8th Grade Interim Assessment #1 Intervention - 8.1.4

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8th Grade Interim Assessment #1 Intervention - 8.1.4 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Ideas about Government      The American colonies had taken a bold step in declaring their independence from Great Britain in July 1776. Their next political goal was to form a new government. To do so, the American people drew from a wide range of political ideas from England, the Enlightenment Era and even the Romans! Rome's Influence on government      It was during the Roman Empire that the term republic will be used.  The government term republic means citizens elect other people who will represent them in government.  America will use the republic idea as their foundation for their new government. English Laws and the Enlightenment      One source of inspiration was English law. England had limited the power of its kings and queens in two documents. These were Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights. Magna Carta, a document signed by King John in 1215, made the king subject to law.  The Magna Carta was the first document to limit a leader's power and force them to obey the same laws as the citizens.  Another source of inspiration for the creation of America's new government was the English Bill of Rights, passed in 1689, which declared the supremacy of Parliament. This means that the English Bill of Rights kept the king or queen from passing new taxes or changing laws without Parliament’s consent. As a result, the people’s representatives had a strong voice in England’s government.  It was after England's Glorious Revolution and the implementation of the English Bill of Rights, that England's legislative branch of government, Parliament, was strengthened.  It is England's Parliament which will be further inspiration for the creation of America's legislative branch.      Americans were also influenced by the Enlightenment time period—a philosophical movement that emphasized the use of reason to examine old ideas and traditions.  Some Enlightenment thinkers only challenged the idea of rule by divine right. Others went further. They developed some completely new ideas about how governments should work. Three of these thinkers— Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau—tried to identify the best possible form of government. The ideas of these Enlightenment thinkers contributed to the creation of modern democracy and had a tremendous effect on the forming of America's new government. Enlightenment Thinkers The ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau contributed to the creation of modern democracy. John Locke 1632–1704
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    Government’s power is limited.
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    People have natural rights, such as life, liberty, and property. Charles-Louis Montesquieu 1689–1755
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    The powers of government should be separated into separate branches. Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712 –1778
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    Governments should express the will of the people.
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    People enter into a social contract with their government,giving it the right to create and enforce laws.  

  • 2. 

    1. The idea of separation of powers, or a three branch government system was the idea of which Enlightenment thinker?

    • A.

      A. Kepler

    • B.

      B. Montesquieu

    • C.

      C. Locke

    • D.

      D. Rousseau

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Montesquieu
    Explanation
    Montesquieu is credited with the idea of the separation of powers, which refers to the division of government into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. This system ensures a balance of power and prevents any one branch from becoming too powerful. Montesquieu's ideas greatly influenced the formation of modern democratic governments, including the United States.

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  • 3. 

    2. America will base their Legislative Branch on

    • A.

      A. English Parliament

    • B.

      B. Roman republic

    • C.

      C. French Estates General

    • D.

      D. Locke's social contract

    Correct Answer
    A. A. English Parliament
    Explanation
    America will base their Legislative Branch on the English Parliament because the American system of government was heavily influenced by British political institutions. The English Parliament, with its two houses, the House of Commons and the House of Lords, served as a model for the creation of the United States Congress, which also consists of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The American Founding Fathers drew inspiration from the English Parliament's system of checks and balances and representative democracy, making it the most logical choice for the basis of America's Legislative Branch.

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  • 4. 

    3. The historical document that limited a leader's power and made him/her subject to law was the

    • A.

      A. English Bill of Rights

    • B.

      B. Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    • C.

      C. Magna Carta

    • D.

      D. Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Magna Carta
    Explanation
    The Magna Carta was a historical document that limited a leader's power and made him/her subject to law. It was signed in 1215 by King John of England and established the principle that even the king was not above the law. The Magna Carta granted certain rights to the nobles and limited the king's ability to impose taxes and make decisions without consulting his advisors. It laid the foundation for the concept of constitutional law and influenced the development of democratic principles in England and other countries.

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  • 5. 

    4.  The biggest impact of the writing of the English Bill of Rights is

    • A.

      A. power of authority went to the monarchs

    • B.

      B. power of authority went to Parliament

    • C.

      C. power of authority went to the church

    • D.

      D. all of the above; powers were shared

    Correct Answer
    B. B. power of authority went to Parliament
    Explanation
    The correct answer is b. power of authority went to Parliament. The English Bill of Rights, enacted in 1689, was a significant turning point in the balance of power between the monarchy and Parliament. It established that the monarch's authority was subject to the law and required the consent of Parliament. This shift of power allowed Parliament to have more control over decision-making and limited the monarch's ability to rule without accountability. The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy that exists in the United Kingdom today.

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  • 6. 

    6. The Enlightenment idea of natural, basic rights of life, liberty, and property was by

    • A.

      A. Montesquieu

    • B.

      B. Rousseau

    • C.

      C. Voltaire

    • D.

      D. Locke

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Locke
    Explanation
    John Locke was a prominent philosopher during the Enlightenment era who developed the concept of natural rights, including the rights to life, liberty, and property. His ideas greatly influenced the formation of modern democratic societies and are considered foundational to the concept of human rights. Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire were also influential Enlightenment thinkers, but they did not specifically focus on the concept of natural rights in the same way that Locke did.

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