Cells: The Living Units

38 Questions

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Cells: The Living Units


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    what is the importance of the glycocalyx in cell interactions?
    • A. 

      The relative concentration of the substance in different areas determines the direction of diffusion

    • B. 

      Diffusion is driven by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • C. 

      The sugar residues of the glycocalyx provide recognizable biological markers for the cells to recognize each other

    • D. 

      The heart has desmasomes that secure cardiac cells together

  • 2. 
    which two types of cell junctions would you expect to find between muscle cells of the heart?
    • A. 

      Diffusion is driven by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • B. 

      Junction occures from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration

    • C. 

      Meditated diffusion the difusing substance attatches to a membrane (protien) carrier that moves it across the membrane

    • D. 

      The heart has desmasomes (anchoring junctions) that secure cardiac cells together as the heart works and gap junctions (communicating junctions) that allow ions to flow from cardiac cell to cardiac cell

  • 3. 
    What is the energy source for all types of diffusion?
    • A. 

      Diffusion is driven by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • B. 

      Diffusion is slowed by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • C. 

      Diffusion is hydrolized by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • D. 

      Diffusion is synthesized by kinetic energy of the molecules

  • 4. 
    what are the two types of facilitated diffusion and how do they differ?
    • A. 

      Ionic and covalent bonding

    • B. 

      The channel

    • C. 

      In carrier

    • D. 

      Open and closed gateways

  • 5. 
    what determines the direction of any diffusion process?
    • A. 

      The relative concentration of the substance in different areas determines the direction of diffusion

    • B. 

      Diffusion happens when the solute has a low water concentration

    • C. 

      Diffusion occurs while you are sleeping

    • D. 

      Diffusion occurs from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration

  • 6. 
    what happens when the Na+ -k+ pump is phosphorylated, when k+ binds to the pump protein
    • A. 

      Phosphorylation of the Na+ -K+ pump causes the pump protein to denature therefore it closes the pump and allows energy to be recycled

    • B. 

      Cholesterol is taken in by receptor-mediated endocytosis

    • C. 

      Diffusion of ions, mainly the diffusion of K+ from the cell through leakage channels, establishes the resting membrane potential

    • D. 

      Phosphorylation of the Na+ -k+ pump causes the pump protein to change shape so that it "pumps" Na+ across the membrane. K+ binding to the pump protein triggers the release of phosphate and the pump protein returns to its original shape

  • 7. 
    what process establishes the resting membrane potential?
    • A. 

      Cholesterol is taken in by receptor-mediated endocytosis

    • B. 

      Diffusion of ions, maily the diffusion of K+ from the cell through leakage channels, establishes the resting membrane potential

    • C. 

      The plasma membrane expands as a result of exocytosis

    • D. 

      Phagocity cells engulfing debris

  • 8. 
    which vascular transport process allows a cell to take in cholesterol from the extracellular fluid?
    • A. 

      Liglands

    • B. 

      The plasma membrane expands as a result of exocytosis

    • C. 

      Cholesterol is taken in by receptor-mediated endycytosis

    • D. 

      The nucleoli

  • 9. 
    as a cell grows, it's plasma membrane expands. does this membrane expansion involve endocytosis or exocytosis?
  • 10. 
    is the inside of teh plasma membrane negative or positive relative to its outside in a polarized membrane?
  • 11. 
    phagocytic cells gather in the lungs, particularly in the lungs of smokers. what is the connection?
  • 12. 
    what term is used to indicate signaling chemicals the bind to membrane receptors?which type of membrane receptor is more important in directing intracellular events by promoting formation of second messengers? 
    • A. 

      Liglands

    • B. 

      R protien

    • C. 

      G protien

    • D. 

      Metabolism

  • 13. 
    which organelle is the major site of ATP synthesis?
  • 14. 
    what are three organells involved in protein synthesis?
    • A. 

      Rough er

    • B. 

      Bibosome

    • C. 

      Gogli aparatus

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Only two of these, one is missing

  • 15. 
    how are microtubules and microfilaments related functionally?
    • A. 

      They maintain cell shape

    • B. 

      They are involved in organelle movements with in the cell and/or movements of the cell as a whole

    • C. 

      They increase the cells surface area for absorption

    • D. 

      They both vacation in Hawaii annually

  • 16. 
    of microfilaments, microtubles, or intermediate filaments, which is most important in maintaining cell shape?
    • A. 

      Microtubles

    • B. 

      Microfilaments

    • C. 

      Intermediate filaments

    • D. 

      None of them are more important than the other two.

  • 17. 
    if a cell ejects or looses it's nucleus, what is its fate and why?
    • A. 

      It free floats through the body

    • B. 

      It is doomed to die

    • C. 

      It will be unable to make proteins

    • D. 

      It will remain inactive until a protein picks it up and moves it to the right location

  • 18. 
    what is the role of the nuceoli?
    • A. 

      They provide the means to pack DNA in a compact orderly way

    • B. 

      Regulation and balance

    • C. 

      Nuceoli are the site of synthesis of ribosomal subunits

    • D. 

      Growth

  • 19. 
    what are the events occuring in prophase that are undone in telophase?
    • A. 

      Nucleoli disappear

    • B. 

      Spindle forms

    • C. 

      Coil forms

    • D. 

      Nuclear envelop breaks up

  • 20. 
    durring what phase of the cell cycle is DNA synthasized?
    • A. 

      S Phase

    • B. 

      G Phase

    • C. 

      G2 Phase

    • D. 

      S2 Phase

  • 21. 
    if one of the DNA strands being replicated "reads" CGAATG, what will be the base sequence of the corresponding DNA strand?
    • A. 

      TTACGG

    • B. 

      AATGCG

    • C. 

      GCTTAC

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 22. 
    what is the importance of the histone proteins present in the nucleus
    • A. 

      They give coded instructions for protein synthesis

    • B. 

      They make an entry site for TRNA at the ribosmoe

    • C. 

      Provide the means to pack DNA in a compact orderly way

    • D. 

      Play a role in gene regulation

  • 23. 
    what is the role of DNA in transcription?
    • A. 

      It attatches to misfolded, damaged or unneeded proteins tagging them for destruction

    • B. 

      DNA provides the coded instructions (is the template) for protein synthesis. Via the mRNA synthesized on it

    • C. 

      It tranesports nutrients, gasses, horomones and other substances through out the body

    • D. 

      It is a process of programed cell death

  • 24. 
    what are two body fluids that inhabit the extracellular space?
    • A. 

      Blood plasma

    • B. 

      Intersigital fluid

    • C. 

      Ubiquiting

    • D. 

      Apoptosis

  • 25. 
    what is the importance of ubiquitin in the life of a cell?
    • A. 

      It is a process of programed cell death

    • B. 

      It includes structures and functions common to all cells

    • C. 

      It attaches to miss-folded damaged, or unneeded proteins, tagging them for destruction by proteasomes.

    • D. 

      It provides the coded instructions (is the template) for protein synthesis

  • 26. 
    what is the wear and tear theory of aging?
    • A. 

      Attributes aging to little chemical insults

    • B. 

      Free radicals which have cumulative detrimental effects

    • C. 

      Negative feedback mechanism

    • D. 

      If you work to hard, your face will wrinkle more than it normally would have if you would have relaxed more in life.

  • 27. 
    which of the following is true concerning the meaning of a "generalized cell"?
    • A. 

      It is the cell concept that includes structures and functions common to all cells

    • B. 

      Cells are generally located all over the body

  • 28. 
    what is apoptosis and what is its importance in the body?
    • A. 

      It attaches to miss-folded, damaged or unneeded proteins

    • B. 

      It tags them for destruction by proteasomes

    • C. 

      It is a process of programed cell death

    • D. 

      It rids the body of cells that are stressed, damaged, old, or no longer needed.

  • 29. 
    what basic structure do all cellular membranes share?
    • A. 

      They consist of a single layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded

    • B. 

      They consist of a double layer of phospholipids for which proteins are created

    • C. 

      None of these

    • D. 

      They consist of a double layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded

  • 30. 
    the ____ is the structural and functional unit of life
  • 31. 
    the activity of an _______ depends on the activities of its cells.
  • 32. 
    the activities of cells depend on their _____ and _______ ________ of subcellular structures.
  • 33. 
    ________ of life, has a cellular basis.
  • 34. 
    why do phospholipids, which form the greater part of membranes, organize into a bilayer tail-to-tailin a watery environment?
    • A. 

      Hydrophobic regions (heads of phospholipids) orient away from each other

    • B. 

      Hydrophobic regions (tails of phospholipids) orient toward each other

    • C. 

      Hydrophilic regions (phospholipid heads) orient to the aqueous fluid inside and outside the cell

    • D. 

      Hydrophilic regions (phospholipid tails) orient to the aqueous fluid outside and inside the cell