Concepts Of Clinical Biochemistry! Trivia Quiz

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Concepts Of Clinical Biochemistry! Trivia Quiz - Quiz

Clinical Biochemistry is the division of laboratory medicine that deals with the measurement of both natural and unnatural chemicals in blood, urine and other several body fluids. These test results are very useful for diagnosing health problems, determining prognosis and properly guiding the therapy of a patient. This short quiz is to test your knowledge regarding this aspect of medical importance.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Free radicals contain one or more paired electrons in the bonding  orbital.  Is the above statement true?

    • A. 

      Absolutely

    • B. 

      No, it isn't 

    • C. 

      It varies 

    • D. 

      Somehow 

    Correct Answer
    B. No, it isn't 
    Explanation
    The statement is false. Free radicals actually contain unpaired electrons in the bonding orbital, not paired electrons. This makes them highly reactive and unstable.

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  • 2. 

    Commonly, oxygen accepts how many electrons?

    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      7

    Correct Answer
    A. 4
    Explanation
    Oxygen commonly accepts 4 electrons. Oxygen has 6 electrons in its outermost shell and requires 2 more electrons to complete its octet. Therefore, it accepts 4 electrons from other elements to achieve stability and form compounds.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is the most important source of free radicals?

    • A. 

      Neutrophils

    • B. 

      Monocytes-macrophages

    • C. 

      Mitochondrial respiratory chain

    • D. 

      Xenobiotic detoxification

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondrial respiratory chain
    Explanation
    The most important source of free radicals is the mitochondrial respiratory chain. During the process of oxidative phosphorylation, electrons leak from the electron transport chain, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. These ROS can cause oxidative damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, leading to various pathological conditions. Neutrophils and monocytes-macrophages can also produce free radicals as part of their immune response, but the mitochondrial respiratory chain is considered the primary source of free radicals in the cell. Xenobiotic detoxification is not a significant source of free radicals.

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  • 4. 

    Nitric oxide is generated from which of the following?

    • A. 

      L-arginine

    • B. 

      NO synthase 

    • C. 

      Neurons 

    • D. 

      Endothelium

    Correct Answer
    A. L-arginine
    Explanation
    Nitric oxide is generated from L-arginine. L-arginine is converted into nitric oxide through the action of the enzyme NO synthase. Nitric oxide is produced by various cells in the body, including neurons and endothelial cells. It plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes such as vasodilation, neurotransmission, and immune response.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following refers to substances working against the generation and effect of free radicals?

    • A. 

      Antioxidants 

    • B. 

      Enzymes 

    • C. 

      Substrates 

    • D. 

      Carotenoids 

    Correct Answer
    A. Antioxidants 
    Explanation
    Antioxidants are substances that work against the generation and effect of free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells and contribute to aging and disease. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals by donating an electron, thus preventing them from causing harm. They help protect the body from oxidative stress and promote overall health and well-being.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following isn't an example of hydrophilic? 

    • A. 

      Thiols 

    • B. 

      Uric acid 

    • C. 

      Ferritin

    • D. 

      Selenium

    Correct Answer
    D. Selenium
    Explanation
    Selenium is not an example of hydrophilic because it is a nonpolar element that does not readily dissolve in water or interact with water molecules. Hydrophilic substances, on the other hand, have an affinity for water and are capable of forming hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Thiols, uric acid, and ferritin are examples of hydrophilic substances as they can dissolve or interact with water.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following doesn't refer to the effect of oxidative stress on the structure of biologically important compounds?

    • A. 

      Fragmentation

    • B. 

      Cross-linking

    • C. 

      Aggregation

    • D. 

      Hydrophobicity

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydrophobicity
    Explanation
    Hydrophobicity refers to the tendency of a molecule to repel or avoid water. It does not directly refer to the effect of oxidative stress on the structure of biologically important compounds. Oxidative stress can cause fragmentation, cross-linking, and aggregation of these compounds, leading to structural damage and functional impairment.

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  • 8. 

    In lipids, which of the following are most prone to radical reactions?

    • A. 

      Waxes

    • B. 

      Vitamins

    • C. 

      Hormones

    • D. 

      Fatty acids

    Correct Answer
    D. Fatty acids
    Explanation
    Fatty acids are most prone to radical reactions in lipids. This is because they contain a long hydrocarbon chain, which makes them susceptible to oxidation and free radical attacks. The presence of double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids further increases their reactivity towards radicals. Radicals can cause lipid peroxidation, leading to the production of harmful byproducts and damage to cell membranes. In contrast, waxes, vitamins, and hormones do not typically contain long hydrocarbon chains or unsaturated bonds, making them less susceptible to radical reactions.

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  • 9. 

    What is the specific role of inflammatory reaction?

    • A. 

      Respiratory burst of phagocytes 

    • B. 

      Steroid hydroxylation

    • C. 

      Xenobiotic metabolism

    • D. 

      Intracellular signalling

    Correct Answer
    A. Respiratory burst of phagocytes 
    Explanation
    The specific role of inflammatory reaction is the respiratory burst of phagocytes. During inflammation, phagocytes release reactive oxygen species (ROS) through a process called respiratory burst. This burst helps phagocytes to kill and eliminate pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, by damaging their cell membranes. The release of ROS is an important defense mechanism of the immune system during an inflammatory response.

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  • 10. 

    Is it true that breast-fed newborns generally have higher serum bilirubin concentrations?

    • A. 

      Yes, it is

    • B. 

      No, it isn't 

    • C. 

      It's rare 

    • D. 

      It's partially true

    Correct Answer
    A. Yes, it is
    Explanation
    Breast-fed newborns generally have higher serum bilirubin concentrations. This is because breast milk contains substances that can increase the production of bilirubin in the baby's body. Additionally, breast milk is easier to digest, leading to more frequent bowel movements, which helps eliminate bilirubin from the body. Therefore, breast-fed newborns may have higher levels of bilirubin in their blood compared to formula-fed newborns.

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