Elevated serum calcium.
Low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Elevated serum vitamin D.
Low urine calcium.
A diet high in grains.
A diet with adequate caloric intake.
A high protein diet
A restricted sodium diet
Partial thromboplastin time.
Sexual contact with an infected partner.
Illegal drug use
A history of hepatitis C five years previously
Cholecystitis requiring cholecystectomy one year previously.
Crohn's disease in remission.