Science Behind Accurate Exercise Programs Unit 5

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Science Behind Accurate Exercise Programs Unit 5 - Quiz


Science behind accurate exercise programs


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Muscle glycogen is the primary fuel source used during endurance exercise.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False.

    Correct Answer
    B. False.
    Explanation
    Muscle glycogen is not the primary fuel source used during endurance exercise. Instead, the primary fuel source is stored body fat. During prolonged exercise, the body taps into its fat stores to provide energy for the muscles. While muscle glycogen is still utilized, it is not the primary source of fuel.

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  • 2. 

    ATP stands for:

    • A.

      Alpha tri-peptide

    • B.

      Adenosine triphosphate.

    • C.

      Amino tri-peptide

    • D.

      Active transport pathway

    Correct Answer
    B. Adenosine triphosphate.
    Explanation
    ATP stands for Adenosine triphosphate. Adenosine triphosphate is a molecule that stores and releases energy in living organisms. It is often referred to as the "energy currency" of the cell because it provides the necessary energy for cellular processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and chemical synthesis. The molecule consists of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups, which are high-energy bonds that can be broken to release energy when needed. ATP is essential for the functioning of all living cells and is involved in various metabolic processes.

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  • 3. 

    The ATP/CP pathway is sufficient is sufficient for over five minutes of ATP production.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False.

    Correct Answer
    B. False.
    Explanation
    The ATP/CP pathway, also known as the phosphagen system, is a rapid but limited source of ATP production. It relies on the breakdown of stored creatine phosphate (CP) to generate ATP. However, the CP stores in the muscles are very small and can only sustain ATP production for a short duration, typically around 10-15 seconds of intense exercise. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that the ATP/CP pathway is sufficient for over five minutes of ATP production.

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  • 4. 

    The fuel source for the phosphate system is:

    • A.

      Blood glucose

    • B.

      Fatty acids

    • C.

      Stored ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

    • D.

      Glycogen

    Correct Answer
    C. Stored ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
    Explanation
    The fuel source for the phosphate system is stored ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is a molecule that stores and releases energy for cellular processes. In the phosphate system, ATP is broken down into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a phosphate group, releasing energy that can be used for short bursts of high-intensity exercise. This system is important for activities like sprinting or weightlifting, where energy needs to be rapidly available. Blood glucose, fatty acids, and glycogen are not the primary fuel sources for the phosphate system.

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  • 5. 

    The Lactic Acid System (anaerobic glycolysis):

    • A.

      Supplies energy needed to walk or cycle continuously

    • B.

      Provides energy to pitch a baseball

    • C.

      Creates energy need to pass another 5K participant with a burst on energy.

    • D.

      Does none of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Creates energy need to pass another 5K participant with a burst on energy.
    Explanation
    The Lactic Acid System (anaerobic glycolysis) is responsible for creating energy needed to pass another 5K participant with a burst of energy. This system is activated during high-intensity activities that require a sudden increase in energy output, such as sprinting or performing quick bursts of power. It allows the body to produce energy quickly without the need for oxygen, but it is not the primary source of energy for activities like walking or cycling continuously, nor does it provide energy for pitching a baseball.

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  • 6. 

    Once the BLT (Blood Lactate Threshold) has been reached, the dominant energy system present is:

    • A.

      Lactic acid.

    • B.

      Aerobic

    • C.

      Creatine

    • D.

      Oxidative

    Correct Answer
    A. Lactic acid.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Lactic acid. Once the BLT (Blood Lactate Threshold) has been reached, the dominant energy system present is lactic acid. This is because at this threshold, the body is producing lactic acid faster than it can be cleared, leading to an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and bloodstream. This anaerobic energy system relies on the breakdown of glucose without the use of oxygen to produce energy for the muscles.

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  • 7. 

    Aerobic glycolysis ultimately leads to the formation and significant accumulation of lactic acid.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False.

    Correct Answer
    B. False.
    Explanation
    Aerobic glycolysis does not lead to the significant accumulation of lactic acid. Instead, aerobic glycolysis is a process that occurs in the presence of oxygen and results in the production of pyruvate, which can then enter the citric acid cycle for further energy production. Lactic acid is produced during anaerobic glycolysis, which occurs in the absence of oxygen.

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  • 8. 

    The preferred fuel for the body during high intensity exercise is:

    • A.

      Fat

    • B.

      Protein

    • C.

      Carbohydrates.

    • D.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbohydrates.
    Explanation
    During high intensity exercise, the body requires a quick and easily accessible source of energy. Carbohydrates are the preferred fuel for the body in this situation because they can be broken down into glucose, which is readily used by the muscles for energy. Fat and protein take longer to break down and convert into energy, making them less efficient for high intensity exercise. Water is important for hydration, but it does not provide the necessary fuel for the body during exercise.

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  • 9. 

    Energy from fat is virtually unlimited in the present of sufficient oxygen.

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True.
    Explanation
    When there is sufficient oxygen available, the body can convert fat into energy through a process called aerobic metabolism. Unlike carbohydrates, which are stored in limited quantities in the body, fat reserves are virtually unlimited. Therefore, when oxygen is present, the body can rely on fat as a long-lasting and abundant source of energy.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of a non-specidic warm up?

    • A.

      Permits a gradual increase in metabolic requirements

    • B.

      Increases heart stress to prepare the body for more vigorous activity.

    • C.

      Prevents the premature onset of blood lactic acid accumulation and premature fatigue

    • D.

      Enhances neural transmission for muscle contraction and motor-unit recruitment

    Correct Answer
    B. Increases heart stress to prepare the body for more vigorous activity.
  • 11. 

    An active cool down of mild to moderate exercise means that client will continue to exercise at an intensity equal to that of what they used during the main body of their cardio-respiratory workout.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False.

    Correct Answer
    B. False.
    Explanation
    An active cool down of mild to moderate exercise does not mean that the client will continue to exercise at the same intensity as during the main body of their workout. Instead, an active cool down typically involves gradually decreasing the intensity of exercise to allow the body to gradually return to its resting state. This may involve slower movements, stretching, or other low-intensity activities. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 12. 

    Lactic acid is not a waste product

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True.
    Explanation
    Lactic acid is not a waste product because it serves as an important energy source for muscles during intense exercise. It is produced when the body breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen, a process called anaerobic metabolism. Lactic acid can be converted back into glucose by the liver, allowing it to be used again as fuel. Additionally, lactic acid plays a role in regulating pH levels in the body and is involved in the production of glycogen, which is stored in the muscles and liver for future use.

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  • 13. 

    The body is aerobic because the heart, brain, and nerves need a constant supply of ______________to meet their energy demands and sustain cellular life.

    • A.

      Glycogen

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Oxygen.

    • D.

      Protein

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygen.
    Explanation
    The body is aerobic because the heart, brain, and nerves need a constant supply of oxygen to meet their energy demands and sustain cellular life. Oxygen is essential for the process of aerobic respiration, which occurs in the mitochondria of cells and produces ATP, the energy currency of the body. Without oxygen, cells would not be able to generate enough energy to carry out their functions, leading to organ and tissue dysfunction.

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  • 14. 

    When a muscle contracts and exerts force, the energy used is:

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Fat

    • D.

      ATP.

    Correct Answer
    D. ATP.
    Explanation
    When a muscle contracts and exerts force, the energy used is ATP. ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is a molecule that provides energy for cellular processes, including muscle contractions. It is considered the "energy currency" of the cell because it can be rapidly broken down to release energy. During muscle contraction, ATP is broken down into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate, releasing energy that powers the contraction. Therefore, ATP is the correct answer as it is the immediate source of energy for muscle contractions.

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  • 15. 

    ___________is the amount of force exerted on the arterial wall.

    • A.

      Cardiac output

    • B.

      Heart rate

    • C.

      Blood pressure.

    • D.

      Stroke volume

    Correct Answer
    C. Blood pressure.
    Explanation
    Blood pressure is the correct answer because it refers to the force exerted on the arterial wall. It is a measure of the pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels, specifically the arteries. Blood pressure is influenced by factors such as cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute), heart rate (the number of times the heart beats per minute), and stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each beat). However, blood pressure itself represents the force exerted on the arterial wall.

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  • 16. 

    In healthy people the __________changes little from rest to maximal levels of exercise.

    • A.

      Pulse

    • B.

      Cardiac output

    • C.

      Diastolic blood pressure (DBP).

    • D.

      Stroke volume (SV)

    Correct Answer
    C. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP).
    Explanation
    During exercise, the heart rate increases to meet the increased demand for oxygen and nutrients in the body. This causes an increase in cardiac output, which is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. The stroke volume, which is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per beat, also increases during exercise. However, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), which is the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest, changes very little from rest to maximal levels of exercise in healthy individuals. This is because the arteries are able to dilate and accommodate the increased blood flow without a significant increase in pressure.

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  • 17. 

    According to McArdle, Katch and Latch, lactic acid removal is accelerated by:

    • A.

      Recovery intensity above lactate-accumulation threshold

    • B.

      Aerobic activity that has reached steady rate.

    • C.

      Lying down or resting

    • D.

      Working >85% HHR (Heart Rate Reserve)

    Correct Answer
    B. Aerobic activity that has reached steady rate.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is aerobic activity that has reached a steady rate. According to McArdle, Katch, and Katch, lactic acid removal is accelerated during aerobic activity that has reached a steady rate. This is because steady-state aerobic activity allows the body to efficiently utilize oxygen, which helps in the removal of lactic acid. Lying down or resting may help in recovery but does not specifically accelerate lactic acid removal. Working above 85% HHR may contribute to lactic acid accumulation rather than removal.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following does not increase with endurance training?

    • A.

      Capillary density

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Aerobic enzymes

    • D.

      Blood pressure.

    Correct Answer
    D. Blood pressure.
    Explanation
    Endurance training is known to improve cardiovascular health and increase the efficiency of the cardiovascular system. Capillary density, mitochondria, and aerobic enzymes all increase with endurance training as they are all involved in improving oxygen delivery and utilization by the muscles. However, blood pressure does not increase with endurance training. In fact, regular endurance exercise can help lower blood pressure by improving the elasticity of blood vessels and reducing the workload on the heart.

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  • 19. 

    Muscle is composed mainly of water and protein

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True.
    Explanation
    Muscle is composed mainly of water and protein. This is true because water makes up a significant portion of muscle tissue, accounting for approximately 70-75% of its weight. Additionally, proteins are essential for muscle structure and function, as they are responsible for muscle contraction and repair. Therefore, it can be concluded that muscle is indeed composed mainly of water and protein.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is the correct sequencing of the microstructure of skeletal muscle?

    • A.

      Muscle fiber, myofibrils, myofilaments, and sarcomeres.

    • B.

      Sarcomemma, sarcoplasm, sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcomeres

    • C.

      Muscle fiber, myofilaments, actin, and myosin

    • D.

      Motor unit, motor nerve, sarcoplasm and sarcomeres

    Correct Answer
    A. Muscle fiber, myofibrils, myofilaments, and sarcomeres.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Muscle fiber, myofibrils, myofilaments, and sarcomeres. This is the correct sequencing of the microstructure of skeletal muscle. Muscle fiber is the basic unit of skeletal muscle, which contains myofibrils. Myofibrils consist of myofilaments, which are the contractile proteins actin and myosin. Sarcomeres are the functional units within myofibrils where muscle contraction occurs.

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  • 21. 

    Type I muscle are aerobic

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True.
    Explanation
    Type I muscle fibers, also known as slow-twitch fibers, are characterized by their ability to generate energy through aerobic metabolism. These fibers contain a high number of mitochondria, which allows them to efficiently use oxygen to produce energy. As a result, Type I muscle fibers are better suited for endurance activities that require sustained contractions over a long period of time. Therefore, the statement that Type I muscle fibers are aerobic is true.

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  • 22. 

    Slow Twitch muscle fibers are used for.

    • A.

      Long distance running.

    • B.

      Downhill skiing

    • C.

      Volleyball

    • D.

      High jump

    Correct Answer
    A. Long distance running.
    Explanation
    Slow Twitch muscle fibers are used for long distance running because they are fatigue-resistant and can sustain prolonged contractions. These muscle fibers are rich in mitochondria, which provide energy for aerobic metabolism, making them efficient for endurance activities like long distance running. This type of muscle fiber has a slower contraction speed but can maintain a steady pace over extended periods of time without getting tired quickly. Therefore, slow twitch muscle fibers are ideal for activities that require sustained effort over a prolonged duration, such as long distance running.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of fast twitch muscles fibers?

    • A.

      Generate energy very quickly

    • B.

      Are involved in high short duration work

    • C.

      Develop tension twitch as fast at slow twitch muscle fiber

    • D.

      Have a high concentration of mitochondria.

    Correct Answer
    D. Have a high concentration of mitochondria.
    Explanation
    Fast twitch muscle fibers are characterized by their ability to generate energy very quickly and are involved in high short duration work. They also develop tension and twitch as fast as slow twitch muscle fibers. However, they do not have a high concentration of mitochondria. Mitochondria are responsible for producing energy in the form of ATP, and fast twitch muscle fibers rely more on anaerobic metabolism for energy production, which does not require mitochondria to the same extent as aerobic metabolism. Therefore, fast twitch muscle fibers have a lower concentration of mitochondria compared to slow twitch muscle fibers.

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  • 24. 

    In absolute measures of strength, men are approximately ___percent stronger than women in total body strength.

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      35.

    • C.

      55

    • D.

      75

    Correct Answer
    B. 35.
    Explanation
    In absolute measures of strength, men are approximately 35% stronger than women in total body strength. This means that, on average, men have a higher level of overall physical strength compared to women. This difference can be attributed to various factors such as hormonal differences, muscle mass, and body composition. However, it is important to note that individual variations exist within both genders, and strength can also be influenced by factors like training and genetics.

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  • 25. 

    Progressive and intense resistance training stimulates an increase in the cross-sectional area of both slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibers.

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True.
    Explanation
    Progressive and intense resistance training refers to gradually increasing the difficulty and intensity of the exercises over time. This type of training has been shown to stimulate an increase in the cross-sectional area of both slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibers. Slow twitch muscle fibers are responsible for endurance activities, while fast twitch muscle fibers are involved in explosive movements. Therefore, by engaging in progressive and intense resistance training, individuals can effectively target and strengthen both types of muscle fibers, leading to overall muscle growth and development.

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  • 26. 

    Elasticity refers to:

    • A.

      A measure of a tissues resistance to stretch.

    • B.

      The ability of the tissues to recover after a stretch

    • C.

      A results of the tissues being over stretched

    • D.

      The tissue's smallest amount stress necessary to produce permanent lengthtening

    Correct Answer
    A. A measure of a tissues resistance to stretch.
    Explanation
    Elasticity refers to a measure of a tissue's resistance to stretch. This means that it quantifies how much a tissue can resist deformation when a force is applied to it. A tissue with high elasticity will be able to stretch and then return to its original shape, while a tissue with low elasticity will not be able to resist the stretch and may deform permanently. Therefore, elasticity is an important property of tissues that determines their ability to withstand stretching forces.

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  • 27. 

    Exceeding the elastic limit of ligaments damages collagenous fibers is referred to as a:

    • A.

      Strain

    • B.

      Mobile joint

    • C.

      Spasm

    • D.

      Sprain.

    Correct Answer
    D. Sprain.
    Explanation
    When the elastic limit of ligaments is exceeded, it causes damage to the collagenous fibers, leading to a sprain. A sprain occurs when a ligament is stretched or torn, usually as a result of sudden twisting or wrenching of a joint. This can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty in moving the affected joint. Therefore, the correct answer is sprain.

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  • 28. 

    _______________stretching is a type of stretching popular with athletes whose events require dynamic flexibility.

    • A.

      Static

    • B.

      Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF).

    • C.

      Dynamic or Ballistic

    • D.

      Passive

    Correct Answer
    B. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF).
    Explanation
    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching is a type of stretching popular with athletes whose events require dynamic flexibility. PNF stretching involves a combination of passive stretching and isometric muscle contractions. This technique helps to improve range of motion, increase muscle strength, and enhance overall athletic performance.

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  • 29. 

    _______________ involves voluntary, unassisted movement that requires strength and muscular contraction of the agonist muscle.

    • A.

      Passive stretching

    • B.

      Active stretching.

    • C.

      Dynamic stretching

    • D.

      Static stretching

    Correct Answer
    B. Active stretching.
    Explanation
    Active stretching involves voluntary, unassisted movement that requires strength and muscular contraction of the agonist muscle. In active stretching, the individual actively contracts the muscle being stretched, which helps to improve flexibility, increase range of motion, and warm up the muscles before physical activity. This type of stretching is different from passive stretching, where an external force or assistance is used to stretch the muscle. Dynamic stretching involves moving parts of the body through a full range of motion, while static stretching involves holding a stretch for an extended period without movement.

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  • 30. 

    • An individual's _______ appears neither to add nor detract the sucess of a flexibility training program

    • A.

      Age

    • B.

      Body build.

    • C.

      Exercise program

    • D.

      Intramuscular temperature

    Correct Answer
    B. Body build.
    Explanation
    The success of a flexibility training program does not seem to be affected by an individual's body build. This means that regardless of whether someone has a larger or smaller body frame, they can still achieve similar results in terms of flexibility improvement through the program. Other factors such as age, exercise program, and intramuscular temperature may have an impact on the success of the program, but body build does not seem to play a significant role.

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  • 31. 

    Which strength training equipment requires both balance and stability?

    • A.

      Multi-station Weight Machines

    • B.

      Weight Machines

    • C.

      Free Weights.

    • D.

      Cable and Pulley systems

    Correct Answer
    C. Free Weights.
    Explanation
    Free weights require both balance and stability because they are not fixed in place like weight machines or cable and pulley systems. When using free weights, the individual must use their own body to stabilize and balance the weights, engaging various muscles in the process. This helps improve overall coordination and stability while also targeting specific muscle groups.

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  • 32. 

    Weight machines are not necessarily safer than free weights

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True.
    Explanation
    Weight machines are not necessarily safer than free weights because although weight machines provide stability and guidance during exercises, they can also restrict natural movement patterns and limit the activation of stabilizing muscles. On the other hand, free weights allow for a wider range of motion and engage more muscles for balance and coordination. Additionally, improper use of weight machines can still lead to injuries, just like with free weights. Therefore, it is important to use proper form and technique with both weight machines and free weights to ensure safety.

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  • 33. 

    A selectorized dumbbell system allows you to strength train safely and effectively with unlimited exercise variety

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True.
    Explanation
    A selectorized dumbbell system is designed to provide a safe and effective way to strength train. It allows users to easily adjust the weight of the dumbbells, making it suitable for individuals of different fitness levels. Additionally, the system offers a wide range of exercise options, allowing for unlimited exercise variety. This enables users to target different muscle groups and prevent workout boredom. Therefore, the statement that a selectorized dumbbell system allows for safe and effective strength training with unlimited exercise variety is true.

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  • Jun 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 21, 2012
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