AP World History Practice Test -II

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AP History Quizzes & Trivia

Have you taken our the first AP World History Practice Test already? Here comes another one. Well, even if you haven't taken the first one, no problem. You can start with this, it's going to help you examine and prepare yourself for upcoming AP exams. Have fun!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Catherine the Great's attempts at reform in Russia were esentially ended by

    • A.

      The English Civil War

    • B.

      The Old Beliefs schism

    • C.

      Pugachev's Rebellion

    • D.

      The "Time of Troubles."

    • E.

      The Great Northern War

    Correct Answer
    C. Pugachev's Rebellion
    Explanation
    Pugachev's Rebellion essentially ended Catherine the Great's attempts at reform in Russia. The rebellion, led by Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev, was a major uprising against the Russian government in the late 18th century. It aimed to overthrow Catherine's rule and establish a more equal and just society. The rebellion posed a significant threat to Catherine's authority and forced her to divert her attention and resources away from her reform agenda in order to suppress the rebellion. As a result, her attempts at reform were effectively halted, and she focused more on maintaining her power and stability in the country.

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  • 2. 

    The Catholic church dramatically pushed the sake of indulgences in the sixteenth century because of the

    • A.

      Need for Henry VIII to pay off the national debt

    • B.

      Need to raise funds for the construction of St. Peter's basilica

    • C.

      Need to match the resurgence of the Byzantine empire

    • D.

      Expense associated with translating original Greek classics

    • E.

      Threat posed by Islam

    Correct Answer
    B. Need to raise funds for the construction of St. Peter's basilica
    Explanation
    In the sixteenth century, the Catholic church dramatically pushed the sale of indulgences due to the need to raise funds for the construction of St. Peter's basilica. This grand project required significant financial resources, and selling indulgences was a way for the church to generate the necessary funds. Indulgences were essentially certificates that granted forgiveness for sins, and people were encouraged to purchase them as a means of supporting the construction of the basilica. This practice sparked controversy and ultimately contributed to the Protestant Reformation led by Martin Luther.

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  • 3. 

    The most destructive European conflict before the twentieth century was

    • A.

      The Hundred Years' War

    • B.

      The Seven Years' War

    • C.

      The Franco-Prussian War

    • D.

      The War of the Spanish Succession

    • E.

      The Thirty Years' War

    Correct Answer
    E. The Thirty Years' War
    Explanation
    The Thirty Years' War is considered the most destructive European conflict before the twentieth century because it lasted for three decades (1618-1648) and involved many European powers. It was primarily fought in the Holy Roman Empire and resulted in significant devastation, including widespread famine, disease, and population decline. The war also had a profound impact on European politics, religion, and society, leading to the Peace of Westphalia, which established the principle of state sovereignty and marked the end of the religious wars in Europe.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following states developed constitutional governments in the seventeeth century?

    • A.

      Russia and Italy

    • B.

      England and the Netherlands

    • C.

      The Netherlands and France

    • D.

      Spain and the Netherlands

    • E.

      England and France

    Correct Answer
    B. England and the Netherlands
    Explanation
    During the seventeenth century, England and the Netherlands both developed constitutional governments. England's constitutional government was established with the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 and further developed with the English Bill of Rights in 1689. The Netherlands, on the other hand, established a constitutional government with the Act of Abjuration in 1581, which declared their independence from Spain and established the Dutch Republic. These constitutional governments marked a shift towards limited monarchy and the protection of individual rights, setting the stage for the development of modern democratic systems.

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  • 5. 

    Ignatius Loyola was instrumental in

    • A.

      Claiming the Philippines for Spain

    • B.

      Making astronomical discoveries that called into question the Ptolemaic universe

    • C.

      Calling together the Council of Trent

    • D.

      Creating the Society of Jesus

    • E.

      The formation of Spanish absolutism

    Correct Answer
    D. Creating the Society of Jesus
    Explanation
    Ignatius Loyola is known for creating the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits. The Jesuits were a religious order within the Catholic Church that became influential in education, missionary work, and promoting Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola founded the society in 1540 with the goal of defending and spreading the Catholic faith. The Jesuits played a significant role in the Catholic Church's efforts to combat the Protestant Reformation and were known for their strict discipline, intellectual pursuits, and commitment to education. Therefore, the correct answer is creating the Society of Jesus.

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  • 6. 

    The Council of Trent

    • A.

      Rooted out the Arian heresy

    • B.

      Took steps to reform the Catholic church

    • C.

      Launched the witch-hunts of the sixteenth century

    • D.

      Played a key role in Henry VIII's break with the Catholic church

    • E.

      Successfully reached a compromise in the early Protestant movement between Luther and Calvin

    Correct Answer
    B. Took steps to reform the Catholic church
    Explanation
    The Council of Trent was an important event in the history of the Catholic Church. It was convened in response to the Protestant Reformation and aimed to address the issues raised by the reformers. The Council took steps to reform the Catholic Church by addressing issues of corruption, improving the education and behavior of clergy, and reaffirming Catholic doctrine. It also clarified and strengthened the authority of the Pope and established the foundation for the Counter-Reformation. The Council of Trent played a crucial role in revitalizing and reforming the Catholic Church in the 16th century.

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  • 7. 

    The first great philosophical proponent of capitalism was

    • A.

      Montesquieu

    • B.

      Isaac Newton

    • C.

      Voltaire

    • D.

      Francis Bacon

    • E.

      Adam Smith

    Correct Answer
    E. Adam Smith
    Explanation
    Adam Smith is the correct answer because he is widely regarded as the first great philosophical proponent of capitalism. Smith's book "The Wealth of Nations" is considered one of the most influential works in the field of economics and is often referred to as the foundation of modern capitalism. In this book, Smith argued for the importance of free markets, division of labor, and the self-regulating nature of the economy. His ideas laid the groundwork for the development of capitalist theory and had a significant impact on the economic systems of many countries.

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  • 8. 

    Versailles was the magnificent royal palace of

    • A.

      Louis XIV

    • B.

      Charles I

    • C.

      Peter the Great

    • D.

      Francis I

    • E.

      Frederick the Great

    Correct Answer
    A. Louis XIV
    Explanation
    Versailles was the magnificent royal palace of Louis XIV. He is famously known as the "Sun King" and was the King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Under his reign, Versailles became the center of political power and the symbol of absolute monarchy. Louis XIV transformed the palace into a grand masterpiece, with lavish gardens, opulent architecture, and extravagant decorations. The palace was not only a residence for the king but also a place where he conducted affairs of state and entertained nobles and foreign dignitaries. Therefore, it is correct to say that Versailles was the magnificent royal palace of Louis XIV.

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  • 9. 

    Charles V was the

    • A.

      English king who broke with the Catholic church for political reasons

    • B.

      Pope who called the Council of Trent to address abuses in the Catholic church

    • C.

      Leader who tried, but failed, to centralize authority in the Holy Roman Empire

    • D.

      Spanish king who attempted to invade England in 1588

    • E.

      Portuguese leader who supported exploration down Africa's west coast

    Correct Answer
    C. Leader who tried, but failed, to centralize authority in the Holy Roman Empire
    Explanation
    Charles V was a leader who attempted to centralize authority in the Holy Roman Empire but was unsuccessful in doing so. This means that he tried to consolidate power and control within the Holy Roman Empire, but his efforts were not successful.

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  • 10. 

    The English Civil War ended with the trial and decapitation of

    • A.

      Elizabeth I

    • B.

      James II

    • C.

      James I

    • D.

      Charles II

    • E.

      Charles I

    Correct Answer
    E. Charles I
    Explanation
    During the English Civil War, Charles I, the king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was put on trial and ultimately executed by decapitation. This was a significant event as it marked the end of the war and the establishment of the Commonwealth of England. Charles I's trial and execution were a result of his conflicts with Parliament and his attempts to assert absolute power. His death had a profound impact on the political landscape of England and ultimately led to the restoration of the monarchy under his son, Charles II.

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  • 11. 

    Ninety-five percent of the condemned witches were

    • A.

      Muslims

    • B.

      Women

    • C.

      Protestants

    • D.

      Catholics

    • E.

      Men

    Correct Answer
    B. Women
    Explanation
    The correct answer is women because historically, women were often targeted and accused of witchcraft during the witch trials that occurred in Europe and North America between the 15th and 18th centuries. These trials were fueled by religious and social beliefs that associated women with evil and witchcraft. Many women were accused, tortured, and executed based on these accusations, resulting in a significant number of condemned witches being women.

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  • 12. 

    Henry VIII's reformation in England

    • A.

      Ignored Luther and instead pushed for change within Catholic guidelines

    • B.

      Was much more politically driven than Luther's reformation

    • C.

      Made far more profound changes in theology than Luther's reformation did

    • D.

      Was based on the ideas of the Anabaptists

    • E.

      Was inspired more by John Calvin's thought than by Luther's thought

    Correct Answer
    B. Was much more politically driven than Luther's reformation
    Explanation
    Henry VIII's reformation in England was much more politically driven than Luther's reformation. While Luther's reformation was primarily driven by theological concerns and a desire for religious reform, Henry VIII's motivations were more rooted in his political ambitions and personal desires. Henry VIII sought to break away from the authority of the Pope in Rome and establish himself as the head of the Church of England, in order to gain more control over religious and political matters within his own kingdom. This political agenda played a significant role in shaping the nature and direction of Henry VIII's reformation.

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  • 13. 

    The architect of French absolutism was

    • A.

      Louis XVIII

    • B.

      Charles II

    • C.

      John Locke

    • D.

      Cardinal Richelieu

    • E.

      Montesquieu

    Correct Answer
    D. Cardinal Richelieu
    Explanation
    Cardinal Richelieu was the architect of French absolutism because he served as the chief minister to King Louis XIII from 1624 to 1642. During his tenure, Richelieu centralized political power in the monarchy, weakening the nobility and establishing the supremacy of the king. He implemented policies that strengthened the monarchy's control over the country, such as suppressing rebellions, centralizing administration, and promoting economic development. Richelieu's actions laid the foundation for the absolutist rule that would continue under Louis XIV and subsequent French monarchs.

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  • 14. 

    The Spanish Inquisition was first established in 1478 by

    • A.

      Don Carlos

    • B.

      Fernando and Isabel

    • C.

      Philip III

    • D.

      Philip II

    • E.

      Charles V

    Correct Answer
    B. Fernando and Isabel
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Fernando and Isabel. The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. They sought to maintain religious and political unity in their newly unified kingdom by targeting and persecuting individuals who did not adhere to Catholicism, particularly Jews and Muslims. The Inquisition played a significant role in the Spanish monarchy's efforts to consolidate power and establish a strict religious orthodoxy in Spain.

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  • 15. 

    Which one of the following was not one of the pillars of the Catholic Reformation?

    • A.

      The efforts of St. Ignatius Loyola

    • B.

      The philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas

    • C.

      The Society of Jesus

    • D.

      The religious fever of the Renaissance popes

    • E.

      The Council of Trent

    Correct Answer
    D. The religious fever of the Renaissance popes
    Explanation
    During the Catholic Reformation, the religious fever of the Renaissance popes was not considered one of the pillars. The Catholic Reformation aimed to address the issues within the Catholic Church and strengthen its position. The efforts of St. Ignatius Loyola were significant as he founded the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits, which played a crucial role in spreading Catholicism. The philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas was influential in shaping Catholic theology. The Council of Trent was a key event during the Catholic Reformation, as it implemented reforms and clarified Catholic doctrine.

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  • 16. 

    The event that inspired Henry VIII to confront the pope was

    • A.

      Henry's desire to gain a divorce

    • B.

      A new English translation of the Bible

    • C.

      Henry's belief that the pope was secretly backing the French in the latest war

    • D.

      Henry's frustration with the pope's inability to bring about church reform

    • E.

      Henry's desire to unify all of Europe for a new round of crusades

    Correct Answer
    A. Henry's desire to gain a divorce
    Explanation
    Henry VIII's desire to gain a divorce was the event that inspired him to confront the pope. Henry wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, because she had not been able to bear him a male heir. However, the pope refused to grant the divorce, leading Henry to break away from the Catholic Church and establish the Church of England, with himself as the head. This event, known as the English Reformation, had far-reaching consequences for religion and politics in England.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following was not one of the policies pursued by Louis XIV?

    • A.

      The maintenance of a huge standing army

    • B.

      Use of the more dependable middle class as officials

    • C.

      The creation of the palace at Versailles

    • D.

      An attempt to make the nobles an active part of the government

    • E.

      The promotion of economic development

    Correct Answer
    D. An attempt to make the nobles an active part of the government
    Explanation
    Louis XIV pursued policies such as the maintenance of a huge standing army, the use of the middle class as officials, the creation of the palace at Versailles, and the promotion of economic development. However, he did not attempt to make the nobles an active part of the government. Instead, he centralized power in his own hands and weakened the nobility's influence.

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  • 18. 

    The city that stood as John Calvin's model Protestant community was

    • A.

      Geneva

    • B.

      Wittenberg

    • C.

      London

    • D.

      Paris

    • E.

      Avignon

    Correct Answer
    A. Geneva
    Explanation
    John Calvin's model Protestant community was Geneva. Geneva became a center for the Reformation and a stronghold of Calvinist teachings. Calvin established a theocratic government in Geneva, implementing strict moral and religious codes. The city became a refuge for Protestants fleeing persecution and played a significant role in spreading Calvinism throughout Europe. Calvin's influence in Geneva was so profound that it became known as the "Protestant Rome."

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  • 19. 

    The system by which unfinished materials were delivered to rual households for production was known as the

    • A.

      Guild system

    • B.

      Joint-stock company system

    • C.

      Union system

    • D.

      Putting-out system

    • E.

      Countryside system

    Correct Answer
    D. Putting-out system
    Explanation
    The putting-out system, also known as the domestic system or the cottage industry, was a method of production in which unfinished materials were delivered to rural households for production. This system allowed for work to be done in people's homes, typically by women and children, and was commonly used in the textile industry. It provided a way for individuals in rural areas to participate in the production process and earn income without having to leave their homes.

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  • 20. 

    The fundamental principle of diplomacy in early modern Europe was

    • A.

      French domination

    • B.

      The Anglo-French alliance

    • C.

      The balance of power

    • D.

      The Auld Alliance

    • E.

      Raison d'etat

    Correct Answer
    C. The balance of power
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the balance of power. This principle refers to the distribution of power among different states in order to prevent any one state from becoming too dominant. It was a key concept in early modern Europe, as countries sought to maintain stability and prevent conflicts. By ensuring that no single state had too much power, it was believed that peace and equilibrium could be maintained in the region. This principle influenced diplomatic relations and alliances during this time period.

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  • 21. 

    The leader of England during the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada was

    • A.

      Charles II

    • B.

      Elizabeth I

    • C.

      James II

    • D.

      Mary I

    • E.

      Henry VIII

    Correct Answer
    B. Elizabeth I
    Explanation
    Elizabeth I was the leader of England during the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada. She ruled from 1558 until her death in 1603 and is often considered one of England's greatest monarchs. Elizabeth's reign was marked by a period of relative stability and prosperity, and she successfully navigated numerous political challenges, including the threat of invasion from Spain. The Spanish Armada was a fleet of Spanish ships sent by King Philip II of Spain in 1588 to overthrow Elizabeth and restore Catholicism in England. However, Elizabeth's navy, led by Sir Francis Drake, defeated the Armada, securing her reign and England's independence.

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  • 22. 

    Luther's initial stimulus for formulating the Ninety-Five Theses was

    • A.

      The turmoil caused by having two popes during the Great Schism

    • B.

      His excommunication from the Roman Catholic church

    • C.

      The influence of John Calvin

    • D.

      His time spent in England during the English Reformation

    • E.

      The sale of indulgences

    Correct Answer
    E. The sale of indulgences
    Explanation
    Luther's initial stimulus for formulating the Ninety-Five Theses was the sale of indulgences. Indulgences were being sold by the Catholic Church as a way for people to reduce the amount of punishment they would have to undergo for their sins. Luther strongly disagreed with this practice, believing that salvation should be based on faith and not on purchasing indulgences. He saw it as a corrupt and exploitative practice, which led him to write the Ninety-Five Theses and challenge the authority of the Church.

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  • 23. 

    The most important consequence of the Peace of Westphalia was

    • A.

      Ending the carnage of the Seven Years' War

    • B.

      Promoting the notion that the European nations viewed each other as sovereign and equal

    • C.

      Establishing an Anglo-French alliance that would last until World War I

    • D.

      Laying the foundation for English control of most of the world

    • E.

      Combining the Spanish and French thrones

    Correct Answer
    B. Promoting the notion that the European nations viewed each other as sovereign and equal
    Explanation
    The Peace of Westphalia, which was a series of treaties signed in 1648, had a significant impact on European politics and international relations. One of the most important consequences of this peace settlement was the promotion of the notion that European nations viewed each other as sovereign and equal. This marked a shift from the previous idea of hierarchical relationships between nations, where some were considered superior to others. The Peace of Westphalia helped establish the principles of state sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other nations, which laid the foundation for modern international relations.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following factors was not one of the reasons for Charles V's failure to build a centralized, sovereign state in the Holy Roman Empire?

    • A.

      Frequent invasions by England

    • B.

      German nobles who refused to bend to Charles's will

    • C.

      Internal religious tensions between Protestants and Catholics

    • D.

      External pressure from the Ottomans

    • E.

      External pressure from the French

    Correct Answer
    A. Frequent invasions by England
    Explanation
    The frequent invasions by England were not one of the reasons for Charles V's failure to build a centralized, sovereign state in the Holy Roman Empire. The other factors mentioned, such as German nobles refusing to comply with Charles's authority, internal religious tensions between Protestants and Catholics, and external pressure from the Ottomans and the French, all contributed to his failure. However, there is no evidence or historical context to suggest that frequent invasions by England played a role in hindering Charles's efforts.

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  • 25. 

    The Spanish leader who sent an armada against England in 1588 was

    • A.

      Fernando

    • B.

      Dom Henrique

    • C.

      Philip II

    • D.

      Don Juan

    • E.

      Charles V

    Correct Answer
    C. Philip II
    Explanation
    Philip II was the Spanish leader who sent an armada against England in 1588. He was the King of Spain and Portugal and was determined to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England. The Spanish Armada was a fleet of ships sent by Philip II to invade England, but it was ultimately defeated by the English navy. Philip II's decision to send the armada was motivated by religious and political conflicts between Spain and England, as well as his desire to restore Catholicism in England.

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