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Biology - Chapters 6-11

31 Questions
Biology - Chapters 6-11

These are all of the questions from our tests on chapters 6-11. Enjoy.

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following describe(s) some aspect of metabolism?
    • A. 

      Synthesis of macromolecules

    • B. 

      Breakdown of macromolecules

    • C. 

      Control of enzyme activity

    • D. 

      A and B only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C

  • 2. 
    Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down larege molecules into smaller ones?
    • A. 

      Catalysis

    • B. 

      Metabolism

    • C. 

      Anabolism

    • D. 

      Dehydration

    • E. 

      Catabolism

  • 3. 
    Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) catabolic pathways?
    • A. 

      They do not depend on enzymes.

    • B. 

      They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.

    • C. 

      They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers.

    • D. 

      They lead to the synthesis of catabolic pathways.

    • E. 

      Both A and B

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics?
    • A. 

      Energy cannot be created or destroyed.

    • B. 

      The entropy of the universe is decreasing.

    • C. 

      The entropy of the universe is constant.

    • D. 

      Kinetic energy is stored energy that results from the specific arrangement of matter.

    • E. 

      Energy cannot be transferred or transformed.

  • 5. 
    Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the
    • A. 

      Free energy of the system.

    • B. 

      Free energy of the universe.

    • C. 

      Entropy of the system.

    • D. 

      Entropy of the universe.

    • E. 

      Enthalpy of the universe.

  • 6. 
    Which of the following forms of energy is least available to accomplish cellular work?
    • A. 

      Light energy

    • B. 

      Electrical energy

    • C. 

      Thermal energy (heat)

    • D. 

      Mechanical energy

    • E. 

      Potential energy

  • 7. 
    What is the change in free energy of a system at chemical equilibrium?
    • A. 

      Slightly increasing

    • B. 

      Greatly increasing

    • C. 

      Slightly decreasing

    • D. 

      Greatly decreasing

    • E. 

      No net change

  • 8. 
    A chemical reaction that has a positive ΔG is correctly described as
    • A. 

      Endergonic.

    • B. 

      Endothermic.

    • C. 

      Enthalpic.

    • D. 

      Spontaneous.

    • E. 

      Exothermic.

  • 9. 
    ATP generally energizes a cellular process by
    • A. 

      Releasing heat upon hydrolysis.

    • B. 

      Acting as a catalyst.

    • C. 

      Coupling free energy released by ATP hydrolosis to free energy needed by other reactions.

    • D. 

      Breaking a high-energy bond.

    • E. 

      Binding directly to the substrate(s) of the enzyme.

  • 10. 
    What term is used to describe the transfer of free energy from catabolic pathways to anabolic pathways?
    • A. 

      Feedback regulation

    • B. 

      Bioenergetics

    • C. 

      Energy coupling

    • D. 

      Entropy

    • E. 

      Cooperativity

  • 11. 
    Sucrose is a disaccharide, composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. The hydrolosys of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase results in
    • A. 

      Bringing glucose and fructose together to form sucrose.

    • B. 

      The release of water from sucrose as the bond between glucose and fructose is broken.

    • C. 

      Breaking the bond between glucose and fructose and forming new bonds from the atoms of water.

    • D. 

      Production of water from the sugar as bonds are broken between the glucose monomers.

    • E. 

      Utilization of water as a covalent bond is formed between glucose and fructose to form sucrase.

  • 12. 
    Reactants capable of interacting to form products in a chemical reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the reaction's
    • A. 

      Entropy.

    • B. 

      Activation energy.

    • C. 

      Endothermic level.

    • D. 

      Heat content.

    • E. 

      Free-energy content.

  • 13. 
    Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true?
    • A. 

      Enzymes decrease the free energy change of a reaction.

    • B. 

      Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction.

    • C. 

      Enzymes change the direction of chemical reactions.

    • D. 

      Enzymes are permanently altered by the reactions they catalyze.

    • E. 

      Enzymes prevent changes in substrate concentrations.

  • 14. 
    An enzyme catalyzes a reaction by
    • A. 

      Supplying the energy needed to speed up a reaction.

    • B. 

      Lowering the energy of activation of a reaction.

    • C. 

      Lowering the ΔG of a reaction.

    • D. 

      Changing the equilibrium of a spontaneous reaction.

    • E. 

      Increasing the amount of free energy of a reaction.

  • 15. 
    During a laboratory experiment, you discover that an enzyme-catalyzed reaction has a ΔG of -20kcal/mol. If you double the amount of enzyme in the reaction, what will be the ΔG for the new reaction?
    • A. 

      -40 kcal/mol

    • B. 

      -20 kcal/mol

    • C. 

      0 kcal/mol

    • D. 

      +20 kcal/mol

    • E. 

      +40 kcal/mol

  • 16. 
    The active site of an enzyme is the region that
    • A. 

      Binds allosteric regulators of the enzyme.

    • B. 

      Is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme.

    • C. 

      Binds the products of the catalytic reaction.

    • D. 

      Is inhibited by the presence of a coenzyme or a cofactor.

    • E. 

      Both A and B

  • 17. 
    Many different things can alter enzyme activity. Which of the following underlie all types of enzyme regulation?
    • A. 

      Changes in the activation energy of the reaction

    • B. 

      Changes in the active site of the enzyme

    • C. 

      Changes in the free energy of the reaction

    • D. 

      A and B only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C

  • 18. 
    Which curve was most likely generated from analysis of an enzyme from a human stomach where conditions are strongly acid?
    • A. 

      Curve 1

    • B. 

      Curve 2

    • C. 

      Curve 3

    • D. 

      Curve 4

    • E. 

      Curve 5

  • 19. 
    Which curve was most likely generated from an enzyme that requires a cofactor?
    • A. 

      Curve 1

    • B. 

      Curve 2

    • C. 

      Curve 4

    • D. 

      Curve 5

    • E. 

      It is not possible to determine whether an enzyme requires a cofactor from these data.

  • 20. 
    What is a nonprotein "helper" of an enzyme molecule called?
    • A. 

      Accessory enzyme

    • B. 

      Allosteric group

    • C. 

      Coenzyme

    • D. 

      Functional group

    • E. 

      Enzyme activator

  • 21. 
    Zinc, an essential trace element for most organisms, is present in the active site of the enzyme carboxypeptidase. The zinc most likely functions as a(n)
    • A. 

      Competitive inhibitor of the enzyme.

    • B. 

      Noncompetitive inhibitor of the enzyme.

    • C. 

      Allosteric activator of the enzyme.

    • D. 

      Cofactor necessary for enzyme activity.

    • E. 

      Coenzyme derived from a vitamin.

  • 22. 
    Which of the following terms best describes the reaction?
    • A. 

      Endergonic

    • B. 

      Exergonic

    • C. 

      Anabolic

    • D. 

      Allosteric

    • E. 

      Nonspontaneous

  • 23. 
    Which of the following would be the same in an enzyme-catalyzed or noncatalyzed reaction?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E

  • 24. 
    A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X→Y→Z→A Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.What is substance X?
    • A. 

      A coenzyme

    • B. 

      An allosteric inhibitor

    • C. 

      A substrate

    • D. 

      An intermediate

    • E. 

      The product

  • 25. 
    A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X→Y→Z→A Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme. Substance A functions as
    • A. 

      A coenzyme.

    • B. 

      An allosteric inhibitor.

    • C. 

      The substrate.

    • D. 

      An intermediate.

    • E. 

      A competitive inhibitor.

  • 26. 
    If an enzyme is added to a solution where its substrates and products are in equilibrium, what would occur?
    • A. 

      Additional product would be formed.

    • B. 

      Additional substrate would be formed.

    • C. 

      The reaction would change from endergonic to exergonic.

    • D. 

      The free energy of the system would change.

    • E. 

      Nothing; the reaction would stay at equilibrium.

  • 27. 
    Some bacteria are metabolically active in hot springs because
    • A. 

      They are able to maintain a cooler internal temperature.

    • B. 

      High temperatures make catalysis unnecessary.

    • C. 

      Their enzymes have high optimal temperatures.

    • D. 

      Their enzymes are insensitive to temperature.

    • E. 

      They use molecules other than proteins as their man catalysts.

  • 28. 
    In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
    • A. 

      Potentiation

    • B. 

      Cellular respiration

    • C. 

      Digestion

    • D. 

      Anabolism

    • E. 

      Redox

  • 29. 
    What limits the resolving power of a light microscope?
    • A. 

      The type of lens used to magnify the object under study

    • B. 

      The shortest wavelength of light used to illuminate the specimen

    • C. 

      The type of lens that focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen

    • D. 

      The type of heavy metal or dye that is used to stain the specimen

    • E. 

      The ratio of an object's image to its real size

  • 30. 
    When biologists wish to study the internal ultrastructure of cells, they most likely would use
    • A. 

      A light microscope.

    • B. 

      A scanning electron microscope.

    • C. 

      A transmission electronic microscope.

    • D. 

      A and C only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C

  • 31. 
    The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that
    • A. 

      Light microscopy provides for higher magnification than electron microscopy.

    • B. 

      Light microscopy provides for higher resolving power than electron microscopy.

    • C. 

      Light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in living cells.

    • D. 

      Both A and B

    • E. 

      Both B and C