# Ppl – Flight Performance And Planning

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| By Rion Sigaya
Rion Sigaya, 3D animator
Jan Michael 'Rion' Sigaya, a former 3D animator turned licensed pilot with a Flight Instructor (FI) license, adeptly navigated the skies before unforeseen pandemic challenges led him back to his roots in the world of 3D animation.
Quizzes Created: 17 | Total Attempts: 228,140
Questions: 20 | Attempts: 12,974

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• 1.

### The four forces acting on an airplane in-flight are:

• A.

Lift, weight, thrust, and drag.

• B.

Lift, weight, gravity, and thrust.

• C.

Lift, weight, gravity, power, and friction

A. Lift, weight, thrust, and drag.
Explanation
The correct answer is lift, weight, thrust, and drag. These four forces are fundamental to the dynamics of an airplane in-flight. Lift is the force that opposes gravity and allows the airplane to stay airborne. Weight is the force exerted by gravity on the airplane. Thrust is the force that propels the airplane forward. Drag is the force that opposes the motion of the airplane and is caused by air resistance. Together, these forces determine the flight characteristics and performance of the airplane.

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• 2.

### (Refer to figure 38.) Determine the approximate total distance required to land Over a 50-foot obstacle. OAT..................90°F Pressure ............. 4,000 Feet Weight ................2,800 pounds Headwind component ..10knots

• A.

1,525 feet

• B.

1,950 feet

• C.

1,775 feet

C. 1,775 feet
Explanation
Based on the given information, the approximate total distance required to land over a 50-foot obstacle can be determined. The temperature (OAT) and pressure altitude are provided, which are important factors in calculating aircraft performance. The weight of the aircraft is also given, which affects the aircraft's ability to land and stop. Additionally, the headwind component is provided, which can help reduce the groundspeed and therefore the distance required to land. Taking all these factors into account, the approximate total distance required to land is determined to be 1,775 feet.

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• 3.

### To minimize the side loads placed on the landing gear during touchdown, the pilot should keep:

• A.

Direction of motion of the aircraft parallel to the runway.

• B.

Down wing lowered sufficiently to eliminate the tendency for the aircraft to drift.

• C.

Longitudinal axis of the aircraft parallel to the direction of its motion.

C. Longitudinal axis of the aircraft parallel to the direction of its motion.
Explanation
To minimize the side loads placed on the landing gear during touchdown, it is important for the pilot to keep the longitudinal axis of the aircraft parallel to the direction of its motion. This means that the aircraft should be aligned with the runway and not drifting to either side. By keeping the longitudinal axis parallel, the landing gear will experience less stress and the risk of damage or instability during touchdown will be reduced.

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• 4.

### (Refer to figure 41) Determine the total distance required for takeoff to clear a 50-foot obstacle. OAT...............................Std Pressure ............. ........4,000 Feet Takeoff Weight .............2,800 pounds Headwind component ....Calm

• A.

1,500 feet

• B.

2,000 feet

• C.

1,750 feet

C. 1,750 feet
Explanation
Based on the given information, the total distance required for takeoff to clear a 50-foot obstacle is 1,750 feet. The question does not specify any additional factors that may affect the takeoff distance, such as runway conditions or aircraft performance. Therefore, we can assume that the given answer is based on standard conditions and calculations for a 2,800-pound aircraft at 4,000 feet pressure altitude with no headwind component.

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• 5.

### If an altimeter setting is not available before flight, to which altitude should the pilot adjust the altimeter?

• A.

The elevation of the nearest airport corrected to mean sea level.

• B.

The elevation of the departure area.

• C.

Pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard.

B. The elevation of the departure area.
Explanation
If an altimeter setting is not available before flight, the pilot should adjust the altimeter to the elevation of the departure area. This is because the altimeter measures altitude based on atmospheric pressure, and the departure area's elevation would provide a reference point for the initial altitude setting. The elevation of the nearest airport corrected to mean sea level may not accurately reflect the departure area's elevation, and pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard may not be applicable if the altimeter setting is not available. Therefore, adjusting the altimeter to the elevation of the departure area would be the most appropriate choice.

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• 6.

### Loading an airplane to the most aft CG will cause the airplane to be:

• A.

Less stable at slow speeds, but more stable at high speeds.

• B.

Less stable at high speeds, but more stable at low speeds.

• C.

Less stable at all speed.

C. Less stable at all speed.
Explanation
Loading an airplane to the most aft CG (Center of Gravity) means shifting the weight toward the rear of the aircraft. This causes a decrease in stability at all speeds. At slow speeds, the aircraft becomes even less stable because the center of gravity is further away from the center of lift, making it more difficult to control. At high speeds, the aircraft may become more stable due to increased aerodynamic forces, but the overall stability is still compromised due to the aft CG position. Therefore, the correct answer is that loading the airplane to the most aft CG will result in less stability at all speeds.

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• 7.

### GIVEN:                  WEIGHT               MOMENT            ARM Empty Weight      1495                      151593            101.4 Pilot and pax        380                                                 64 (AVGAS) Fuel (30 gal Usable no reserve) 96 The CG is located how far to the aft of datum?

• A.

CG 94.01

• B.

CG 92.44

• C.

CG 119.8

A. CG 94.01
Explanation
The correct answer is CG 94.01. This is determined by calculating the moment of each weight and dividing it by the total weight. The moment is calculated by multiplying the weight by its respective arm. Adding up all the moments and dividing by the total weight gives the CG location. In this case, the moment of the empty weight is 151593, the moment of the pilot and passengers is 24320, and the moment of the fuel is 2889. Adding these moments and dividing by the total weight of 1971 gives a CG location of 94.01.

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• 8.

### If it is necessary to set the altimeter from 29.15 to 29.85, what change occurs?

• A.

700-foot increase in indicated altitude.

• B.

70-foot increase in indicated altitude.

• C.

70-foot increase in density altitude.

A. 700-foot increase in indicated altitude.
Explanation
When the altimeter is set from 29.15 to 29.85, it means that the atmospheric pressure has increased. As a result, the altimeter will indicate a higher altitude than before. The change in altimeter setting of 0.70 inches of mercury corresponds to a 700-foot increase in indicated altitude.

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• 9.

### The angle of attack at which an airplane wing will stalls:

• A.

Increase if the CG is moved forward

• B.

Remain the same regardless of gross weight.

• C.

Change with an increase in gross weight.

B. Remain the same regardless of gross weight.
Explanation
The angle of attack at which an airplane wing will stall refers to the critical angle at which the airflow over the wing becomes disrupted, causing a loss of lift. This angle is determined by the shape and design of the wing, and it remains the same regardless of the gross weight of the aircraft. The position of the center of gravity (CG) affects the stability and control of the aircraft, but it does not directly impact the angle of attack at which the wing stalls. Therefore, the correct answer is that the angle of attack remains the same regardless of gross weight.

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• 10.

### When computing weight and balance, the basic empty weight includes the weight of the airframe, engine(s), and all installed optional equipment. Basic empty weight also includes?

• A.

The unusable fuel, full operating fluids, and full oil

• B.

All usable fuel, full oil, hydraulic fluid, but does not include the weight of pilot, passengers, or baggage

• C.

All usable fuel and oil, but does not include any radio equipment or instruments that were installed by someone other than the manufacturer

A. The unusable fuel, full operating fluids, and full oil
Explanation
The basic empty weight includes the weight of the airframe, engine(s), and all installed optional equipment. In addition to these components, it also includes the weight of the unusable fuel, full operating fluids, and full oil. This means that when calculating the weight and balance of the aircraft, these factors need to be taken into account along with the weight of the airframe, engine(s), and optional equipment.

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• 11.

### (Refer to figure 31) If the tower-reported surface wind is 010° at 18 knots, what is the crosswind component for a Rwy 08 landing?

• A.

7 knots

• B.

15 knots

• C.

17 knots

C. 17 knots
Explanation
The tower-reported surface wind is given as 010° at 18 knots. To find the crosswind component for a Rwy 08 landing, we need to calculate the difference between the runway heading (080°) and the wind direction (010°). The difference is 70°. Using the sine rule, we can calculate the crosswind component by multiplying the wind speed (18 knots) by the sine of the angle (70°). The crosswind component is approximately 17 knots.

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• 12.

### (Refer to figure 11) If the cruise altitude is 7,500 feet, using 64 percent power at 2,500 RPM, what would be the range with 48 gallons of usable fuel?

• A.

635 miles

• B.

645 miles

• C.

810 miles

C. 810 miles
Explanation
Based on the given information, the cruise altitude, power setting, RPM, and fuel quantity are provided. To calculate the range, we need to consider the fuel consumption rate at the given power setting and RPM. Since the question does not provide this information, it is assumed that the fuel consumption rate is constant. Therefore, the range is directly proportional to the amount of fuel available. As the fuel quantity is fixed at 48 gallons, the range will be maximum, which is 810 miles.

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• 13.

### (Refer to figure 11) What would be the endurance at an altitude of 7,500 feet, using 52 percent power? NOTE: with 48gallons of fuel – no reserve

• A.

6.1 hours

• B.

7.7 hours

• C.

8.0 hours

B. 7.7 hours
Explanation
At an altitude of 7,500 feet and using 52 percent power, the endurance is 7.7 hours. This means that the aircraft can fly for 7.7 hours at this altitude and power setting without running out of fuel, assuming there is no reserve fuel.

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• 14.

### (Refer to figure 11) What would be the approximate true airspeed and fuel consumption per hour at an altitude of 7,500 feet, using 52 percent power?

• A.

103 MPH TAS, 6.3 GPH

• B.

105 MPH TAS, 6.6 GPH

• C.

105 MPH TAS, 6.2 GPH

C. 105 MPH TAS, 6.2 GPH
• 15.

### The CG of an aircraft can be determine by which of the following method’s?

• A.

Dividing total arms by total moments

• B.

Multiplying total arms by total weight

• C.

Dividing total moments by total weight

C. Dividing total moments by total weight
Explanation
The correct answer is dividing total moments by total weight. This method is used to calculate the center of gravity (CG) of an aircraft. The CG is the point where the total weight of the aircraft can be considered to act. By dividing the total moments (the product of the weight and its distance from a reference point) by the total weight, the CG can be determined. This calculation is important for ensuring proper balance and stability of the aircraft during flight.

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• 16.

### The CG of an aircraft may be determined by:

• A.

Dividing total arms by total moments

• B.

Dividing total moments by total weight

• C.

Multiplying total weight by total moments

B. Dividing total moments by total weight
Explanation
The correct answer is dividing total moments by total weight. The center of gravity (CG) of an aircraft can be determined by dividing the total moments (the product of weight and arm) by the total weight. This calculation helps to find the point where the aircraft's weight is evenly distributed, ensuring stability and proper control during flight.

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• 17.

### If all index units are positive when computing weight and balance, the location of the datum would be at the:

• A.

Centerline of the main wheels

• B.

Nose, or out in front of the airplane

• C.

Centerline of the nose or tailwheel, depending on the type of airplane

B. Nose, or out in front of the airplane
Explanation
When computing weight and balance, if all index units are positive, it means that the weight is concentrated towards the front of the airplane. In this case, the location of the datum would be at the nose or out in front of the airplane. The datum is a reference point used to calculate the moments and balance of an aircraft. Since the weight is predominantly towards the front, the datum would be located at the nose or in front of the airplane.

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• 18.

• A.

46 pounds

• B.

51 pounds

• C.

58 pounds

C. 58 pounds
• 19.

### (Refer to figure 14) GIVEN: Aircraft weight..............................................3,700 lb Airport pressure altitude.................................4,000 ft Temperature at 4,000 ft..................................21° C Using a normal climb under the given conditions, how much fuel would be used from engine start to a pressure altitude of 12,000 ft.?

• A.

30 pounds

• B.

37 pounds

• C.

46 pounds

C. 46 pounds
Explanation
Based on the given information, the aircraft weight is 3,700 lb and the pressure altitude is 4,000 ft. The temperature at 4,000 ft is 21°C. The question asks for the amount of fuel used from engine start to a pressure altitude of 12,000 ft. The correct answer is 46 pounds. The explanation for this answer is not available.

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• 20.

### What effect does an uphill runway slope have on takeoff performance?

• A.

Increase takeoff speed

• B.

Increase takeoff distance

• C.

Decrease takeoff distance

B. Increase takeoff distance
Explanation
An uphill runway slope increases takeoff distance because the aircraft needs to generate more lift to overcome the incline. This requires a higher speed and a longer distance to achieve the necessary lift and take off safely. The uphill slope creates additional resistance and reduces the efficiency of the takeoff, resulting in an increased distance required for the aircraft to become airborne.

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• Current Version
• Mar 22, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Jan 14, 2019
Quiz Created by
Rion Sigaya

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