1.
What is zeroth-order logic also known as?
Correct Answer
A. Primal logic
Explanation
Zeroth-order logic, also known as primal logic, is a term sometimes used to refer to a basic and foundational level of logical reasoning that precedes more formalized systems like first-order logic and higher-order logic. This terminology is not as widely used or standardized as the terms for higher-order logic.
2.
Which of the following statements is true about zeroth-order logic?
Correct Answer
D. It does not allow for any quantification.
Explanation
Zeroth-order logic is a basic form of logic that typically deals with simple, atomic propositions and does not include quantifiers, such as those used in higher-order logic. Quantification is the process of expressing "for all" or "there exists" statements, and these are features introduced in higher-order logic, not in the more elementary zeroth-order logic.
3.
What is the expressive power of zeroth-order logic compared to higher-order logic?
Correct Answer
B. Less expressive
Explanation
Zeroth-order logic is less expressive than higher-order logics because it lacks certain features found in these more advanced systems, such as quantification over sets, functions, or higher-level properties. In zeroth-order logic, propositions are typically atomic and lack the complexity introduced by variables and quantifiers found in higher-order logics.
4.
What is the complexity class of zeroth-order logic?
Correct Answer
A. P
Explanation
Zeroth-order logic, being a relatively simple and elementary form of logic, falls within the polynomial-time complexity class P. It does not involve the complexities associated with quantifiers or higher-order logical structures that can lead to higher computational complexities.
5.
In zeroth-order logic, can we express statements like 'All men are mortal'?
Correct Answer
D. Not applicable to zeroth-order logic
Explanation
Zeroth-order logic typically deals with simple, atomic propositions and lacks the expressive power to capture universal quantification, which is needed to express statements about all members of a certain class (e.g., all men). Expressing such statements requires the use of quantifiers, which are introduced in higher-order logic like first-order logic. Therefore, the correct answer is "Not applicable to zeroth-order logic."
6.
What is the primary focus of zeroth-order logic?
Correct Answer
A. Syntax and proof theory
Explanation
Zeroth-order logic is primarily concerned with the syntax of logical statements and the development of proof theory for manipulating and establishing the validity of logical expressions. It deals with the formal rules governing the construction of well-formed formulas and the principles guiding deductive reasoning without delving into the complexities introduced by quantifiers or higher-order structures.
7.
Which of the following is NOT a connective used in zeroth-order logic?
Correct Answer
D. IMP (implication)
Explanation
In zeroth-order logic, the connective that is NOT used is: IMP (implication)
Zeroth-order logic typically deals with simple atomic propositions and does not include the implication connective (→) or other complex logical connectives. The logic focuses on basic atomic propositions without introducing the more intricate structures found in higher-order logic.
8.
What is the principle of explosion also known as?
Correct Answer
A. Ex falso quodlibet
Explanation
The principle of explosion is also known as ex falso quodlibet, which means 'from falsehood, anything follows.’ It is a law of classical logic, intuitionistic logic, and similar logical systems. This principle states that any statement can be proven from a contradiction. So, the correct answer is ex falso quodlibet.
9.
Under zeroth-order logic, is the Law of Excluded Middle valid?
Correct Answer
A. Yes
Explanation
Yes, under zeroth-order logic, also known as propositional logic, the Law of Excluded Middle is valid. This law states that for any proposition, either that proposition is true or its negation is true. So, the correct answer is Yes.
10.
Which branch of philosophy is closely related to zeroth-order logic?
Correct Answer
A. Epistemology
Explanation
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, scope, and limits of human knowledge. Zeroth-order logic, being a foundational and basic form of logic, is often associated with epistemological considerations related to reasoning, deduction, and the structure of knowledge. It provides a basis for understanding and formalizing the principles of logical inference, which is essential in the pursuit of knowledge and the analysis of the nature of knowledge itself.