involve lifting the dumbbells out to the sides of the body, which occurs in the frontal plane. The frontal plane divides the body into front and back sections, and movements in this plane involve abduction or adduction of body parts away from or towards the midline of the body. In the case of dumbbell lateral raises, the arms are being abducted away from the midline, making the frontal plane the correct answer.

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  • 19. 

    Which muscles are prime movers for external rotation of the shoulder joint? 

    • A.

      Deltoid and subscapularis

    • B.

      Teres major and latissimus dorsi

    • C.

      Supraspinatus and pectoralis major

    • D.

      Teres minor and infraspinatus

    Correct Answer
    D. Teres minor and infraspinatus
    Explanation
    The muscles that are prime movers for external rotation of the shoulder joint are the teres minor and infraspinatus. These muscles are located in the rotator cuff and are responsible for rotating the arm outward. They work together to stabilize and control the movement of the shoulder joint during external rotation. The other muscle pairs listed in the options are either not directly involved in external rotation or are involved in other movements of the shoulder joint.

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  • 20. 

    When comparing the medial epicondyle of the humerus to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, which of the following statements is correct? 

    • A.

      The medial epicondyle is more toward the front of the body than the lateral epicondyle

    • B.

      The medial epicondyle is more toward the back of the body than the lateral epicondyle

    • C.

      The medial epicondyle is more toward the midline of the body than the lateral epicondyle

    • D.

      The medial epicondyle is more away from the midline of the body than the lateral epicondyle

    Correct Answer
    C. The medial epicondyle is more toward the midline of the body than the lateral epicondyle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the medial epicondyle is more toward the midline of the body than the lateral epicondyle. This is because the term "medial" refers to a structure being closer to the midline of the body, while "lateral" refers to a structure being farther away from the midline. Therefore, the medial epicondyle of the humerus is located closer to the midline of the body compared to the lateral epicondyle.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of tissue found in the human body?

    • A.

      Muscular

    • B.

      Nervous

    • C.

      Epithelial

    • D.

      Vascular

    Correct Answer
    D. Vascular
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Vascular. Vascular tissue is not one of the four types of tissue found in the human body. The four types of tissue are muscular, nervous, epithelial, and connective. Vascular tissue refers to the specialized tissue that forms the blood vessels in plants, not in humans.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the four components of blood carries hormones, food materials, ions and gases throughout the body? 

    • A.

      Plasma

    • B.

      Red Blood cells

    • C.

      White Blood cells

    • D.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasma
    Explanation
    Plasma is the correct answer because it is the component of blood that carries hormones, food materials, ions, and gases throughout the body. Plasma is a yellowish liquid that makes up about 55% of the total blood volume. It contains various substances such as hormones, nutrients, electrolytes, gases, and waste products, which are transported to different parts of the body. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets have different functions in the blood, but they do not primarily carry these substances.

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  • 23. 

    When blood is flowing through the heart, where does it go after passing through the tricuspid valve? 

    • A.

      Right atrium

    • B.

      Left atrium

    • C.

      Right ventricle

    • D.

      Left ventricle

    Correct Answer
    C. Right ventricle
    Explanation
    After passing through the tricuspid valve, the blood flows into the right ventricle. The tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. It allows blood to flow from the atrium into the ventricle, preventing backflow. Once in the right ventricle, the blood is then pumped out of the heart and into the pulmonary artery, where it will be sent to the lungs for oxygenation.

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  • 24. 

    The average person's breathing rate through the nose is equal to 20-30 liters per minute while at rest. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Humans breath approximately 5-6 liters of air per minute. During exercise it can increase to 20-30 liters per minute.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following movements takes place in the frontal plane? 

    • A.

      Depression of the scapulae

    • B.

      Flexion of the elbow

    • C.

      Extension at the hip

    • D.

      Supination at the wrist

    Correct Answer
    A. Depression of the scapulae
    Explanation
    Movements in the frontal plane are:
    abduction
    adduction
    elevation
    depression
    inversion
    eversion

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following stements about flexibility is CORRECT? 

    • A.

      As people age, flexibility naturally increases due to decreased collagen levels.

    • B.

      Males are generally more flexible than females

    • C.

      Collagen is made up of proteins that limit motion and resist stretch

    • D.

      The build-up of scar tissue after injury often increases flexibility.

    Correct Answer
    C. Collagen is made up of proteins that limit motion and resist stretch
    Explanation
    Collagen is a protein that provides structure and support to tissues in the body, including tendons, ligaments, and skin. It is known for its ability to limit motion and resist stretch, making it essential for maintaining stability and preventing excessive movement in the body. Therefore, the statement that collagen is made up of proteins that limit motion and resist stretch is correct.

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  • 27. 

    Which pair of should muscles is BEST strengthened by shoulder shrugs performed with resistance? 

    • A.

      Rhomboid major and rhomboid minor

    • B.

      Pectoralis minor and serratus anterior

    • C.

      Levator scapulae and trapezius

    • D.

      Teres major and latissimus dorsi

    Correct Answer
    C. Levator scapulae and trapezius
    Explanation
    Shoulder shrugs are a common exercise that primarily targets the trapezius muscles, which are responsible for elevating and retracting the scapulae. The levator scapulae muscles also assist in elevating the scapulae. Therefore, performing shoulder shrugs with resistance would effectively strengthen the levator scapulae and trapezius muscles. The other muscle pairs listed in the options are not directly targeted or activated as significantly during shoulder shrugs.

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  • 28. 

    The birddog is an effective exercise for which of the following muscles that act at the trunk? 

    • A.

      Multifidi

    • B.

      Erector spinae

    • C.

      Rectus abdominis

    • D.

      Transverse abdominis

    Correct Answer
    A. Multifidi
    Explanation
    The birddog exercise primarily targets the multifidi muscles. The multifidi muscles are deep muscles located along the spine that play a crucial role in stabilizing and supporting the trunk. During the birddog exercise, the individual is required to extend one arm forward while simultaneously extending the opposite leg backward. This movement engages the multifidi muscles to maintain balance and stability in the trunk. The erector spinae muscles are also involved in this exercise to a lesser extent, but the multifidi muscles are the primary focus. The rectus abdominis and transverse abdominis muscles, although important for core stability, are not directly targeted by the birddog exercise.

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  • 29. 

    Which category of hip muslces is primarily responsible for hip adduction? 

    • A.

      Anterior muscles

    • B.

      Posterior muscles

    • C.

      Medial muscles

    • D.

      Lateral muscles

    Correct Answer
    C. Medial muscles
    Explanation
    The medial muscles are primarily responsible for hip adduction. These muscles are located on the inner side of the hip and include the adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, and pectineus. When these muscles contract, they pull the thigh towards the midline of the body, resulting in hip adduction.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 02, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    KB Clawson
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