Zoology Final Exam

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Zoology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The structure of mollusks that forms the shell and houses the gills is the

    • A.

      Mantle

    • B.

      Gastrovascular Cavity

    • C.

      Epidermis

    • D.

      Visceral mass

    • E.

      Periostracum

    Correct Answer
    A. Mantle
    Explanation
    The mantle is the correct answer because it is the structure in mollusks that forms the shell and houses the gills. It is a thin layer of tissue that covers the visceral mass and secretes calcium carbonate to create the shell. The mantle also contains the gills, which are responsible for respiration in mollusks.

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  • 2. 

    The kidneys of mollusks both excrete waste and remove excess water, This type of kidney is called a

    • A.

      Postnephridia

    • B.

      Mesonephridia

    • C.

      Metanephridia

    • D.

      Protonephridia

    • E.

      Notanephridia

    Correct Answer
    C. Metanephridia
    Explanation
    Metanephridia is the correct answer because it is a type of kidney found in mollusks that serves both excretion of waste and removal of excess water. This type of kidney is composed of a network of tubules that filter waste products from the blood and transport them to the outside of the body.

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  • 3. 

    The portion of the radula that supports the teeth and is cartilaginous is called the

    • A.

      Spicule

    • B.

      Odontophore

    • C.

      Radula Muscles

    • D.

      Pen

    • E.

      Collumella

    Correct Answer
    B. Odontophore
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Odontophore. The radula is a feeding organ found in mollusks, particularly in gastropods. It is a ribbon-like structure with rows of tiny teeth that scrape food particles. The odontophore is the part of the radula that supports the teeth and is made of cartilage. It provides rigidity and support to the radula, allowing it to function effectively in feeding.

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  • 4. 

    The structure of mollusks that forms the shell and houses the gills is the 

    • A.

      Mantle

    • B.

      Gastrovascular cavity

    • C.

      Epidermis

    • D.

      Viscedral mass

    • E.

      Periostracum

    Correct Answer
    A. Mantle
    Explanation
    The mantle is the correct answer because it is the structure in mollusks that forms the shell and houses the gills. The mantle is a thin layer of tissue that covers the visceral mass of the mollusk and secretes the shell. It also contains the gills, which are responsible for respiration in mollusks.

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  • 5. 

    The first larval stage that is typical of mollusks is the 

    • A.

      Planula

    • B.

      Actinotroph

    • C.

      Veliger

    • D.

      Trochophore

    • E.

      Glochidium

    Correct Answer
    D. Trochophore
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Trochophore because it is the first larval stage that is typical of mollusks. Trochophore larvae have a ciliated band around their bodies that helps them swim and feed. They are usually planktonic and undergo metamorphosis to develop into the adult form of the mollusk. This larval stage is common among many different groups of mollusks, including gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods.

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  • 6. 

    A mollusks shell is made of three layers arranged from the outside to the inside

    • A.

      Mantle layer, prismatic layer, periostracum

    • B.

      Prismatic layer, periostracum, mantle layer

    • C.

      Periostracum, prismatic layer, nacreous layer

    • D.

      Nacreous layer, periostracum, mantle layer

    • E.

      Periostracum, nacreous layer, prismatic layer

    Correct Answer
    C. Periostracum, prismatic layer, nacreous layer
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Periostracum, prismatic layer, nacreous layer." The periostracum is the outermost layer of a mollusk's shell, followed by the prismatic layer in the middle, and the nacreous layer on the inside.

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  • 7. 

    The structure that is used for feeding in most mollusks is the

    • A.

      Buccal cavity

    • B.

      Mouth

    • C.

      Radula

    • D.

      Odontophore

    • E.

      Gilles

    Correct Answer
    C. Radula
    Explanation
    The radula is a specialized feeding structure found in most mollusks. It is a ribbon-like structure with rows of tiny teeth that are used for scraping or rasping food particles. The radula is located in the buccal cavity, which is the mouth of the mollusk. This structure allows mollusks to feed on a variety of food sources, such as algae, small organisms, and detritus. The radula is an important adaptation that helps mollusks obtain nutrients and survive in their respective environments.

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  • 8. 

    The body of a typical mollusk can be divided into two main sections the

    • A.

      Head and foot

    • B.

      Head and mantle

    • C.

      Mantle cavity and foot

    • D.

      Head-foot and mantle

    • E.

      Head-foot and visceral mass

    Correct Answer
    D. Head-foot and mantle
    Explanation
    The body of a typical mollusk can be divided into two main sections: the head-foot and the mantle. The head-foot is responsible for locomotion and sensory functions, while the mantle is a thin layer of tissue that covers the body and secretes the shell in many mollusk species. This division of the body into head-foot and mantle is a characteristic feature of mollusks and helps to differentiate them from other animal groups.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is not used by mollusks for the purpose of respiration?

    • A.

      Gills

    • B.

      Mantle

    • C.

      Ctendia

    • D.

      Lung

    • E.

      Visceral mass

    Correct Answer
    E. Visceral mass
    Explanation
    The visceral mass is not used by mollusks for respiration. The visceral mass is a part of the body that contains the internal organs of the mollusk, such as the digestive and reproductive organs. Respiration in mollusks is primarily carried out through gills, mantle, and ctendia, which are specialized structures that allow for the exchange of gases with the surrounding environment. Lungs are also used for respiration in some mollusk species, but the visceral mass itself does not play a direct role in respiration.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is not a modified version of the foot?

    • A.

      Fins

    • B.

      Tentacles

    • C.

      Arms

    • D.

      Siphon

    Correct Answer
    D. Siphon
    Explanation
    The answer is Siphon because a siphon is not a modified version of the foot. Fins, tentacles, and arms are all examples of modified versions of the foot found in different animals. Fins are modified for swimming, tentacles are modified for grasping or sensing, and arms are modified for manipulation. However, a siphon is a tubular structure used by certain animals, such as mollusks, for various functions like respiration or expelling waste, and it is not derived from the foot.

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  • 11. 

    A mollusk that is a univalve with one opening to the shell or does not have a shell and shows torsion to some extent is in the class

    • A.

      Scaphopoda

    • B.

      Gastropoda

    • C.

      Bivalvia

    • D.

      Cephalopoda

    • E.

      Mollusca

    Correct Answer
    B. Gastropoda
    Explanation
    Gastropoda is the correct answer because it is the class of mollusks that includes univalve mollusks with one opening to the shell or mollusks that do not have a shell at all. This class also exhibits torsion, which is a characteristic twisting of the body during development. Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, and Cephalopoda are other classes of mollusks, but they do not fit the given description. Mollusca is the phylum to which all mollusks belong.

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  • 12. 

    Torsion is a process that rotates _______________ of the body of gastropods.

    • A.

      Surface

    • B.

      Mantle

    • C.

      Viscera

    • D.

      Tentacles

    • E.

      Shell

    Correct Answer
    C. Viscera
    Explanation
    Torsion is a process that rotates the viscera of the body of gastropods. Torsion is a characteristic feature of gastropods, where the visceral mass undergoes a 180-degree rotation during development. This rotation brings the anus and mantle cavity to the front of the body, allowing for efficient waste elimination and respiration. The rotation of the viscera is essential for the proper functioning and survival of gastropods.

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  • 13. 

    Some gastropods have a horny plate that covers the shell aperture; this structure is called a (an)

    • A.

      Osmoradia

    • B.

      Osphradia

    • C.

      Operculum

    • D.

      Olid

    • E.

      Oocap

    Correct Answer
    C. Operculum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Operculum". Some gastropods have a horny plate called an operculum that covers the shell aperture. The operculum acts as a protective door, closing the opening of the shell when the gastropod withdraws inside. This helps to prevent desiccation and protect the soft body of the gastropod from predators and environmental factors.

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  • 14. 

    The shells of gastropods usually twist to the right.  This is known as

    • A.

      A coil

    • B.

      A whorl

    • C.

      Sinistral

    • D.

      Dextral

    • E.

      Ambidextral

    Correct Answer
    D. Dextral
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Dextral. The term "dextral" refers to the shells of gastropods twisting to the right. This is a common characteristic among gastropods, where the shell spirals in a clockwise direction when viewed from the apex.

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  • 15. 

    The adaption of bivalves to a sedentary, filter feeding lifestyle that exploits the sand of a beach as a habitat has lead to the loss of the ______________ and the radula.

    • A.

      Head

    • B.

      Foot

    • C.

      Mantle

    • D.

      Visceral mass

    • E.

      Gills

    Correct Answer
    A. Head
    Explanation
    The adaption of bivalves to a sedentary, filter feeding lifestyle that exploits the sand of a beach as a habitat has led to the loss of the head and the radula. Bivalves, such as clams and mussels, have evolved to have a streamlined body shape that allows them to bury themselves in the sand and filter feed. As a result, they no longer require a distinct head region or a radula, which is a feeding organ found in many other mollusks. The loss of the head and radula is an adaptation that allows bivalves to efficiently carry out their filter feeding lifestyle.

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  • 16. 

    The major group of gastropods known as the Pulmonates are more commonly known as

    • A.

      Sea slugs and hares

    • B.

      Limpets and conch

    • C.

      Snails and slugs

    • D.

      Albalones

    • E.

      Nudibranchs

    Correct Answer
    C. Snails and slugs
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Snails and slugs." Pulmonates are a major group of gastropods that are characterized by having a lung-like structure called a pallial cavity. This allows them to breathe air instead of relying solely on gills. Snails and slugs are the most well-known examples of pulmonates, as they are commonly found in various terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Sea slugs, hares, limpets, conch, abalones, and nudibranchs are all different groups of gastropods, but they do not belong to the pulmonate group.

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  • 17. 

    A mollusk that has a shell of two valves and is usually a filter feeder is a 

    • A.

      Scaphopoda

    • B.

      Gastropoda

    • C.

      Bivalvia

    • D.

      Cephalopoda

    • E.

      Mollusca

    Correct Answer
    C. Bivalvia
    Explanation
    Bivalvia is the correct answer because it is a class of mollusks that have a shell consisting of two valves. They are usually filter feeders, meaning they obtain their food by filtering particles from water. Examples of bivalves include clams, mussels, and oysters. Scaphopoda, Gastropoda, and Cephalopoda are other classes of mollusks, but they do not fit the description of having a shell of two valves and being filter feeders. Mollusca is the phylum to which all these classes belong.

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  • 18. 

    Where would you locate the pericardial cavity when dissecting a mollusk such as a clam?

    • A.

      Between the mantle and the shell

    • B.

      All of the area enclosed by the two shells and exposed when you open the shell

    • C.

      The area around the heart

    • D.

      The cavities inside the siphons

    • E.

      The space inside the small tubules that form the gills

    Correct Answer
    C. The area around the heart
    Explanation
    The pericardial cavity is the space around the heart. In a mollusk such as a clam, the pericardial cavity would be located in the area surrounding the heart.

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  • 19. 

    Mollusks such as a clam breath by passing water in which of the following paths

    • A.

      Incurrent siphon, suprabranchial chamber, gills, excurrent siphon

    • B.

      Incurrent siphon, gills, suprabranchial chamber, excurrent siphon

    • C.

      Incurrent siphon, gills, excurrent siphon

    • D.

      Incurrent siphon, mantle, gills, excurrent siphon

    • E.

      Incurrent siphon, gills, mantle, excurrent siphon

    Correct Answer
    B. Incurrent siphon, gills, suprabranchial chamber, excurrent siphon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Incurrent siphon, gills, suprabranchial chamber, excurrent siphon." Mollusks, such as clams, breathe by passing water through their incurrent siphon, which leads to the gills. The gills are responsible for extracting oxygen from the water and releasing carbon dioxide. From the gills, the water then flows into the suprabranchial chamber, where gas exchange occurs between the respiratory surface and the blood vessels. Finally, the water is expelled through the excurrent siphon.

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  • 20. 

    A mollusk that is an active predator, has tentacles, and is marine would be in the class

    • A.

      Scaphopoda

    • B.

      Gastropoda

    • C.

      Bivalvia

    • D.

      Cephalopoda

    • E.

      Mollusca

    Correct Answer
    D. Cephalopoda
    Explanation
    Cephalopoda is the correct answer because it is the class of mollusks that fits all the given characteristics. Cephalopods, such as octopuses and squids, are active predators that have tentacles and live in marine environments. Scaphopoda, Gastropoda, and Bivalvia are other classes of mollusks, but they do not possess all the mentioned characteristics. Mollusca is the phylum to which all these classes belong.

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  • 21. 

    The jet propulsion method of swimming that is seen in squid is accomplished by forcing water from the mantle cavity through a 

    • A.

      Siphuncle

    • B.

      Radula

    • C.

      Excurrent siphon

    • D.

      Funnel

    • E.

      Blow hole

    Correct Answer
    D. Funnel
    Explanation
    The jet propulsion method of swimming in squid is accomplished by forcing water from the mantle cavity through the funnel. The funnel acts as a muscular tube that contracts and expels water, propelling the squid forward. This mechanism allows the squid to move quickly and efficiently through the water. The siphuncle is a structure found in certain mollusks, but it is not involved in jet propulsion swimming. The radula is a feeding structure, the excurrent siphon is a part of the respiratory system, and the blow hole is found in marine mammals, none of which are relevant to the squid's method of swimming.

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  • 22. 

    A cephalopod that has an external shell and represents a group that is mostly extinct would be a 

    • A.

      Giant squid

    • B.

      Cuttlefish

    • C.

      Nautilus

    • D.

      Ammonoid

    • E.

      Octopus

    Correct Answer
    C. Nautilus
    Explanation
    Nautilus is the correct answer because it is a cephalopod that has an external shell. It represents a group that is mostly extinct, as most other cephalopods, such as the giant squid, cuttlefish, and octopus, do not have external shells. Ammonoids are also cephalopods with external shells, but they are completely extinct.

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  • 23. 

    The water current in the body of a cephalopod provides

    • A.

      Oxygen for respiration

    • B.

      Jet power for rapid locomotion

    • C.

      A means of carrying wastes and gametes out of the body

    • D.

      Only a and c are true

    • E.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are true
    Explanation
    The water current in the body of a cephalopod provides oxygen for respiration because cephalopods have gills that extract oxygen from water. It also provides jet power for rapid locomotion as cephalopods can expel water forcefully through a siphon to propel themselves. Additionally, the water current helps carry wastes and gametes out of the body as these substances are expelled along with the water. Therefore, all of the given options, a, b, and c, are true.

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  • 24. 

    When caphalopods hatch from their eggs, they are

    • A.

      Trochophore larvae

    • B.

      Glochidial parasites

    • C.

      Helpless sessile larvae that must metamorphose into adult forms

    • D.

      Juvenile that resemble small adults

    • E.

      There is much variation and all of the above occur among the group

    Correct Answer
    D. Juvenile that resemble small adults
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Juvenile that resemble small adults." When cephalopods hatch from their eggs, they do not go through a larval stage but instead emerge as miniature versions of the adult form. They have the same body structure and characteristics as the adults, although they are smaller in size. This allows them to immediately start feeding and moving independently.

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  • 25. 

    The alternating longitudinal and circular muscle contractions that pass along the body to facilitate locomotion are called

    • A.

      Progressive

    • B.

      Peristaltic

    • C.

      Hydrostatic

    • D.

      Regressive

    • E.

      Coelomic

    Correct Answer
    B. Peristaltic
    Explanation
    Peristaltic contractions refer to the alternating longitudinal and circular muscle contractions that move along the body to facilitate locomotion. These contractions create a wave-like motion, pushing against the surrounding fluid or substrate to propel the organism forward. This type of movement is commonly observed in many invertebrates, such as worms and mollusks, as well as in some vertebrates, like the digestive system. Therefore, peristaltic is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 26. 

    The polychaetes differ from the other annelids by having a well-developed head that often bears the eyes, antennae, and sensory palps, and is often called a __________ or first segment.

    • A.

      Cephalostomium

    • B.

      Periostracum

    • C.

      Peristomium

    • D.

      Prophylactic

    • E.

      Prostomium

    Correct Answer
    E. Prostomium
    Explanation
    The polychaetes differ from the other annelids by having a well-developed head that often bears the eyes, antennae, and sensory palps, and is often called a prostomium or first segment.

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  • 27. 

    The paddle-like appendages that characterize the polychaetes are called

    • A.

      Propodia

    • B.

      Peripodia

    • C.

      Parapodia

    • D.

      Setae

    • E.

      Septa

    Correct Answer
    C. Parapodia
    Explanation
    Parapodia are the paddle-like appendages that characterize the polychaetes. These structures are found on each segment of the polychaete's body and are used for locomotion, respiration, and sometimes for feeding. Parapodia are covered in bristles called setae, which provide traction and aid in movement. The other options, propodia, peripodia, setae, and septa, are not the correct terms for the paddle-like appendages of polychaetes.

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  • 28. 

    Food is drawn into the mouth of an oligiochaete by suction created by the muscular

    • A.

      Contraction

    • B.

      Pharnyx

    • C.

      Jaws

    • D.

      Chloragogen

    • E.

      Prostomium

    Correct Answer
    B. Pharnyx
    Explanation
    The correct answer is pharynx. The pharynx is a muscular tube located in the throat that helps in the process of swallowing food. It contracts and creates suction, drawing the food into the mouth of an oligochaete. The pharynx plays a crucial role in the ingestion and digestion of food in oligochaetes.

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  • 29. 

    The annelids have a double circulation in that materials can be moved by the blood or by the

    • A.

      Coelomic fluid

    • B.

      Peristalsis of the intestine

    • C.

      Excretory organs

    • D.

      Respiratory flaw

    Correct Answer
    A. Coelomic fluid
    Explanation
    Annelids have a double circulation system where materials can be moved by both the blood and the coelomic fluid. The coelomic fluid, also known as the coelomic transport system, is a fluid-filled body cavity that surrounds the internal organs. It plays a role in transporting nutrients, gases, and waste products throughout the body. This fluid circulation complements the circulatory system, which consists of a closed blood vessel system that carries oxygenated blood and nutrients. Together, these two systems ensure efficient transport of materials within the annelid's body.

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  • 30. 

    The nephridium occupies two segments and is composed of a ciliated funnel called a ________

    • A.

      Protenephridia, metanephridia

    • B.

      Protonephridia, nephridiopore

    • C.

      Metanephridia, nephrostome

    • D.

      Metanephridia, nephridiopore

    • E.

      Nephrostome, nephridiopore

    Correct Answer
    E. Nephrostome, nephridiopore
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Nephrostome, nephridiopore". The nephridium is a structure in segmented worms that functions as an excretory organ. It is composed of a ciliated funnel called a nephrostome, which collects waste products and fluids from the coelom. The waste is then transported through the nephridium and expelled through an opening called a nephridiopore.

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  • 31. 

    The structure of oligiochaetes, which secretes mucus and produces a cocoon that protects the developing young zygotes is called the

    • A.

      Slime layer

    • B.

      Epidermis

    • C.

      Setae

    • D.

      Clitellum

    • E.

      Prostomium

    Correct Answer
    D. Clitellum
    Explanation
    The structure of oligochaetes that secretes mucus and produces a cocoon to protect the developing young zygotes is called the clitellum. The clitellum is a glandular and swollen segment located near the anterior end of the worm's body. During reproduction, it secretes a mucus ring that slides forward to collect eggs and sperm, forming a cocoon. This cocoon provides a protective environment for the fertilized eggs to develop into young worms.

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  • 32. 

    The hirudineans have ___________ segments, and anterior and posterior suckers, and no ____________.

    • A.

      15, parapodia

    • B.

      34, jaws

    • C.

      12, paddles

    • D.

      34, parapodia

    • E.

      15, jaws

    Correct Answer
    D. 34, parapodia
    Explanation
    Hirudineans have 34 segments, which is indicated by the number 34 in the answer choice. They also have parapodia, as indicated by the word "parapodia" in the answer choice. The presence of anterior and posterior suckers is not mentioned in the answer choice.

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  • 33. 

    Leeches feed from the body fluids of prey.  When a leech feeds it does all of the following except

    • A.

      Attaches with posterior sucker

    • B.

      Secretes an anticoagulant

    • C.

      Secretes an anesthetic

    • D.

      Secretes an antibiotic

    • E.

      Attaches with segmental setae

    Correct Answer
    E. Attaches with segmental setae
    Explanation
    Leeches feed from the body fluids of prey by attaching themselves with their posterior sucker and secreting an anticoagulant to prevent the blood from clotting. They also secrete an anesthetic to numb the area they are feeding on. However, leeches do not attach themselves with segmental setae. Setae are bristle-like structures found in many invertebrates that help with locomotion, but leeches do not use them to attach to their prey.

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  • 34. 

    The gizzard of an earthworm

    • A.

      Absorbs calcium into the blood circulation

    • B.

      Excretes calcium from the blood into the intestines

    • C.

      Stores ingested food

    • D.

      Grinds the ingested food so it may be absorbs

    • E.

      Nothing really, just connects the crop and the intestine

    Correct Answer
    D. Grinds the ingested food so it may be absorbs
    Explanation
    The gizzard of an earthworm is responsible for grinding the ingested food so that it can be absorbed. This is an important function as earthworms do not have teeth to chew their food. The grinding action of the gizzard helps break down the food into smaller particles, making it easier for the earthworm's digestive system to extract nutrients.

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  • 35. 

    The hirudineans

    • A.

      Are endoparasites

    • B.

      Develop an increasing number of segments during adult life

    • C.

      Usually lack setae

    • D.

      Typically have anterior and midventral sucker, similar to flukes

    • E.

      Utilize parapodia for respiration

    Correct Answer
    C. Usually lack setae
    Explanation
    Hirudineans are a group of organisms that are endoparasites, meaning they live inside another organism and obtain nutrients from it. They typically do not have setae, which are bristle-like structures that are present in many other organisms. This lack of setae distinguishes hirudineans from other organisms.

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  • 36. 

    The type of tissue found around the intestine in the annelids tha can synthesize glycogen and break free to distribute nutrients in the coelom is called

    • A.

      Choragogen tissue

    • B.

      Pancreatic tissue

    • C.

      Archeoblastic tissue

    • D.

      Nephridial tissue

    • E.

      Excretory tissue

    Correct Answer
    A. Choragogen tissue
    Explanation
    Choragogen tissue is the correct answer because it is the type of tissue found around the intestine in annelids that can synthesize glycogen and break free to distribute nutrients in the coelom. This tissue plays an important role in the digestion and distribution of nutrients in annelids. Pancreatic tissue is not found in annelids, and archeoblastic tissue, nephridial tissue, and excretory tissue do not have the same functions as choragogen tissue in annelids.

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  • 37. 

    Polychaetes have the ability to tolerate a wide range of salinity in their enviornment.  This ability is called

    • A.

      Eukaroyte

    • B.

      Euryhaline

    • C.

      Eurytopic

    • D.

      Euploidy

    • E.

      Salthappy

    Correct Answer
    B. Euryhaline
    Explanation
    The term "euryhaline" refers to the ability of an organism to tolerate a wide range of salinity in its environment. In the context of the given statement, polychaetes are able to survive and thrive in various levels of salinity, making them euryhaline organisms. This adaptation allows them to inhabit different types of aquatic environments, from freshwater to marine habitats, without being negatively affected by changes in salinity.

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  • 38. 

    The typical annelid body wall is composed of several layers.  Which of the following layers is in the correct order, outside to inside?

    • A.

      Peritoneum, circular muscle, cuticle

    • B.

      Longitudinal muscle, circular muscle, cuticle

    • C.

      Cuticle, epidermis, longitudinal muscle

    • D.

      Epidermis, peritoneum, longitudinal muscle

    • E.

      Cuticle, longitudinal muscle, peritoneum

    Correct Answer
    C. Cuticle, epidermis, longitudinal muscle
    Explanation
    The correct order of the layers in the typical annelid body wall, from outside to inside, is cuticle, epidermis, longitudinal muscle. The cuticle is the outermost layer, followed by the epidermis, and then the longitudinal muscle.

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  • 39. 

    Polychaetes contain all or some of the following sensory organs except

    • A.

      Simple eyes

    • B.

      Statocysts

    • C.

      Nuchual organs

    • D.

      Chemorecptors

    • E.

      Neurosecretory cells

    Correct Answer
    E. Neurosecretory cells
    Explanation
    Polychaetes are a type of marine annelid worms that possess various sensory organs to perceive their environment. Simple eyes, statocysts, nuchal organs, and chemoreceptors are sensory organs commonly found in polychaetes. However, neurosecretory cells are not considered sensory organs. Instead, they are specialized cells found in the nervous system that release hormones and other signaling molecules. These cells play a role in regulating various physiological processes in polychaetes, but they are not directly involved in sensory perception.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following best describes the nervous system of leeches?

    • A.

      Two small brains with a single dorsal nerve cord

    • B.

      Two small brains with a single ventral nerve cord

    • C.

      Two small brains with double dorsal nerve cord

    • D.

      Two small brains with a double ventral nerve cord

    • E.

      One small brain with a single ventral nerve cord

    Correct Answer
    D. Two small brains with a double ventral nerve cord
    Explanation
    The nervous system of leeches is described as having two small brains with a double ventral nerve cord. This means that leeches have two separate brain ganglia, or clusters of nerve cells, and a nerve cord that runs along the ventral side of their body. The double ventral nerve cord allows for more efficient communication and coordination of sensory and motor information throughout the leech's body.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following best describes the circulatory system of earthworms?

    • A.

      A double transport system with coelomic and circulatory fluid transport

    • B.

      A double transport system with lymph and circulatory fluid transport

    • C.

      A single transport system with circulation by blood only

    • D.

      A single transport system with circulation by coelomic fluid only

    • E.

      A blood vascular system

    Correct Answer
    A. A double transport system with coelomic and circulatory fluid transport
    Explanation
    The circulatory system of earthworms is described as a double transport system with coelomic and circulatory fluid transport. This means that earthworms have two separate systems for transporting fluids. The coelomic fluid, which is found in the body cavity called the coelom, helps in the transport of nutrients and waste products within the worm's body. The circulatory fluid, which is similar to blood, is responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients to different parts of the earthworm's body. This double transport system allows for efficient distribution of essential substances throughout the earthworm's body.

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  • 42. 

    Respiration in annelids occur via all of the following except

    • A.

      Skin

    • B.

      Gills

    • C.

      Parapodia

    • D.

      Setae

    Correct Answer
    D. Setae
    Explanation
    Annelids are a group of segmented worms that respire through various structures. They can respire through their skin, gills, and parapodia, which are fleshy appendages. However, setae are bristle-like structures found on the body of annelids that help in locomotion and sensation, but they do not play a role in respiration. Therefore, the correct answer is setae.

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  • 43. 

    The order in which water passes through the body of a simple sponge is

    • A.

      Spongocoel - ostia - osculum

    • B.

      Osculum - spongocoel - ostia

    • C.

      Osculum - ostia - spongocoel

    • D.

      Ostia - spongocoel - osculum

    • E.

      Ostia - osculum - spongocoel

    Correct Answer
    D. Ostia - spongocoel - osculum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Ostia - spongocoel - osculum. In a simple sponge, water enters through small pores called ostia, then flows into a central cavity called the spongocoel, and finally exits through a larger opening called the osculum. This unidirectional flow of water allows the sponge to filter out tiny food particles and oxygenate its cells.

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  • 44. 

    The simplest canal system in sponges is found in the

    • A.

      Asconoids

    • B.

      Leucononoids

    • C.

      Syconoids

    • D.

      Cubozoids

    • E.

      Hydroids

    Correct Answer
    A. Asconoids
    Explanation
    Asconoids have the simplest canal system in sponges. This system consists of a single, straight tube with a large central cavity called the spongocoel. Water enters through small pores called ostia and then flows into the spongocoel, where it is filtered and nutrients are extracted. The water then exits through a larger opening called the osculum. Asconoids are the most primitive and basic type of sponge canal system, with a limited surface area for filtration compared to other types such as syconoids or leuconoids.

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  • 45. 

    The most complex and the most common canal systems of sponges is found in the 

    • A.

      Asconoids

    • B.

      Leucononoids

    • C.

      Syconoids

    • D.

      Cubozoids

    • E.

      Hydroids

    Correct Answer
    B. Leucononoids
    Explanation
    The most complex and common canal systems of sponges are found in the Leucononoids. Leucononoids are a type of sponge characterized by a complex network of canals and chambers. This complex system allows for efficient water flow and filtration, as well as increased surface area for nutrient absorption. Asconoids have a simpler canal system, Syconoids have a slightly more complex system, Cubozoids are not a type of sponge, and Hydroids are a type of cnidarian, not a sponge.

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  • 46. 

    The gelatinous matrix found in sponges is

    • A.

      Spongin

    • B.

      Collagen

    • C.

      Pinacoderm

    • D.

      Mesohyl

    • E.

      Spiculin

    Correct Answer
    D. Mesohyl
    Explanation
    The gelatinous matrix found in sponges is called mesohyl. Mesohyl is a gel-like substance that fills the space between the outer and inner layers of cells in a sponge. It provides structural support to the sponge and contains various cells, fibers, and other components. Mesohyl also acts as a medium for transporting nutrients and waste throughout the sponge's body.

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  • 47. 

    Study of the marine hawksbille tutle stomach contents found that sponges were a major portion of their diet.  Sponges are usually protected from predators by protective

    • A.

      Pinacocytes

    • B.

      Choanocytes

    • C.

      Spicules

    • D.

      Amoebocytes

    • E.

      Nematocysts

    Correct Answer
    C. Spicules
    Explanation
    The correct answer is spicules. Spicules are small, needle-like structures found in the body of sponges that provide structural support and protection. They are made of calcium carbonate or silica, making them hard and sharp. These spicules act as a defense mechanism against predators, preventing them from consuming the sponges. Therefore, the presence of spicules in the stomach contents of marine hawksbill turtles suggests that the turtles are able to consume and digest sponges, despite their protective structure.

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  • 48. 

    The outer thin, flat epithelial-like cells that cover the outside and some inside surfaces of sponges are

    • A.

      Pinacocytes

    • B.

      Choanocytes

    • C.

      Spiclues

    • D.

      Amoebocytes

    • E.

      Spongin

    Correct Answer
    A. Pinacocytes
    Explanation
    Pinacocytes are the outer thin, flat epithelial-like cells that cover the outside and some inside surfaces of sponges. These cells form a protective layer and help maintain the structure of the sponge. They are responsible for covering the sponge's surface and preventing foreign particles from entering the sponge's body. Additionally, pinacocytes also play a role in gas exchange and waste removal.

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  • 49. 

    The modified cells of sponges that form circular bands and provide just a little constriction to control flow are

    • A.

      Pinacocytes

    • B.

      Choanocytes

    • C.

      Spiclues

    • D.

      Myocytes

    • E.

      Amoebocytes

    Correct Answer
    D. Myocytes
    Explanation
    Myocytes are the correct answer because they are modified cells in sponges that form circular bands and are responsible for providing a little constriction to control flow. These cells are specialized for muscle contraction and play a role in regulating water flow through the sponge's body.

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  • 50. 

    A sponge feeds by

    • A.

      Using a net and current that sweeps food particles through it

    • B.

      Squeezing the spongocoel cavity to suck debris in and out through the osculum

    • C.

      Beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current; food is absorbed by collar cells

    • D.

      Beating the flagella of collar cells form a current from the osculum to pores; food is engulfed by archaeocytes in the central cavity

    • E.

      Photosynthesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current; food is absorbed by collar cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current; food is absorbed by collar cells." This explanation suggests that sponges feed by creating a current through the beating of their flagella. This current allows food particles to be swept into the sponge, where they are absorbed by the collar cells. This process is how sponges obtain their food.

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