Zoology Final Exam 2

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Zoology Final Exam 2 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of centipedes? 

    • A.

      Flattened body with 1 pair of legs per segment

    • B.

      Open circulatory system with elongated heart and arteries

    • C.

      Carnivorous which kill prey with a pair of poison claws

    • D.

      Herbivores which feed mainly on decomposing plant matter

    • E.

      Separate sexes, females are egg layers

    Correct Answer
    D. Herbivores which feed mainly on decomposing plant matter
    Explanation
    Centipedes are not herbivores that feed mainly on decomposing plant matter. They are carnivorous creatures that kill their prey with a pair of poison claws. They have a flattened body with 1 pair of legs per segment, an open circulatory system with an elongated heart and arteries, and separate sexes, with females being egg layers.

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  • 2. 

    Millipedes belong to the subphylum ______ and the class _______.

    • A.

      Arthropoda; uniramia

    • B.

      Uniramia; chilopoda

    • C.

      Uniramia; diplopoda

    • D.

      Arthropoda; insecta

    • E.

      Uniramia; insect

    Correct Answer
    C. Uniramia; diplopoda
    Explanation
    Millipedes belong to the subphylum Uniramia and the class Diplopoda. Uniramia is a subphylum of arthropods that includes millipedes, centipedes, and insects. Diplopoda is the class specifically for millipedes, which are characterized by having two pairs of legs per body segment. This classification is based on the anatomical characteristics and evolutionary relationships of millipedes within the arthropod group.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following statements best describes insects?

    • A.

      A diverse group with habitats mainly in tropical regions

    • B.

      A group similar in abundance to the crustaceans

    • C.

      A large group that inhabits all parts of the planet

    • D.

      A diverse group with about 10 million different species

    • E.

      Tropical creatures with unusual characteristics

    Correct Answer
    D. A diverse group with about 10 million different species
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "A diverse group with about 10 million different species." This statement accurately describes insects as a diverse group with a vast number of species, estimated to be around 10 million. Insects are found in various habitats all over the world, not limited to tropical regions. While they are abundant, they are not necessarily similar in abundance to crustaceans. The statement does not mention any specific characteristics or habitats that would classify them as "tropical creatures with unusual characteristics."

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  • 4. 

    Insects are considered highly adaptable to many different environments because

    • A.

      They have numerous appendages

    • B.

      Their mouthparts are designed for specific types of food

    • C.

      They have an exoskeleton

    • D.

      Only A and b are true

    • E.

      A, B, and C are all true

    Correct Answer
    E. A, B, and C are all true
    Explanation
    Insects are considered highly adaptable to many different environments because they have numerous appendages, which allow them to move and interact with their surroundings effectively. Additionally, their mouthparts are designed for specific types of food, enabling them to feed on a wide range of resources available in different environments. Furthermore, insects have an exoskeleton, which provides protection and support, allowing them to thrive in various habitats. Therefore, all three statements (A, B, and C) are true and contribute to the adaptability of insects.

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  • 5. 

    An insect's body is composed of three segments. Each segment is covered by four plates called

    • A.

      Tergum

    • B.

      Pleura

    • C.

      Sclerites

    • D.

      Sternum

    • E.

      Armor

    Correct Answer
    C. Sclerites
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Sclerites. Sclerites are the plates that cover each segment of an insect's body. They provide protection and support to the insect's internal organs.

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  • 6. 

    The digestive system of insects is divided into 3 major sections. The foregut contains which of the following structures?

    • A.

      Mouth, esophagus, intestine

    • B.

      Mouth, crop, gizzard

    • C.

      Crop, gizzard, intestine

    • D.

      Crop, gizzard, stomach

    • E.

      Stomach, gastric ceca, intestine

    Correct Answer
    B. Mouth, crop, gizzard
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mouth, crop, gizzard. In the digestive system of insects, the foregut is the first section where the food enters. The mouth is responsible for ingesting the food, the crop is a storage organ where the food is temporarily stored, and the gizzard is a muscular organ that grinds the food into smaller pieces. Therefore, these structures are all part of the foregut in the digestive system of insects.

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  • 7. 

    If an insect is said to be phytophagous it could also be called

    • A.

      A carnivore

    • B.

      A saprophyte

    • C.

      A herbivore

    • D.

      A decomposer

    • E.

      A scavenger

    Correct Answer
    C. A herbivore
    Explanation
    If an insect is said to be phytophagous, it means that it feeds on plants. Therefore, it could also be called a herbivore, as herbivores specifically consume plant material. Carnivores feed on other animals, saprophytes obtain nutrients from dead organic matter, decomposers break down dead organisms, and scavengers consume dead animals. Therefore, none of these terms accurately describe an insect that is phytophagous.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following lists the correct thoracic segments in the correct order?

    • A.

      Prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax

    • B.

      Prothorax, metathorax, mesothorax

    • C.

      Prothorax, middlethorax, hind thorax

    • D.

      Head, thorax, abdomen

    • E.

      Prethorax, mesothorax, metathorax

    Correct Answer
    A. Prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax. The thoracic segments of an insect are typically divided into three sections: the prothorax, mesothorax, and metathorax. The prothorax is the first segment, located closest to the head, followed by the mesothorax and then the metathorax. This order is consistent across most insects and is important for understanding the anatomical structure and function of the insect's thorax.

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  • 9. 

    A specific parasite that always kills its host is called a 

    • A.

      Hyperparasite

    • B.

      Hypoparasite

    • C.

      Parasitoid

    • D.

      Saprophyte

    • E.

      A really good eater

    Correct Answer
    C. Parasitoid
    Explanation
    A parasitoid is a specific parasite that always kills its host. Unlike other parasites that may rely on their host for survival, a parasitoid ultimately causes the death of its host as part of its life cycle. This is usually achieved by consuming the host's tissues or resources, leading to the host's demise. Therefore, the correct answer is "Parasitoid."

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following best describes the circulatory system of insects?

    • A.

      An open system with numerous blood vessels

    • B.

      An open system with a single ventral blood vessel

    • C.

      An open system with a long tubular heart

    • D.

      A closed system with an intricate system of blood vessels

    • E.

      A closed system with an only tubular heart

    Correct Answer
    C. An open system with a long tubular heart
    Explanation
    The circulatory system of insects is described as an open system with a long tubular heart. In this system, the insect's blood, called hemolymph, is pumped by a long tubular heart that runs along the insect's dorsal side. The hemolymph flows freely through the body cavity, bathing the organs and tissues directly. This open system allows for efficient gas exchange and nutrient distribution throughout the insect's body.

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  • 11. 

    The respiratory system of insects is best described by which of the following statements

    • A.

      A tracheal system with an intricate system of branching tubes

    • B.

      A tracheal system with one large trachea

    • C.

      They have no respiratory system. they breathe through their exoskeleton

    • D.

      Book lungs connected to the outside via spiracles

    • E.

      Spiracle open to let air directly into the body

    Correct Answer
    A. A tracheal system with an intricate system of branching tubes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A tracheal system with an intricate system of branching tubes. Insects have a specialized respiratory system called tracheal system, which consists of a network of branching tubes called tracheae. These tracheae deliver oxygen directly to the cells of the insect's body. This system is highly efficient and allows for rapid gas exchange, enabling insects to meet their high metabolic demands.

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  • 12. 

    Gas exchange in most insects occurs within the 

    • A.

      Tracheae

    • B.

      Air sacs

    • C.

      Tracheoles

    • D.

      Tracheal gills

    • E.

      Book lungs

    Correct Answer
    C. Tracheoles
    Explanation
    Gas exchange in most insects occurs within the tracheoles. The tracheoles are tiny, branching tubes that extend throughout the body of the insect, delivering oxygen directly to the cells and removing carbon dioxide. These tracheoles are in close proximity to the cells, allowing for efficient exchange of gases through diffusion. The tracheae and air sacs are larger tubes that transport air throughout the insect's body, but gas exchange occurs at the level of the tracheoles. Tracheal gills are found in aquatic insects and are used for gas exchange in water. Book lungs are respiratory organs found in some arachnids, not insects.

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  • 13. 

    The main excretory organ found in insects is the

    • A.

      Nephridia

    • B.

      Large ventral kidney

    • C.

      Osmonephridia

    • D.

      Malpighian tubules

    • E.

      Gastric ceca

    Correct Answer
    D. Malpighian tubules
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Malpighian tubules. Malpighian tubules are the main excretory organs found in insects. They are long, slender tubes located in the digestive system, extending from the gut into the hemocoel (the insect's equivalent of a body cavity). These tubules remove waste products, such as uric acid, from the hemolymph (insect blood) and transport them to the gut for elimination. This process helps maintain the insect's water balance and prevents the accumulation of toxic waste products in their bodies.

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  • 14. 

    The tympanic membrane is

    • A.

      An auditory structure

    • B.

      An olfactory structure

    • C.

      A visual structure

    • D.

      A tactile structure

    • E.

      A chemoreceptor

    Correct Answer
    A. An auditory structure
    Explanation
    The tympanic membrane, also known as the eardrum, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane located in the ear. It plays a crucial role in the auditory system by vibrating in response to sound waves, which then transmits these vibrations to the middle ear. This allows for the amplification and transmission of sound to the inner ear and ultimately to the brain for interpretation. Therefore, the tympanic membrane is correctly identified as an auditory structure.

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  • 15. 

    Ommatidia are structures found in an insects

    • A.

      Abdomen

    • B.

      Walking legs

    • C.

      Simple eyes

    • D.

      Compound eyes

    • E.

      Mouth

    Correct Answer
    D. Compound eyes
    Explanation
    Ommatidia are structures found in the compound eyes of insects. Compound eyes are made up of many individual ommatidia, each containing a lens and a photoreceptor cell. These ommatidia work together to provide a mosaic image, allowing insects to have a wide field of view and detect movement in their surroundings. Therefore, the correct answer is compound eyes.

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  • 16. 

    A praying mantis is an example of an insect which undergoes

    • A.

      Direct metamorphosis

    • B.

      Hemimetabolous metamorphosis

    • C.

      Holometabolous metamorphosis

    • D.

      Hellametabolous metamorphosis

    • E.

      No metamorphosis at all

    Correct Answer
    B. Hemimetabolous metamorphosis
    Explanation
    A praying mantis is an example of an insect that undergoes hemimetabolous metamorphosis. Hemimetabolous metamorphosis is a type of incomplete metamorphosis where the insect goes through three distinct stages: egg, nymph, and adult. In this process, the nymphs resemble smaller versions of the adults and undergo gradual changes as they molt and grow. Unlike insects that undergo holometabolous metamorphosis, such as butterflies and beetles, the nymphs do not go through a pupal stage and there is no dramatic transformation from larvae to adult.

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  • 17. 

    Diapause is best described as

    • A.

      Hibernation

    • B.

      Estivation

    • C.

      A genetically determined period of dormancy

    • D.

      A period of dormancy determined by the weather

    • E.

      A period of dormancy determined by the abundance of food

    Correct Answer
    C. A genetically determined period of dormancy
    Explanation
    Diapause is a term used to describe a genetically determined period of dormancy. It is a state of reduced metabolic activity that is controlled by an organism's genes. During diapause, the organism enters a dormant phase in response to certain environmental cues or changes. This period of dormancy allows the organism to survive unfavorable conditions such as extreme temperatures or lack of food. Unlike hibernation or estivation, which are triggered by specific environmental factors, diapause is primarily regulated by an organism's genetic makeup.

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  • 18. 

    An instar is best described as

    • A.

      The period of time during which an insect molts

    • B.

      The length of time it takes an insect to molt

    • C.

      The stage in an insects life cycle when it forms a pupa

    • D.

      The navigation system used by insects to locate mates

    • E.

      The period of time in an insect's life cycle between molts

    Correct Answer
    E. The period of time in an insect's life cycle between molts
    Explanation
    An instar refers to the period of time in an insect's life cycle between molts. During this time, the insect undergoes growth and development before shedding its exoskeleton and entering the next stage of its life cycle. It is a crucial phase where the insect increases in size and undergoes physiological changes. This term is commonly used in entomology to describe the different stages of development in insects.

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  • 19. 

    A pheromone is

    • A.

      A chemical secreted by an insect to attract a mate

    • B.

      A chemical secreted by an insect to signal the beginning of hibernation

    • C.

      A chemical secreted by an insect to claim its territory

    • D.

      Only A is true

    • E.

      A, B, and C are all true

    Correct Answer
    E. A, B, and C are all true
  • 20. 

    Bioluminescence is a characteristic of

    • A.

      All insects

    • B.

      Only insects that fly

    • C.

      Only insects that glow

    • D.

      Only insects that exhibit warning coloration

    • E.

      This isn't a characteristic of insects. It applies to fish.

    Correct Answer
    C. Only insects that glow
    Explanation
    Bioluminescence refers to the ability of organisms to produce light through a chemical reaction. In this context, the correct answer is "Only insects that glow" because bioluminescence is a specific trait exhibited by certain insects, such as fireflies, glowworms, and certain species of beetles. While it is true that bioluminescence also exists in some fish species, the question specifically asks about insects, so the answer is limited to insects that possess the ability to glow.

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  • 21. 

    The endoskeleton of echinoderms is composed of

    • A.

      Keratin ossicles

    • B.

      Keratin spicules

    • C.

      Calcareous ossicles

    • D.

      Calcareous spicules

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Calcareous ossicles
    Explanation
    Echinoderms have an endoskeleton composed of calcareous ossicles. These ossicles are made of calcium carbonate and provide support and protection to the organism. They form a rigid framework that gives shape to the body and allows for muscle attachment. Calcareous ossicles are found in various forms depending on the specific echinoderm species, such as plates, rods, or spines. This strong and durable endoskeleton enables echinoderms to thrive in their marine environments.

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  • 22. 

    The ambulacral groove is found between the

    • A.

      Rows of tube feet

    • B.

      Layers of pedicellarie

    • C.

      Radial nerves

    • D.

      Row of dermal ossicles

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Rows of tube feet
    Explanation
    The ambulacral groove is found between the rows of tube feet in echinoderms. The tube feet are small, flexible, and hollow structures that are used for locomotion, feeding, and respiration. They extend out through the ambulacral groove, which is a groove or depression on the surface of the echinoderm's body. The rows of tube feet are arranged in a radial pattern, and the ambulacral groove runs along these rows, allowing the tube feet to extend and retract as needed for movement.

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  • 23. 

    The structures that keep the body surface clean of debris and protect the skin gills are called

    • A.

      Madreporites

    • B.

      Lateral podia

    • C.

      Dermal Brachiae

    • D.

      Pedicellariae

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Pedicellariae
    Explanation
    Pedicellariae are small pincer-like structures found on the body surface of certain marine animals, such as sea stars and sea urchins. These structures play a role in keeping the body surface clean of debris by capturing and removing foreign particles. They also serve as a protective mechanism for the skin and gills, helping to prevent the attachment of parasites or other organisms. Therefore, pedicellariae are the correct answer as they are the structures that fulfill these functions.

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  • 24. 

    The sieve like opening into the water vascular system is called the 

    • A.

      Madreporite

    • B.

      Lateral podia

    • C.

      Dermal Brachiae

    • D.

      Pedicellariae

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Madreporite
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Madreporite. The madreporite is a sieve-like opening in the exoskeleton of echinoderms, such as starfish and sea urchins, that connects to their water vascular system. It acts as a filter, allowing water to enter the system and circulate throughout the body. This opening is important for regulating the water balance and hydraulic pressure within the echinoderm's body, as well as for movement and feeding.

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  • 25. 

    Many echinoderms have two parts to the stomach; these two parts are the ______ and the ______.

    • A.

      Enzymatic, cacal

    • B.

      Cardiac, pyloric

    • C.

      Cecal, cardiac

    • D.

      Pyloric enzymatic

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Cardiac, pyloric
    Explanation
    Echinoderms, such as starfish and sea urchins, have a unique digestive system with two parts to the stomach. The first part is called the cardiac stomach, which receives food from the mouth and begins the digestion process. The partially digested food then moves into the second part, called the pyloric stomach, where further digestion and absorption of nutrients occur. Therefore, the correct answer is "Cardiac, pyloric".

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  • 26. 

    The echinoderms have the ability to regenerate lost parts; a sea star can regenerate almost an entirely new animal if it has one-fifth of the ______ and one ______.

    • A.

      Arms, half of the disc

    • B.

      Madreporite, side of an arm

    • C.

      Mouth, end of an arm

    • D.

      Central disc, arm

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Central disc, arm
    Explanation
    Echinoderms, such as sea stars, have the ability to regenerate lost parts. In this case, if a sea star has one-fifth of the central disc and one arm, it can regenerate almost an entirely new animal. This means that the central disc, which is the main body of the sea star, and one arm are the essential parts required for regeneration.

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  • 27. 

    The echinoderms have developed the ability to exploit many sources of food. The brittle stars and sea stars are ______, the sea urchins are ______, and the sea cucumbers eat ______.

    • A.

      Planktivores, herbivores, worms

    • B.

      Herbivores, browsers, algae

    • C.

      Browsers, carnivores, plankton

    • D.

      Carnivores, herbivores, organic debris

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Carnivores, herbivores, organic debris
    Explanation
    Echinoderms have developed the ability to exploit various sources of food. Brittle stars and sea stars are carnivores, meaning they feed on other organisms. Sea urchins are herbivores, as they primarily eat algae. Sea cucumbers, on the other hand, consume organic debris, making them detritivores. Therefore, the correct answer is "Carnivores, herbivores, organic debris."

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  • 28. 

    Which of these classes is characterized by no anus, no suckers, articulated ossicles, and a madreporite on the oral surface?

    • A.

      Crinoidea

    • B.

      Asteroidea

    • C.

      Ophiuroidea

    • D.

      Echiniodea

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Ophiuroidea
    Explanation
    Ophiuroidea is the correct answer because it is a class of echinoderms that is characterized by no anus, no suckers, articulated ossicles, and a madreporite on the oral surface. Crinoidea, Asteroidea, and Echiniodea all have different characteristics that do not match the given description. Therefore, the correct answer is Ophiuroidea.

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  • 29. 

    Which of these classes is characterized by an endoskeleton test, a complex chewing apparatus, no arms, pedicellaria with three jaws, closed ambulacral grooves, and movable spines?

    • A.

      Crinoidea

    • B.

      Asteroidea

    • C.

      Ophiuroidea

    • D.

      Echiniodea

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Echiniodea
    Explanation
    Echiniodea is the correct answer because it is the only class among the options that is characterized by an endoskeleton test, a complex chewing apparatus, no arms, pedicellaria with three jaws, closed ambulacral grooves, and movable spines. Crinoidea, Asteroidea, and Ophiuroidea have different characteristics and do not match the given description. "None of the above" is not the correct answer because Echiniodea does match the given characteristics.

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  • 30. 

    Which of these classes is characterized by arms not demarcated from the disc, open ambulacral grooves, tube feet with suckers, and a madreporite on the aboral surface?

    • A.

      Crinoidea

    • B.

      Asteroidea

    • C.

      Ophiuroidea

    • D.

      Echinodea

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Asteroidea
    Explanation
    Asteroidea is the correct answer because it is the class of starfish, which is characterized by arms that are not demarcated from the disc, open ambulacral grooves, tube feet with suckers, and a madreporite on the aboral surface. Crinoidea is not the correct answer because it refers to the class of crinoids or sea lilies, which have arms that are demarcated from the disc. Ophiuroidea is not the correct answer because it refers to the class of brittle stars, which have closed ambulacral grooves. Echinodea is not the correct answer because it refers to the class of sea urchins and sand dollars, which do not have arms.

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  • 31. 

    Which of these classes is characterized by a disc shaped body, no arms, no madreporite, and a reduced water vascular system?

    • A.

      Crinoidea

    • B.

      Asteroidea

    • C.

      Ophiuroidea

    • D.

      Echiniodea

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    None of the above is the correct answer because none of the listed options match the characteristics described in the question. The question states that the class being described has a disc shaped body, no arms, no madreporite, and a reduced water vascular system. However, none of the classes listed (Crinoidea, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echiniodea) fit all of these criteria. Therefore, the correct answer is None of the above.

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  • 32. 

    Which of these classes is characterized by no arms, very small ossicles closed ambulacral grooves, and oral tentacles?

    • A.

      Crinoidea

    • B.

      Asteroidea

    • C.

      Ophiuroidea

    • D.

      Echiniodea

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
  • 33. 

    Aristotle's lantern is a complex set of ______ used in the process of ______.

    • A.

      Neurons and ocelli, visual sensation

    • B.

      Tentacles and cilia, reproduction

    • C.

      Gland and muscles, digestion

    • D.

      Ossicles and muscles, chewing

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Ossicles and muscles, chewing
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Ossicles and muscles, chewing." Aristotle's lantern refers to the complex set of ossicles (small bones) and muscles found in the mouth of sea urchins and some other echinoderms. These structures are involved in the process of chewing or grinding food particles.

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  • 34. 

    The nervous system of most echinoderms consists of three layers. The ______ system on the aboral surface, the ______ system on the oral surface and the ______ system in between. Each of the layers is connected by the ______.

    • A.

      Hyponeural, ectoneural, aboral; nerve net

    • B.

      Ectoneural, aboral, hyponeural; nerve ring

    • C.

      Aboral, hyponeural, ectoneural; nerve net

    • D.

      Aboral, ectoneural, hyponeural; nerve net

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Aboral, ectoneural, hyponeural; nerve net
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Aboral, ectoneural, hyponeural; nerve net." In most echinoderms, the nervous system is composed of three layers. The aboral system is located on the surface opposite the mouth, the ectoneural system is on the oral surface, and the hyponeural system is in between. These three layers are connected by a network of nerves called the nerve net.

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  • 35. 

    ______ have a unique structure called a respiratory tree which functions as both a respiratory and excretory organ.

    • A.

      Crinoideans

    • B.

      Asteroideans

    • C.

      Ophiuroideans

    • D.

      Echiniodeans

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The given options are all different types of echinoderms, which are a group of marine animals. However, none of these echinoderms have a unique structure called a respiratory tree that functions as both a respiratory and excretory organ. Therefore, the correct answer is "None of the above."

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following in not a characteristic of the phylum chordata?

    • A.

      A flexible notochord

    • B.

      Pharyngeal gill pouches

    • C.

      Dorsal tubular nerve cord

    • D.

      Postanal tail

    • E.

      All of these are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of these are correct
    Explanation
    All of the given characteristics are correct for the phylum Chordata. The phylum Chordata is characterized by having a flexible notochord, pharyngeal gill pouches, a dorsal tubular nerve cord, and a postanal tail. These features are unique to the phylum and are used to classify organisms within this group.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following best describes subphylum Vertebrata?

    • A.

      Complete digestive system, 2-4 chambered heart, and open circulatory system

    • B.

      Complete digestive system, 3 chambered heart, and closed circulatory system

    • C.

      Bilateral symmetry, paired kidneys, and open circulatory system

    • D.

      Bilateral symmetry, single kidney, and closed circulatory system

    • E.

      Complete digestive system, bilateral symmetry, and open circulatory system

    Correct Answer
    B. Complete digestive system, 3 chambered heart, and closed circulatory system
    Explanation
    The correct answer for this question is "Complete digestive system, 3 chambered heart, and closed circulatory system." This is the best description for subphylum Vertebrata because vertebrates, which belong to this subphylum, have a complete digestive system, meaning they have a mouth and an anus. They also have a 3 chambered heart, which consists of two atria and one ventricle. Lastly, vertebrates have a closed circulatory system, where blood is contained within vessels and does not come into direct contact with body tissues.

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  • 38. 

    Superclass Agnatha includes which of the following fishes?

    • A.

      Bony fishes

    • B.

      Cartilagenous fishes

    • C.

      Jawless fishes

    • D.

      Bioluminescent fishes

    • E.

      All fishes; it's the largest group

    Correct Answer
    C. Jawless fishes
    Explanation
    The superclass Agnatha includes jawless fishes. Agnatha is a class of fish that lacks jaws and includes organisms like lampreys and hagfish. These fishes have a unique feeding mechanism and are characterized by their cartilaginous skeletons and lack of paired fins. They are considered primitive fishes and are distinct from bony fishes and cartilaginous fishes, which have jaws and different skeletal structures. Bioluminescent fishes and all fishes, while they exist, are not specific to the superclass Agnatha.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following in not a characteristic of the hagfishes?

    • A.

      Naked skinned scavengers

    • B.

      Heighten sense of smell and touch but nearly blind

    • C.

      Ties itself in knots to gain more leverage while feeding

    • D.

      Spawns in freshwater streams

    • E.

      Produces copious amounts of slime when threatened

    Correct Answer
    D. Spawns in freshwater streams
    Explanation
    The hagfishes exhibit several unique characteristics, including being naked skinned scavengers, having a heightened sense of smell and touch but being nearly blind, and producing copious amounts of slime when threatened. However, they do not spawn in freshwater streams. This means that they do not lay their eggs or reproduce in freshwater environments.

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  • 40. 

    The larvae of lamprey

    • A.

      Hatch in the ocean in a nest made by the male

    • B.

      Have a well-developed rasping tongue for feeding on fish

    • C.

      Undergo little to no metamorphosis when developing into an adult

    • D.

      Are suspension feeders who spend years buried in the sediment

    • E.

      Stay close to their mamas because big fish will eat them

    Correct Answer
    D. Are suspension feeders who spend years buried in the sediment
    Explanation
    The given correct answer states that the larvae of lamprey are suspension feeders who spend years buried in the sediment. This means that the larvae of lamprey feed on small particles suspended in the water and live in the sediment for an extended period of time. This explanation aligns with the information provided in the question and accurately describes the characteristics of lamprey larvae.

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  • 41. 

    To control the population of sea lamprey in the great Lakes scientists have

    • A.

      Released sterile males into the lakes

    • B.

      Sprayed commercial larvacides into the streams where they spawn

    • C.

      Put limitations on the number of fish harvested through the lakes

    • D.

      Only A and B are true

    • E.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    D. Only A and B are true
    Explanation
    To control the population of sea lamprey in the Great Lakes, scientists have implemented two strategies. Firstly, they have released sterile males into the lakes. This helps to reduce the reproductive success of the lampreys, as the sterile males cannot produce offspring. Secondly, they have sprayed commercial larvacides into the streams where the lampreys spawn. These larvacides target and kill the lamprey larvae, thus reducing their population. The option "Only A and B are true" correctly identifies these two strategies as the effective measures taken by scientists to control the sea lamprey population.

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  • 42. 

    Cartilaginous fishes do not include

    • A.

      Skates

    • B.

      Rays

    • C.

      Sharks

    • D.

      Eels

    • E.

      All of the above are cartilaginous fish

    Correct Answer
    D. Eels
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Eels. Eels are not considered cartilaginous fishes. Unlike skates, rays, and sharks, which have skeletons made of cartilage, eels have a bony skeleton. Therefore, eels do not belong to the category of cartilaginous fishes.

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  • 43. 

    The lateral line of a shark is used for

    • A.

      Detecting and locating objects and moving animals in the water

    • B.

      Excretion of urea and water

    • C.

      Detecting odors such as blood

    • D.

      Secreting mucus as a swimming lubricant

    • E.

      Detecting the heat of prey animals

    Correct Answer
    A. Detecting and locating objects and moving animals in the water
    Explanation
    The lateral line of a shark is a sensory system that runs along the sides of its body. It contains specialized cells called neuromasts, which can detect changes in water pressure and vibrations. This allows the shark to detect and locate objects and moving animals in the water, even in low light or murky conditions. The lateral line helps the shark navigate its environment and locate potential prey or predators.

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  • 44. 

    Shark reproduction and development involves

    • A.

      Clearing a bottom area in order that the female can lay eggs and the male can deposit sperm over them

    • B.

      No production of yolk at all but the first development of a primitive placenta in all sharks

    • C.

      Substantial care of young after the eggs are laid or young are born

    • D.

      Cases of oviparous, ovoviviparous, and viviparous strategies

    • E.

      A larval stage quite different from the adult

    Correct Answer
    D. Cases of oviparous, ovoviviparous, and viviparous strategies
    Explanation
    Shark reproduction and development involve various strategies, including oviparous, ovoviviparous, and viviparous cases. Oviparous species lay eggs externally, where the female clears a bottom area for egg deposition and the male fertilizes them. Ovoviviparous species retain the eggs inside the female's body until they hatch, with no production of yolk but the development of a primitive placenta. Viviparous species give birth to live young after nourishing them internally, showing substantial care for the offspring. These different strategies result in a larval stage that is distinct from the adult shark.

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  • 45. 

    The spiral valve in the intestine of a shark serves to

    • A.

      Release strong acids to aid digestion

    • B.

      Function as a liver in producing bile salts

    • C.

      Entrap food molecules in a mucus strand

    • D.

      Slow passage of food and increase absorption

    • E.

      Propel food through the tract at a faster rate

    Correct Answer
    D. Slow passage of food and increase absorption
    Explanation
    The spiral valve in the intestine of a shark serves to slow the passage of food and increase absorption. The spiral valve is a spiral-shaped structure that increases the surface area of the intestine, allowing for more efficient absorption of nutrients. As food passes through the spiral valve, it is slowed down, allowing more time for the nutrients to be absorbed into the bloodstream. This increases the efficiency of digestion and absorption in sharks.

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  • 46. 

    Ampullary organs of Lorenzini

    • A.

      Are located along the lateral line of a shark

    • B.

      Help a shark see prey at night

    • C.

      Help the shark detect bioelectric fields at a close range

    • D.

      Detect orientation similar to our semicircular canals

    • E.

      Amplify sounds of a struggling prey form great distances

    Correct Answer
    C. Help the shark detect bioelectric fields at a close range
    Explanation
    The ampullary organs of Lorenzini are small sensory organs found in sharks and other elasmobranchs. These organs are located along the lateral line of a shark, which helps the shark detect bioelectric fields at a close range. Bioelectric fields are generated by the electrical activity of living organisms, including prey. The ampullary organs of Lorenzini are highly sensitive to these bioelectric fields and allow the shark to detect the presence of prey, even in dark or murky waters. This ability is crucial for the shark's hunting success.

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  • 47. 

    The ovoviviparous sharks are those that

    • A.

      Lay eggs after external fertilization

    • B.

      Bear their young alive after retaining the eggs in the oviduct but with no further nourishment

    • C.

      Lay eggs after internal fertilization

    • D.

      Bear their young alive after external fertilization

    • E.

      Feed developing young a nutritous "uterine milk"

    Correct Answer
    B. Bear their young alive after retaining the eggs in the oviduct but with no further nourishment
    Explanation
    Ovoviviparous sharks are those that bear their young alive after retaining the eggs in the oviduct but with no further nourishment. This means that the eggs develop and hatch inside the mother's body, and the young are born alive. However, the mother does not provide any additional nourishment to the developing embryos during this time.

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  • 48. 

    What feature separates a shark from a bluegill?

    • A.

      Operculum versus gill slits

    • B.

      Cartilage verses bones

    • C.

      Internal verses external fertilization

    • D.

      No swim bladder verses swim bladdder

    • E.

      All of the above are correct distinctions

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are correct distinctions
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that all of the above are correct distinctions. This means that all of the features mentioned - operculum versus gill slits, cartilage versus bones, internal versus external fertilization, and no swim bladder versus swim bladder - are ways in which a shark is separated from a bluegill.

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  • 49. 

    The group Osteichthyes refers to which types of fishes?

    • A.

      Bony fishes

    • B.

      Cartilagenous fishes

    • C.

      Jawless fishes

    • D.

      Bioluminescent fishes

    • E.

      All fishes; it's the largest group

    Correct Answer
    A. Bony fishes
    Explanation
    The group Osteichthyes refers to bony fishes. This group includes the majority of fish species and is characterized by having skeletons made of bone rather than cartilage. Bony fishes have a wide range of adaptations and can be found in various aquatic environments, from freshwater to saltwater. They are the largest group of fishes, making up the majority of the fish species on Earth.

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  • 50. 

    Which best describes the scales of ray-finned fishes?

    • A.

      No scales, cycloid, or placoid

    • B.

      No scales, cycloid, or ctenoid

    • C.

      Cycloid, ctenoid or placoid

    • D.

      Cycloid or placoid

    • E.

      Cycloid only

    Correct Answer
    B. No scales, cycloid, or ctenoid
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "no scales, cycloid, or ctenoid." Ray-finned fishes do not have scales, but instead have different types of skin coverings. Cycloid and ctenoid are two types of scales found in other types of fishes, but not in ray-finned fishes.

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