It modulates pain mainly through inhibition of reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine.
It depresses the respiration in therapeutic doses.
It is a mixed opioid agonist.
It is an alternative to morphine in pre-unaesthetic medication.
It is a weak opioid agonist that lacks physiological dependence.
It is a pure opioid antagonist.
It reverse the respiratory centre depression induced by morphine.
Its withdrawal symptoms are less and tolerable than those of morphine.
Morphine/ increased intra-biliary pressure.
Tramadol/ respiratory depression.
Activation of adenyl cyclase.
Prevention of Na+ ions influx.
Decrease influx of Ca+2 ions.
Facilitation of efflux of K ions.
They both change pupil size when instilled topically.
They are both contraindicated un BPH.
That both lead to cutaneous flushing and wet skin.
They are used as a pre-anesthetic medication to guard against respiratory centre depression.
Hospitalization and gradual replacement of morphine by pethidine
Immediate administration of single oral dose of naltroxone
Stop morphine and performance of gastric lavage
Gradual withdrawal of morphine and its replacement by methadone