An Advanced World History Test (16th- 20th Century )

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An Advanced World History Test (16th- 20th Century ) - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Salvador Allende was a Marxist president of ____________, elected in 1970. He was eventually toppled in a coup supported by the _______________.

    • A.

      Argentina / Stasi

    • B.

      Chile / CIA

    • C.

      Yugoslavia / KGB

    • D.

      Nicaragua / CIA

    Correct Answer
    B. Chile / CIA
    Explanation
    Salvador Allende was a Marxist president of Chile, elected in 1970. He was eventually toppled in a coup supported by the CIA.

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  • 2. 

    The political and social order that prevailed before the French Revolution and was based on a belief in absolute monarchy and the divine right of kings is known as:

    • A.

      Ile-de-France

    • B.

      The National Assembly

    • C.

      Bourbonism

    • D.

      The ancien regime

    Correct Answer
    D. The ancien regime
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the ancien regime. The term "ancien regime" refers to the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution. It was characterized by an absolute monarchy, where the king held all the power, and the belief in the divine right of kings, which claimed that the king's authority came directly from God. This system was marked by social inequality, with the nobility and clergy enjoying privileges and the common people facing oppression and limited rights. The French Revolution aimed to overthrow this system and establish a more egalitarian society.

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  • 3. 

    The Spanish Armada was...

    • A.

      The group of galleons assigned to defend the Strait of Gibraltar.

    • B.

      Phillip II's quick-strike ships that hounded British warships off the Horn of Africa.

    • C.

      A group of 100 warships that were sent to conquer England in the 16th century. They failed, leading to England's rise in power.

    • D.

      The flotilla that the young American navy had surprising success against in the Spanish-American war.

    Correct Answer
    C. A group of 100 warships that were sent to conquer England in the 16th century. They failed, leading to England's rise in power.
    Explanation
    The Spanish Armada refers to a group of 100 warships that were sent by Spain to conquer England in the 16th century. However, they failed in their mission, leading to England's rise in power. This event marked a significant turning point in European history and had long-lasting effects on the balance of power between Spain and England.

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  • 4. 

    From 1915 to 1920 more than a million of these people died as a result of execution, massacres, and starvation within the Ottoman Empire. Many eventually fled to the United States.

    • A.

      Jews

    • B.

      Hungarians

    • C.

      Greeks

    • D.

      Armenians

    Correct Answer
    D. Armenians
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Armenians. From 1915 to 1920, over a million Armenians died due to execution, massacres, and starvation within the Ottoman Empire. This period is known as the Armenian Genocide. Many Armenians eventually fled to the United States.

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  • 5. 

    This Syrian president was openly hostile to Israel and Islamic Fundamentalism, but supported terrorism. He also opposed Iraq during the first Gulf War, and demanded the return of the Golan Heights from Israel.

    • A.

      Hafez al-Assad

    • B.

      Bashar al-Assad

    • C.

      Amin al-Hafiz

    • D.

      Ahmad al-Khatib

    Correct Answer
    A. Hafez al-Assad
    Explanation
    Hafez al-Assad is the correct answer because he was the Syrian president who openly expressed hostility towards Israel and Islamic Fundamentalism, while also supporting terrorism. He opposed Iraq during the first Gulf War and demanded the return of the Golan Heights from Israel.

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  • 6. 

    Bastille Day - perhaps the most important holiday in France - commemorates

    • A.

      National independence.

    • B.

      The fall of Napoleon.

    • C.

      The storming of a prison holding politcal prisoners during the French Revolution.

    • D.

      The defeat of the English in the Battle of Hastings in 1066.

    Correct Answer
    C. The storming of a prison holding politcal prisoners during the French Revolution.
    Explanation
    Bastille Day is celebrated on July 14th in France and marks the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille prison in 1789 during the French Revolution. The prison held political prisoners and its fall symbolized the beginning of the French Revolution and the overthrow of the monarchy. It is considered a pivotal event in French history and is celebrated as a symbol of national independence and the fight for liberty and equality.

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  • 7. 

    This "Iron Chancellor" persuaded the small German states to unite after the Franco-Prussian War under a kaiser. He led the newly unified Germany to marked economic advances.

    • A.

      Wilhem II

    • B.

      Otto von Bismark

    • C.

      Max von Baden

    • D.

      Adolf Hitler

    Correct Answer
    B. Otto von Bismark
    Explanation
    Otto von Bismarck, also known as the "Iron Chancellor," was the leader who persuaded the small German states to unite after the Franco-Prussian War under a kaiser. He played a crucial role in the unification of Germany and became the first chancellor of the newly unified country. Bismarck's leadership and political skills led Germany to marked economic advances during his time in office. His policies, such as the implementation of protective tariffs and the development of a strong welfare state, contributed to Germany's economic growth and stability.

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  • 8. 

    During a clash between British and Indian troops in the 18th century, 146 British were driven into a cell in a jail in Calcutta. 123 suffocated by the next morning, and the incident is known as

    • A.

      The Calcutta Incident

    • B.

      The Massacre at Calcutta

    • C.

      The Black Hole of Calcutta

    • D.

      The Tragedy of Calcutta

    Correct Answer
    C. The Black Hole of Calcutta
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the Black Hole of Calcutta". This incident refers to a historical event that took place in Calcutta during the 18th century clash between British and Indian troops. 146 British individuals were forced into a small cell in a jail, and by the next morning, 123 of them had suffocated. This incident became known as the Black Hole of Calcutta due to the cramped and suffocating conditions in which the British captives were held.

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  • 9. 

    A war betwen British and Dutch settlers in what is now South Africa, fought from 1899 to 1902 and won by the British.

    • A.

      Boer War

    • B.

      The Peasant's Revolt

    • C.

      The Seven Years' War

    • D.

      Wars of the Roses

    Correct Answer
    A. Boer War
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Boer War. The Boer War was a conflict between British and Dutch settlers in South Africa that took place from 1899 to 1902. The war ended with a British victory.

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  • 10. 

    Fighting in what is now Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia Ecuador and Peru against the Spanish, this man was known as The Liberator.

    • A.

      Simon Bolivar

    • B.

      Manuel Noriega

    • C.

      Augusto Pinochet

    • D.

      Jose de San Martin

    Correct Answer
    A. Simon Bolivar
    Explanation
    Simon Bolivar is the correct answer because he was a key figure in the fight for independence in South America. He led military campaigns against the Spanish in what is now Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Bolivar is often referred to as "The Liberator" because of his instrumental role in liberating these countries from Spanish colonial rule. His efforts played a significant role in the establishment of independent nations in South America.

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  • 11. 

    A distinct feature of the Bolsheviks.

    • A.

      Favored gradual democratic change over the excesses of the Russian Revolution.

    • B.

      Wanted to immediately extend the Russian Revolution to China and Africa.

    • C.

      Led by Lenin, they were the radicals of the Russian Revolution, favoring decisive action rather than waiting for democratic change.

    • D.

      Led by Karl Marx, they thought the key to revolution was harnassing capital outlays spent on private industrial excess.

    Correct Answer
    C. Led by Lenin, they were the radicals of the Russian Revolution, favoring decisive action rather than waiting for democratic change.
    Explanation
    The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, were considered the radicals of the Russian Revolution because they believed in taking decisive action rather than waiting for democratic change. They favored immediate and forceful measures to bring about their desired revolution, rather than gradual democratic processes. This approach set them apart from other groups who may have favored a more gradual and democratic approach to change.

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  • 12. 

    This monarchy held the French throne until the French Revolution. Known for their stubbornness, it was said of them "They have learned nothing, and they have forgotten nothing".

    • A.

      Valois

    • B.

      Bourbons

    • C.

      Carolingians

    • D.

      Bonapartes

    Correct Answer
    B. Bourbons
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Bourbons. The Bourbons were a royal dynasty that held the French throne until the French Revolution. They are known for their stubbornness, as it was said of them "They have learned nothing, and they have forgotten nothing". This statement suggests that the Bourbons were resistant to change and unwilling to adapt to the changing times, which ultimately contributed to their downfall during the revolution.

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  • 13. 

    After defeating France, Germany attempted to establish air superiority over England in a series of air battles that became to be known as:

    • A.

      The Battle of the Bulge

    • B.

      The Battle of the English Channel

    • C.

      The Blitzkrieg Battles

    • D.

      The Battle of Britain

    Correct Answer
    D. The Battle of Britain
    Explanation
    After defeating France, Germany attempted to establish air superiority over England in a series of air battles that became known as the Battle of Britain. This battle was a major campaign fought by the German Air Force, or Luftwaffe, against the Royal Air Force (RAF) of Britain. It took place from July to October 1940 and was a crucial turning point in World War II. The RAF successfully defended against the Luftwaffe's attacks, preventing Germany from gaining control of the skies and ultimately forcing them to abandon their plans for an invasion of Britain.

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  • 14. 

    Britain's empire began in the 16th century in:

    • A.

      The Americas

    • B.

      India

    • C.

      Turkey

    • D.

      North Africa

    Correct Answer
    A. The Americas
    Explanation
    Britain's empire began in the 16th century in the Americas. This refers to the colonization and establishment of British colonies in North America, specifically in areas like Jamestown (1607) and Plymouth (1620). These colonies marked the beginning of Britain's imperial expansion and influence in the New World.

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  • 15. 

    In the last major offensive by the Germans in World War II, the Allies' invasion of Belgium was halted by a German counterattack that was eventually driven back by General George Patton.

    • A.

      Battle of Arnhem

    • B.

      Battle of Brittany

    • C.

      Battle of Britain

    • D.

      Battle of the Bulge

    Correct Answer
    D. Battle of the Bulge
    Explanation
    The Battle of the Bulge was the last major offensive launched by the Germans in World War II. The Allies' invasion of Belgium was temporarily halted by a German counterattack during this battle. However, General George Patton led a successful effort to push back the German forces and ultimately defeat them.

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  • 16. 

    This Irish member of the British Parliment known for his oratory supported the American Revolution but opposed the French Revolution, calling it an unjustified break with tradition.

    • A.

      Thomas Paine

    • B.

      Edmund Burke

    • C.

      William Gladstone

    • D.

      John Locke

    Correct Answer
    B. Edmund Burke
    Explanation
    Edmund Burke was an Irish member of the British Parliament who was renowned for his eloquence. He was a supporter of the American Revolution, recognizing the just cause for independence. However, he opposed the French Revolution, viewing it as an unjustified departure from established traditions. This position aligns with Burke's conservative ideology, which emphasized the importance of preserving societal structures and gradual change rather than abrupt revolutions. Therefore, the correct answer is Edmund Burke.

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  • 17. 

    "Peace for our time" was an ill-timed and ironic statement by:

    • A.

      Winston Churchill

    • B.

      Woodrow Wilson

    • C.

      Herbert Hoover

    • D.

      Neville Chamberlain

    Correct Answer
    D. Neville Chamberlain
    Explanation
    The statement "Peace for our time" was made by Neville Chamberlain. This statement is considered ill-timed and ironic because it was made in 1938 after Chamberlain signed the Munich Agreement with Adolf Hitler, which was supposed to guarantee peace in Europe. However, this agreement ultimately failed to prevent World War II, making Chamberlain's statement ironic and a symbol of his failed appeasement policy towards Nazi Germany.

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  • 18. 

    President of China until being overthrown by the Communists in 1949, this general fled to Taiwan, where he established the Republic of China.

    • A.

      Chiang Kai-shek

    • B.

      Mao Zedong

    • C.

      Deng Xiaoping

    • D.

      Hu Yaobong

    Correct Answer
    A. Chiang Kai-shek
    Explanation
    Chiang Kai-shek is the correct answer because he was the President of China until he was overthrown by the Communists in 1949. After his defeat, he fled to Taiwan and established the Republic of China there. This move led to the division of China into two separate entities, with the Communist Party establishing the People's Republic of China on the mainland and Chiang Kai-shek's government maintaining control over Taiwan.

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  • 19. 

    Georges Clemenceau was ...

    • A.

      The first French president after World War II.

    • B.

      A French writer on political theory in the early 19th centrury.

    • C.

      The premier of France at the end of WWI who demanded reperation from Germany.

    • D.

      The French Minister of Foreign Affairs before the German invasion in WWII, driven into exile after the fall of Free France.

    Correct Answer
    C. The premier of France at the end of WWI who demanded reperation from Germany.
    Explanation
    Georges Clemenceau was the premier of France at the end of WWI who demanded reparation from Germany. This is evident from his role as the French premier during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, where he advocated for harsh measures against Germany and insisted on significant reparations to be paid by them. Clemenceau's stance on reparations was driven by his desire to punish Germany for the damages caused during the war and to ensure that France would be compensated for its losses.

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  • 20. 

    The government established in Britain and Ireland after the execution of Charles I in 1649 was known as ___________________. It was a republic under the leadership of the Parliament. Oliver Cromwell assumed supreme power, and the government quickly lost power after his death.

    • A.

      The English Republic

    • B.

      The Jacobeans

    • C.

      The Tudors

    • D.

      The Commonwealth

    Correct Answer
    D. The Commonwealth
    Explanation
    After the execution of Charles I in 1649, the government established in Britain and Ireland was known as the Commonwealth. This government was a republic led by the Parliament, with Oliver Cromwell assuming supreme power. However, the government's power quickly declined after Cromwell's death. The Commonwealth was a significant period in British history, characterized by the absence of a monarch and the establishment of a republican government.

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  • 21. 

    This Indian political party claimed Ghandi and Nehru as members, and dominated India's politics for 20 years after achieving independence from Britain in 1947.

    • A.

      Bharatiya Janata Party

    • B.

      Indian National Congress

    • C.

      Bahujan Samaj Party

    • D.

      Communist Party of India

    Correct Answer
    B. Indian National Congress
    Explanation
    The Indian National Congress is the correct answer because it is the political party that claimed Gandhi and Nehru as members and dominated India's politics for 20 years after independence from Britain in 1947. The Bharatiya Janata Party, Bahujan Samaj Party, and Communist Party of India are not relevant to the given information.

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  • 22. 

    This English explorer of the 18th century visited New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii and North America, and approached Antarctica.

    • A.

      James Cook

    • B.

      Sir Francis Drake

    • C.

      John Cabot

    • D.

      Walter Raleigh

    Correct Answer
    A. James Cook
    Explanation
    James Cook is the correct answer because he was an English explorer who embarked on multiple voyages during the 18th century. He visited various places including New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii, and North America. Cook is also known for his attempts to approach Antarctica, making significant contributions to the exploration and mapping of the Pacific Ocean and its surrounding regions. Sir Francis Drake, John Cabot, and Walter Raleigh were also notable explorers, but they did not visit all the mentioned places or approach Antarctica like Cook did.

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  • 23. 

    The Crimean War was fought to:

    • A.

      Keep the Ottoman Empire from advancing north into Russia.

    • B.

      Stem French incursion into Ottoman-controlled land.

    • C.

      Establish Islam in the region north and northwest of the Black Sea.

    • D.

      Defend the Ottoman Empire against the Russians and preserve the regional balance of power.

    Correct Answer
    D. Defend the Ottoman Empire against the Russians and preserve the regional balance of power.
    Explanation
    The Crimean War was fought to defend the Ottoman Empire against the Russians and preserve the regional balance of power. The conflict arose from a dispute between Russia and the Ottoman Empire over the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land. France and Britain, concerned about Russia's expanding influence, joined forces with the Ottomans to prevent Russian dominance in the region. The war ultimately aimed to protect the Ottoman Empire's territorial integrity and maintain the equilibrium of power among European nations.

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  • 24. 

    A movement that was started to restore vitality to the Chinese Communist Government, and saw oppression of the educated Chinese class and the rise of the Red Guard.

    • A.

      The Great Leap Forward.

    • B.

      Tiananmen Square Resistance.

    • C.

      The Cultural Revolution.

    • D.

      The Communist Revolution.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Cultural Revolution.
    Explanation
    The given description refers to a movement in China that aimed to revive the Chinese Communist Government. This movement resulted in the oppression of the educated Chinese class and the emergence of the Red Guard. This aligns with the characteristics of the Cultural Revolution, which was a sociopolitical movement led by Mao Zedong in the 1960s. During this period, Mao sought to eliminate capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society and promote his own ideology. The Cultural Revolution involved mass mobilization, political purges, and widespread violence, leading to significant social and economic disruption in China.

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  • 25. 

    A prominent figure in the French Revolution who pressed for the execution of the king, but clashed with the more radical elements of the Revolution. He was eventually executed by the latter.

    • A.

      Georges Danton

    • B.

      Joseph Bonaparte

    • C.

      Denis Diderot

    • D.

      Robespierre

    Correct Answer
    A. Georges Danton
    Explanation
    Georges Danton was a prominent figure in the French Revolution who played a key role in the execution of King Louis XVI. However, he clashed with the more radical elements of the Revolution, particularly Maximilien Robespierre. Danton advocated for a more moderate approach, focusing on stabilizing the country and improving the economy. This put him at odds with Robespierre and his supporters, who believed in a more radical and uncompromising approach. Eventually, Danton was arrested and executed by Robespierre's faction, marking a significant turning point in the French Revolution.

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  • 26. 

    The French left Vietnam after:

    • A.

      Being defeated at Bienbienphu.

    • B.

      Defeating the Vietnamese at Hanoi.

    • C.

      Establishing an colonial government.

    • D.

      Charles de Gaulle left office and the Fourth Republic ended.

    Correct Answer
    A. Being defeated at Bienbienphu.
    Explanation
    The French left Vietnam after being defeated at Bienbienphu. This battle, which took place in 1954, was a significant turning point in the First Indochina War. The French forces were surrounded and ultimately defeated by the Viet Minh, the communist nationalist army led by Ho Chi Minh. This defeat led to the signing of the Geneva Accords, which effectively ended French colonial rule in Vietnam and divided the country into North and South Vietnam.

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  • 27. 

    Who was Benjamin Disraeli?

    • A.

      A Frenchman influential in Algerian politics.

    • B.

      An English political leader of the Tory party that drove expansion of the British Empire.

    • C.

      An English Jew prominent in the creation of the modern state of Israel.

    • D.

      An American writer critical of Dutch colonialism in Africa.

    Correct Answer
    B. An English political leader of the Tory party that drove expansion of the British Empire.
    Explanation
    Benjamin Disraeli was an English political leader who belonged to the Tory party. He played a significant role in driving the expansion of the British Empire. Disraeli served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom twice and was known for his imperialistic policies. He was instrumental in the acquisition of territories such as Cyprus and the Suez Canal Zone, which furthered the British Empire's influence and control. Disraeli's political career and his contributions to British imperialism make him the correct answer to the question.

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  • 28. 

    An English navigator, this captain participated in the destruction of the Spanish Armada and sailed around the world.

    • A.

      John Cabot

    • B.

      Sir Francis Drake

    • C.

      James Cook

    • D.

      Walter Raleigh

    Correct Answer
    B. Sir Francis Drake
    Explanation
    Sir Francis Drake is the correct answer because he was an English navigator who played a significant role in the destruction of the Spanish Armada and was also the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe. He was known for his daring voyages and his contributions to English naval power during the Elizabethan era.

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  • 29. 

    Dunkirk marked:

    • A.

      The penultimate Allied victory in WWII.

    • B.

      The location of the first battle of WWI.

    • C.

      The site where British soldiers were ferried to England after the fall of France in WWII.

    • D.

      The location where the puppet French government was set up by the Germans after the fall of France in WWII.

    Correct Answer
    C. The site where British soldiers were ferried to England after the fall of France in WWII.
    Explanation
    Dunkirk marked the site where British soldiers were ferried to England after the fall of France in WWII. This is evident from the historical context of the event. During the Battle of Dunkirk in 1940, the British Expeditionary Force, along with French and Belgian troops, was surrounded by German forces. In an extraordinary evacuation effort known as Operation Dynamo, a fleet of over 800 boats, including military and civilian vessels, rescued around 338,000 soldiers from the beaches of Dunkirk and transported them safely back to England. This event is considered a significant moment in WWII and symbolizes the resilience and determination of the Allied forces.

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  • 30. 

    The period of early 20th century history led by Edward VII was marked by elegance and luxury, but also for its moral looseness and failure to prepare for some of the challenges of the later 20th century.

    • A.

      The Interregnum

    • B.

      The Edwardian Period

    • C.

      England's Golden Age

    • D.

      Home Rule

    Correct Answer
    B. The Edwardian Period
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Edwardian Period. The statement mentions that the period of early 20th century history was led by Edward VII, which indicates that it was his reign that characterized this time. The term "Edwardian" is commonly used to refer to this specific period in history, which was known for its elegance, luxury, and moral looseness. Additionally, the statement suggests that this period failed to prepare for the challenges of the later 20th century, further supporting the idea that it refers to the Edwardian Period.

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  • 31. 

    This Queen of England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries presided over an amazing time in British history: the Renaissance in England, Shakespeare's rise to prominence, and the defeat of the Spanish Armada. The American state of Virginia is named after her.

    • A.

      Mary I

    • B.

      Mary II

    • C.

      Anne Boleyn

    • D.

      Elizabeth I

    Correct Answer
    D. Elizabeth I
    Explanation
    Elizabeth I was the Queen of England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. She presided over a significant period in British history, known as the Renaissance in England, which saw a flourishing of arts, literature, and culture. Shakespeare rose to prominence during her reign, and she played a key role in supporting and promoting the arts. Elizabeth I also famously led England to victory against the Spanish Armada, a significant military triumph. The American state of Virginia was named after her, as she was known as the "Virgin Queen" due to her unmarried status.

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  • 32. 

    What is the fin de siecle?

    • A.

      In Spain, a reference to the close of the era of Spanish imperialism.

    • B.

      The close of the French Fourth Republic in the 20th century.

    • C.

      The end of the 19th century, especially with reference to the sense of decadence, dispair or artistic self-consciousness popular at the time.

    • D.

      The end of the second millenium.

    Correct Answer
    C. The end of the 19th century, especially with reference to the sense of decadence, dispair or artistic self-consciousness popular at the time.
    Explanation
    The term "fin de siècle" refers to the end of the 19th century, specifically highlighting the prevailing atmosphere of decadence, despair, and artistic self-consciousness during that time. It captures the cultural and intellectual climate of the late 1800s, characterized by a sense of disillusionment and a fascination with the darker aspects of human existence. This term is often associated with movements such as Symbolism and Decadence, which emerged during this period and reflected the mood of the era.

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  • 33. 

    After leading the Nationalist armies against the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War, this fascist leader ruled Spain with a firm grip until his death in 1975.

    • A.

      King Juan Carlos

    • B.

      General Sanjurjo

    • C.

      Francisco Franco

    • D.

      Augusto Pinochet

    Correct Answer
    C. Francisco Franco
    Explanation
    Francisco Franco is the correct answer because he led the Nationalist armies against the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War and ruled Spain until his death in 1975. He was a fascist leader who established a dictatorship in Spain, known as Francoist Spain, and maintained a strong grip on power throughout his regime. His rule was characterized by authoritarianism, repression, and the suppression of political dissent.

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  • 34. 

    The daughter of __________________, Indira Gandhi was prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and 1980 to 1984, when she was assassinated.

    • A.

      Rajiv Gandhi

    • B.

      Jawaharlal Nehru

    • C.

      Mahatma Gandhi

    • D.

      Ratan Tata

    Correct Answer
    B. Jawaharlal Nehru
    Explanation
    Indira Gandhi, the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, served as the prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and 1980 to 1984, when she was assassinated. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first prime minister of India and a prominent leader in the Indian independence movement. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, followed in his footsteps and became a significant political figure in India.

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  • 35. 

    Guiseppe Garibaldi is known for ___________________.

    • A.

      Modernizing of the Italian educational system

    • B.

      Leading the Red Shirts during the Risorgimento (unification of Italy).

    • C.

      Opposing the Catholic Church on corruption charges, leading to the Church's loss of claim to the city of Rome.

    • D.

      Negotiating between the Venice and Rome during their respective military forays into the Black Sea region.

    Correct Answer
    B. Leading the Red Shirts during the Risorgimento (unification of Italy).
    Explanation
    Giuseppe Garibaldi is known for leading the Red Shirts during the Risorgimento (unification of Italy). During this period, he played a crucial role in the unification of Italy by leading a volunteer army known as the Red Shirts. Garibaldi's military campaigns and victories were instrumental in overthrowing various foreign rulers and contributing to the formation of a unified Italian state. His leadership and military strategies made him a prominent figure in the Italian unification movement, earning him recognition and admiration for his role in the Risorgimento.

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  • 36. 

    Who was the English monarch during the American Revolutionary War?

    • A.

      Elizabeth I

    • B.

      George III

    • C.

      Henry IV

    • D.

      Richard II

    Correct Answer
    B. George III
    Explanation
    During the American Revolutionary War, George III was the English monarch. He reigned from 1760 until 1820 and is known for his role in the conflict with the American colonies. George III's policies and actions, such as imposing taxes and refusing to address the colonists' grievances, contributed to the tensions that eventually led to the war. His reign is closely associated with the loss of the American colonies and the birth of the United States as an independent nation.

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  • 37. 

    This English political leader served as Benjamin Disraeli's foil, and as prime minister several times during the reign of Queen Victoria. He was particularly interested in providing Ireland with their own government.

    • A.

      William Gladstone

    • B.

      John Bull

    • C.

      Arthur Balfour

    • D.

      Robert Peel

    Correct Answer
    A. William Gladstone
    Explanation
    William Gladstone served as Benjamin Disraeli's foil, meaning that he was his rival or opposite in terms of political ideology and leadership style. He was prime minister several times during Queen Victoria's reign and was known for his interest in providing Ireland with their own government. This suggests that he was an influential and significant political leader during the time, making him the correct answer.

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  • 38. 

    A revolution in Britain in 1688 in which parliment deposed the Catholic James II and awarded the crown to the Protestant William III and Mary II as joint rulers. They subsequently agreed to a Bill of Rights that severly limited the monarchy's capricious power.

    • A.

      The Jacobite Risings

    • B.

      Kett's Rebellion

    • C.

      Metacom's Rebellion

    • D.

      The Glorious Revolution

    Correct Answer
    D. The Glorious Revolution
    Explanation
    The correct answer is The Glorious Revolution. This event took place in Britain in 1688 and involved parliament removing the Catholic James II from the throne and replacing him with the Protestant William III and Mary II as joint rulers. Following this, a Bill of Rights was agreed upon, which significantly restricted the monarchy's arbitrary power.

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  • 39. 

    Ernesto "Che" Guevara was a revolutionary that started his career in  ____________ before being killed in __________________ in 1967.

    • A.

      Russia / Cuba

    • B.

      Venezuela / Columbia

    • C.

      The United States / Brazil

    • D.

      Cuba / Bolivia

    Correct Answer
    D. Cuba / Bolivia
    Explanation
    Ernesto "Che" Guevara, a revolutionary, began his career in Cuba before being killed in Bolivia in 1967.

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  • 40. 

    A Swedish diplomat of the 20th century and secretary-general of the UN from 1953 to 1961, he was very involved in the movement toward independence for African nations.

    • A.

      Raoul Wallenberg

    • B.

      Rolf Ekeus

    • C.

      Dag Hammarskjold

    • D.

      Hans Blix

    Correct Answer
    C. Dag Hammarskjold
    Explanation
    Dag Hammarskjold was a Swedish diplomat and the secretary-general of the UN from 1953 to 1961. During his time as secretary-general, he played a significant role in the movement toward independence for African nations. He actively supported decolonization efforts and worked to promote self-determination for African countries. His commitment to African independence made him a key figure in the decolonization process and a strong advocate for African nations within the United Nations.

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  • 41. 

    House of Hanover:

    • A.

      A German family that took control of the English crown in the 18th century, and still retains the monarchy.

    • B.

      A French royal family during the 18th century before the French Revolution.

    • C.

      An English royal family that won the Wars of the Roses.

    • D.

      The monarchy that took hold in Britain after the 1066 Battle of Hastings.

    Correct Answer
    A. A German family that took control of the English crown in the 18th century, and still retains the monarchy.
    Explanation
    The House of Hanover refers to a German family that gained control of the English crown in the 18th century. They continue to hold the monarchy to this day. This answer accurately describes the historical background and current status of the House of Hanover.

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  • 42. 

    The Hapsburgs were a dynastic family whose head held the title of ________________; by 1914 their Austro-Hungarian Empire included much of central and southern Europe. The empire collapsed during WWI.

    • A.

      Absolute Monarch

    • B.

      Divine Prelate

    • C.

      Holy Roman Emperor

    • D.

      Hungarian Emperor

    Correct Answer
    C. Holy Roman Emperor
    Explanation
    The Hapsburgs held the title of Holy Roman Emperor. This title gave them significant power and authority over the territories that made up the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The collapse of the empire during WWI suggests that the Hapsburgs' rule as Holy Roman Emperors came to an end during this time.

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  • 43. 

    Heinrich Himmler organized ______________ within the German Nazi state.

    • A.

      Propaganda

    • B.

      The blitzkreig air campaign

    • C.

      Control over Vichy France

    • D.

      SS, Gestapo and concentration camps

    Correct Answer
    D. SS, Gestapo and concentration camps
    Explanation
    Heinrich Himmler, a prominent figure within the German Nazi state, was responsible for organizing the SS (Schutzstaffel), Gestapo, and concentration camps. The SS was a paramilitary organization that played a key role in carrying out the Nazi regime's policies, including the implementation of the Holocaust. The Gestapo, the secret police force, was under the control of Himmler and was notorious for its brutal methods of interrogation and suppression of opposition. The concentration camps, such as Auschwitz and Dachau, were established to imprison and exterminate millions of people deemed undesirable by the Nazis, including Jews, political dissidents, and other marginalized groups.

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  • 44. 

    French Protestants of the 16th and 17th centuries, who were frequently persecuted by the government and the Catholic Church. When an edict allowing them to practice their religion was revoked by Louis XIV, many fled France.

    • A.

      Confederates

    • B.

      Lutherans

    • C.

      Huguenots

    • D.

      Free Reformers

    Correct Answer
    C. Huguenots
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Huguenots. The Huguenots were French Protestants during the 16th and 17th centuries who faced persecution from the government and the Catholic Church. Louis XIV revoked an edict that allowed them to practice their religion, leading many Huguenots to flee France.

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  • 45. 

    What was International?

    • A.

      A French revolutionary group.

    • B.

      Karl Marx's organization of workers.

    • C.

      John Maynard Keynes' school of economic theory.

    • D.

      The name of Salvadore Allande's radical followers in Chile.

    Correct Answer
    B. Karl Marx's organization of workers.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Karl Marx's organization of workers. This is because International refers to the International Workingmen's Association, also known as the First International, which was founded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1864. It was an international organization that aimed to unite and coordinate the efforts of workers across different countries to fight for their rights and improve their working conditions.

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  • 46. 

    An extreme radical party during the French Revolution, led by Robespierre. They oversaw the Reign of Terror.

    • A.

      Jacobins

    • B.

      Bastillians

    • C.

      The Directory

    • D.

      The Consulate

    Correct Answer
    A. Jacobins
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Jacobins because they were an extreme radical party during the French Revolution, led by Robespierre. They were known for their radical and violent tactics, and they implemented the Reign of Terror, a period of mass executions and political repression. The Jacobins played a significant role in the French Revolution and their actions had a lasting impact on the course of history.

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  • 47. 

    Pope John XXIII is known for ____________________.

    • A.

      Pushing the Church towards more conservative policies

    • B.

      Convening Vatican II

    • C.

      Giving up Rome in exchange for Vatican City

    • D.

      His extremely long tenure during the 19th century.

    Correct Answer
    B. Convening Vatican II
    Explanation
    Pope John XXIII is known for convening Vatican II. Vatican II was a significant event in the history of the Catholic Church, as it brought about major reforms and changes in the Church's teachings, practices, and relationship with the modern world. Pope John XXIII initiated the council in 1962 with the aim of renewing and updating the Church's approach to various aspects of faith and life. Vatican II addressed topics such as liturgy, ecumenism, interreligious dialogue, and the role of the laity in the Church. It had a profound impact on the Catholic Church and its relationship with the world.

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  • 48. 

    Khmer Rouge was a _____________ communist movement, that killed 2-4 million of its own people.

    • A.

      Sri Lankan

    • B.

      Vietnamese

    • C.

      Thai

    • D.

      Cambodian

    Correct Answer
    D. Cambodian
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Cambodian because the Khmer Rouge was a communist movement that originated in Cambodia. They were responsible for the deaths of an estimated 2-4 million Cambodians during their reign in the late 1970s.

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  • 49. 

    A Scottish sailor of the 17th and 18th centuries,  ________________ was actually hired by the English government to combat piracy before allegedly going rogue himself. He was eventually captured and executed.

    • A.

      Henry Morgan

    • B.

      Edward Teach (Blackbeard)

    • C.

      Captain William Kidd

    • D.

      Jack Rackham (Calico Jack)

    Correct Answer
    C. Captain William Kidd
    Explanation
    Captain William Kidd was a Scottish sailor of the 17th and 18th centuries who was hired by the English government to combat piracy. However, he allegedly turned to piracy himself, which led to his capture and execution.

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  • 50. 

    Klondike, a Canadian region, became famous when

    • A.

      Gold was discovered in one of its rivers.

    • B.

      A series of unsolved murders shook the area.

    • C.

      A large earthquake devastated the area, killing 65% of all urban residents.

    • D.

      A large copper mine was discovered, leading to heavy industrialization.

    Correct Answer
    A. Gold was discovered in one of its rivers.
    Explanation
    Klondike, a Canadian region, became famous when gold was discovered in one of its rivers. This discovery led to a gold rush in the late 19th century, attracting thousands of prospectors from all over the world. The gold rush not only brought economic prosperity to the region but also had a significant impact on the development of the area. It led to the establishment of mining towns, the construction of infrastructure, and the growth of businesses to support the mining industry. The discovery of gold in Klondike became a significant event in Canadian history and is often associated with the region.

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  • Jan 09, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 25, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Adrusu01
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