Environment And Ecology: Previous Year Questions

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Environment And Ecology: Previous Year Questions

Environment is the immediate surrounding of living organisms while ecology is the study of living organisms in their environments. The Environment and Ecology quiz below assesses these two topics as one. See how much you know.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Consider the following1. Star tortoise2. Monitor lizard3. Pygmy hog4. Spider monkeyWhich of the above found in India?
    • A. 

      1, 2 and 3 only

    • B. 

      2 and 3 only

    • C. 

      1 and 4 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 2. 
    Which of the following can be found as pollutants in the drinking water in some parts of India? 1. Arsenic2. Sorbitol3. Fluoride4. Formaldehyde5. UraniumSelect the correct answer using the codes given below.
    • A. 

      1 and 3 only

    • B. 

      2, 4 and 5 only

    • C. 

      1, 3 and 5 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

  • 3. 
    Consider the following animals:1. Sea cow2. Sea horse3. Sea lionWhich of the above is/are mammal/mammals?
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      1 and 3 only

    • C. 

      2 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      insects and fungi

    • B. 

      Limited sunlight and paucity of nutrients

    • C. 

      Water limits and fire

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 5. 
    • A. 

      Ocean, lakes, grasslands, mangroves

    • B. 

      Mangroves, ocean, grasslands, lakes

    • C. 

      Mangroves, grasslands, lakes, ocean

    • D. 

      Ocean, mangroves, lakes, grasslands

  • 6. 
    Acid rain is caused by the pollution of environment by
    • A. 

      Carbon dioxide and nitrogen

    • B. 

      Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    • C. 

      Ozone and carbon dioxide

    • D. 

      Nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide

  • 7. 
    With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the following statements: 1. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.2. Food chains are found within the populations of a species.3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are eaten by others.Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      1 and 2 only

    • C. 

      1, 2 and 3

    • D. 

      None

  • 8. 
    In which of the following States is lion-tailed macaque found in its natural habitat? 1. Tamil Nadu2. Kerala3. Karnataka4. Andhra PradeshSelect the correct answer using the codes given below
    • A. 

      1, 2 and 3 only

    • B. 

      2 only

    • C. 

      1, 3 and 4 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 9. 
    Which one of the following terms describes not only the physical space occupied by an organism, but also its functional role in the community of organisms?
    • A. 

      Ecotone

    • B. 

      Ecological niche

    • C. 

      Habitat

    • D. 

      Home range

  • 10. 
    Photochemical smog is a resultant of the reaction among
    • A. 

      NO2, 03 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight

    • B. 

      CO, 02 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight

    • C. 

      CO, CO2 and N02 at low temperature

    • D. 

      High concentration of N02, O3 and CO in the evening

  • 11. 
    With reference to the food chains in ecosystems, which of the following kinds of organism is / are known as decomposer organism/organisms? 1. Virus2. Fungi3. BacteriaSelect the correct answer using the codes given below.
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      2 and 3 only

    • C. 

      1 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 12. 
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      2 and 3 only

    • C. 

      1 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 13. 
    Consider the following fauna of India:1.Gharial2.Leatherback turtle3.Swamp deerWhich of the above is/are endangered?
    • A. 

      1 and 2 only

    • B. 

      3 only

    • C. 

      1, 2 and 3

    • D. 

      None

  • 14. 
    Which of the following leaf modifications occurs/occur in desert areas to inhibit water loss? 1. Hard and waxy leaves2. Tiny leaves or no leaves3. Thorns instead of leavesSelect the correct answer using the codes given below.
    • A. 

      1 and 2 only

    • B. 

      2 only

    • C. 

      1 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 15. 
    How does National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) help in protecting the Indian agriculture?1. NBA checks the biopiracy and protects the indigenous and traditional genetic resources.2. NBA directly monitors and supervises the scientific research on genetic modification of crop plants.3. Application for Intellectual Property Rights related to genetic/biological resources cannot be made without the approval of NBA.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      2 and 3 only

    • C. 

      1 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 16. 
    The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 was enacted in consonance with which of the following provisions of the constitution of India?1. Right to healthy environment, construed as a part of Right to life under Article 212. Provision of grants for raising the level of administration in the Scheduled Tribes under Article 275(1).3. Power and functions of Gram Sabha as mentioned under Article 243 (A)Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      2 and 3 only

    • C. 

      1 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 17. 
    Consider the following kinds of organisms:1. Bacteria2. Fungi3. Flowering PlantsSome species of which of the above kinds of organisms are employed as biopesticides?
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      2 and 3 only

    • C. 

      1 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 18. 
    Lead, ingested or inhaled, is a health hazard. After the addition of lead to petrol has been banned, what still are the sources of lead poisoning?1. Smelting Units2. Pens and pencils3. Hair oils and cosmeticsSelect the correct answer using the codes given below:
    • A. 

      1, 2 and 3 only

    • B. 

      1 and 3 only

    • C. 

      2 and 4 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 19. 
    The acidification of ocean is increasing. Why is this phenomenon a cause of concern?1. The growth and survival of calcareous phytoplankton will be adversely affected.2. The growth and survival of coral reefs will be adversely affected.3. The survival of some animals that have phytoplanktonic larvae will be adversely affected.4. The cloud seeding and formation of clouds will be adversely affected.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    • A. 

      1, 2 and 3 only

    • B. 

      2 only

    • C. 

      1 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 20. 
    • A. 

      1, 2 and 3 only

    • B. 

      2 and 3 only

    • C. 

      And 4 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 21. 
    • A. 

      1 and 2 only

    • B. 

      3 and 4 only

    • C. 

      1, 2 and 4 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 22. 
    Consider the following protected areas:1. Bandipur2. Bhitarkanika3. Manas4. SunderbanWhich of the above are declared Tiger Reserves?
    • A. 

      1 and 2 only

    • B. 

      1, 3 and 4 only

    • C. 

      2, 3 and 4 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 23. 
    In which one among the following categories of protected areas in India are local people not allowed to collect and use the biomass?
    • A. 

      Biosphere Reserves

    • B. 

      National Parks

    • C. 

      Wetlands declared under Ramsar Convention

    • D. 

      Wildlife Sanctuaries

  • 24. 
    Which one of the following groups of animals belongs to the category of endangered species?
    • A. 

      Great Indian Bustard, Musk Deer, Red Panda and Asiatic Wild Ass

    • B. 

      Kashmir Stag, Cheetal, Blue Bull and Great Indian Bustard

    • C. 

      Snow Leopard, Swamp Deer, Rhesus Monkey, and Saras (Crane)

    • D. 

      Lion-tailed Macaque, Blue Bull, Hanuman Langur and Cheetal

  • 25. 
    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment describes the following major categories of ecosystem services-provisioning, supporting regulating, preserving and cultural which one of the following is supporting services?
    • A. 

      Production of food and water

    • B. 

      Control of climate and disease

    • C. 

      Nutrient cycling and pollination

    • D. 

      Maintenance of diversity

  • 26. 
    What is the difference between the antelopes Oryx and Chiru?
    • A. 

      Oryx is adapted to live in hot and arid areas whereas Chiru is adapted to live in steppes and semidesert areas of cold high mountains

    • B. 

      Oryx is poached for its antlers whereas Chiru is poached for its musk

    • C. 

      Oryx exists in western India only whereas Chiru exists in north-east India only

    • D. 

      None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct

  • 27. 
    Which of the following can be threats to the biodiversity of a geographical area?1. Global warming2. Fragmentation of habitat3. Invasion of alien species4. Promotion of vegetarianismSelect the correct answer using the codes given below:
    • A. 

      1, 2 and 3 only

    • B. 

      2 and 3 only

    • C. 

      1 and 4 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 28. 
    Consider the following:1. Black-necked crane2. Cheetah3. Flying squirrel4. Snow leopardWhich of the above are naturally found in India?
    • A. 

      1, 2 and 3 only

    • B. 

      1, 3 and 4 only

    • C. 

      2 and 4 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 29. 
    What would happen if phytoplankton of an ocean is completely destroyed for some reason?1. The ocean as a carbon sink would be adversely affected.2. The food chains in the ocean would be adversely affected.3. The density of ocean water would drastically decrease.Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
    • A. 

      1 and 2 only

    • B. 

      2 only

    • C. 

      3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 30. 
    Vultures which used to be very common in Indian countryside some years ago are rarely seen nowadays. This is attributed to
    • A. 

      The destruction of their nesting sites by new invasive species

    • B. 

      A drug used by cattle owners for treating their diseased cattle

    • C. 

      Scarcity of food available to them

    • D. 

      A widespread, persistent and fatal disease among them

  • 31. 
    Consider the following:-1. Carbon dioxide2. Oxides of Nitrogen3. Oxides of SulphurWhich of the above is/are the emission/emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants?
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      2 and 3 only

    • C. 

      1 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 32. 
    The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic region has been a cause of concern. What could be the reason for the formation of this hole?
    • A. 

      Presence of prominent tropo-spheric turbulence; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons

    • B. 

      Presence of .prominent polar front and stratospheric': Clouds; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons

    • C. 

      Absence of polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of methane and chlorofluorocarbons

    • D. 

      Increased temperature at polar region due to global warming

  • 33. 
    Regarding "carbon credits", which one of the following statements is not correct?
    • A. 

      The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol

    • B. 

      Carbon credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced greenhouse gases below their emission quota

    • C. 

      The goal of the carbon credit system is to limit the increase of carbon dioxide emission

    • D. 

      Carbon credits are traded at a price fixed from time to time by the United Nations Environment Programme

  • 34. 
    Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition of Western Ghats-Sri Lanka and Indo-Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity:1. Species richness2. Vegetation density3. Endemism.4. Ethno-botanical importance5. Threat perception6. Adaptation of flora and fauna to warm arid humid conditionsWhich three of the above are correct criteria in this context?
    • A. 

      1,2 and 6

    • B. 

      2,4 and 6

    • C. 

      1,3 and 5

    • D. 

      3,4 and 6

  • 35. 
    Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of1. Its escape into the outer strato-sphere.2. The photosynthesis by phyto-plankton in the oceans3. The trapping of air in the polar ice capsWhich of the statements given above is/are correct?
    • A. 

      1 and 2

    • B. 

      2 only

    • C. 

      2 and 3 only

    • D. 

      3 only

  • 36. 
    In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine upwelling zones are important as they increase the marine productivity by bringing the 1. decomposer microorganisms to the surface.2. nutrients to the surface.3. bottom-dwelling organisms to the surface.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    • A. 

      1 and 2

    • B. 

      2 only

    • C. 

      2 and 3

    • D. 

      3 only

  • 37. 
    If a tropical rain forest is removed, it does not regenerate quickly as compared to a tropical deciduous forest. This is because
    • A. 

      The soil of rain forest is deficient in nutrients

    • B. 

      Propagules of the trees in a rain forest have poor viability

    • C. 

      The rain forest species are slow- growing

    • D. 

      Exotic species invade the fertile soil of rain forest

  • 38. 
    The Himalayan Range is very rich in species diversity. Which one among the following is the most appropriate reason for this Phenomenon?
    • A. 

      It has a high rainfall that supports luxuriant vegetative growth

    • B. 

      It is a confluence of different bio-geographical zones

    • C. 

      Exotic and invasive species have riot been introduced in this region

    • D. 

      It has less human interference

  • 39. 
    With reference to India, consider the following Central Acts:1. Import and Export (Control) Act, 19472. Mining and Mineral Development (Regulation) Act, 19573. Customs Act, 19624. Indian Forest Act, 1927Which of the above Acts have relevance to/bearing on the biodiversity conservation in the country?
    • A. 

      1 and 3 only

    • B. 

      2, 3 and 4 only

    • C. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

    • D. 

      None of the above Acts

  • 40. 
    There is a concern over the increase in harmful algal blooms in the seawaters of India. What could be the causative factors for this phenomenon?1. Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries.2. Run-off from the land during the monsoon.3. Upwelling in the seas.Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
    • A. 

      1 only

    • B. 

      1 and 2 only

    • C. 

      2 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2 and 3

  • 41. 
    A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian animal species. The animal has no predators in that area but its existence is threatened due to the destruction of its habitat. Which one of the following could be that animal?
    • A. 

      Indian wild buffalo

    • B. 

      Indian wild ass

    • C. 

      Indian wild boar

    • D. 

      Indian gazelle

  • 42. 
    Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways:1. Soil formation2. Prevention of soil erosion3. Recycling of waste4. Pollination of cropsSelect the correct answer using the codes given below:
    • A. 

      1, 2 and 3 only

    • B. 

      2, 3 and 4 only

    • C. 

      1 and 4 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 43. 
    Recently, "oil zapper" was in the news. What is it?
    • A. 

      It is an eco-friendly technology for the remediation of oily sludge and oil spills

    • B. 

      It is the latest technology developed for under-sea oil exploration

    • C. 

      It is a genetically engineered high bio fuel-yielding maize variety

    • D. 

      It is the latest technology to control the accidentally caused flames from oil wells

  • 44. 
    Which one of the following is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora?
    • A. 

      Biosphere Reserve

    • B. 

      Botanical Garden

    • C. 

      National Park

    • D. 

      Wildlife Sanctuary

  • 45. 
    The 2004 Tsunami made people realize that mangroves can serve as a reliable safety hedge against coastal calamities. How do mangroves function as a safety hedge?
    • A. 

      The mangrove swamps separate the human settlements from the sea by a wide zone in which people neither live nor venture out

    • B. 

      The mangroves provide both food and medicines which people are in need of after any natural disaster

    • C. 

      The mangrove trees are tall with dense canopies and serve as an excellent shelter during a cyclone or tsunami

    • D. 

      The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots

  • 46. 
    The "Red Data Books" published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) contain lists of1. Endemic plant and animal species present in the biodiversity hotspots.2. Threatened plant and animal species.3. Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural resources. In various countries.Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
    • A. 

      1 and 3

    • B. 

      2 only

    • C. 

      2 and 3

    • D. 

      3 only