Unit 4 Geology Final Unit Test

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Geology Quizzes & Trivia

This is the final test for unit 4. When you finish this section please scroll down and complete the discussion questions on a separate piece of paper. . Your parents will grade them. Be careful with your spelling.
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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The mostly solid part of the Earth that lies between its crust and its core is the___________________

    Explanation
    The mostly solid part of the Earth that lies between its crust and its core is called the mantle. The mantle is a layer of the Earth's interior that is composed of hot, solid rock. It is located beneath the Earth's crust and extends all the way down to the Earth's core. The mantle plays a crucial role in the movement of tectonic plates and the convection of heat within the Earth.

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  • 2. 

    A person who makes maps is called a _______________.

    Explanation
    A person who makes maps is called a cartographer. A cartographer is responsible for creating accurate and detailed maps, utilizing various techniques and tools to accurately represent geographical features and locations. They gather data from multiple sources, such as satellite imagery, surveys, and geographic information systems, and use their expertise to interpret and illustrate this information on maps. Cartographers play a crucial role in providing essential geographic information for navigation, urban planning, environmental studies, and many other fields.

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  • 3. 

    Any of the seven large landmasses into which the Earth is divided are called ___________________.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "continent" or "continents". This is because any of the seven large landmasses into which the Earth is divided are referred to as continents. Continents are distinct and continuous masses of land that are separated by oceans or other bodies of water. They are the main divisions of the Earth's land surface and include North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica.

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  • 4. 

    Lines that run parallel around the globe dividing the globe into flat slices, they  never meet.  These are called lines of ____________________________

    Explanation
    Lines of latitude are the parallel lines that encircle the globe horizontally, dividing it into flat slices. These lines never intersect or meet each other. They are used to measure distances north or south of the Equator and are called lines of latitude.

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  • 5. 

    A scale that rates earthquakes from I to XII based on the effects of the shaking and the damage caused. It is called the ___________________ scale

    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Mercalli, mercalli". The question is asking for the name of a scale that rates earthquakes based on the effects of shaking and damage caused. The Mercalli scale, also known as the Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale, is a subjective scale used to measure the intensity of an earthquake. It ranges from I to XII, with I being the least intense and XII being the most intense. The scale takes into account various factors such as human perception, structural damage, and environmental effects to determine the intensity of an earthquake.

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  • 6. 

    Cracks in the Earth caused by the movement of its plates are called ___________________

    Explanation
    Cracks in the Earth caused by the movement of its plates are called faults. Faults can occur when there is a release of energy along the boundaries of tectonic plates, resulting in the Earth's crust breaking and forming cracks. These cracks can range in size and severity, from small fractures to large fault lines. Faults play a significant role in the study of tectonic activity and are responsible for earthquakes and other geological phenomena.

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  • 7. 

    Molten rock inside the Earth is called ___________________________

    Explanation
    Molten rock inside the Earth is called magma. Magma is a hot, fluid material composed of molten rock, minerals, and gases. It is found beneath the Earth's surface and is responsible for volcanic activity. Magma can vary in composition and temperature, and it is the precursor to lava when it reaches the Earth's surface through volcanic eruptions.

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  • 8. 

    Lines that run from North to the South pole, dividing the globe into segments, they all meet at the pole.  These lines are called lines of _________________________

    Explanation
    Longitude is the correct answer because it refers to the lines that run from the North to the South pole, dividing the globe into segments. These lines are known as lines of longitude or meridians. They meet at the poles and help in determining the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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  • 9. 

    Rotted plant and animal matter, it is the part that makes the soil fertile.  It is called __________________________

    Explanation
    Humus is the correct answer. Humus is the organic component of soil that is formed by the decomposition of plant and animal matter. It is rich in nutrients and helps to improve soil fertility. On the other hand, hummus is a popular Middle Eastern dip made from chickpeas, tahini, olive oil, and various spices. Therefore, humus is the appropriate term to describe the part that makes the soil fertile.

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  • 10. 

    A ridge under the ocean that spreads out sideways as magma wells up along its center is called a ________________________ ridge.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "spreading." A ridge under the ocean that spreads out sideways as magma wells up along its center is called a spreading ridge. The term "spredding" is not a recognized scientific term and does not accurately describe the geological process described in the question.

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  • 11. 

    Molten rock at and on the surface of the Earth is called ________________________

    Explanation
    Lava is the correct answer because molten rock that is found both at and on the surface of the Earth is referred to as lava. When volcanic activity occurs, the molten rock, or magma, rises to the surface and flows out as lava. Lava can be extremely hot and can cause significant damage to the surrounding environment. It is often associated with volcanic eruptions and can take various forms, such as flowing rivers or solidified rocks.

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  • 12. 

    An area where two plates collide and one slips under the other forming volcanoes and deep trenches. This area is called _________________________   _____________________( two words)

    Explanation
    A subduction zone is an area where two tectonic plates collide and one plate is forced underneath the other. This process creates intense geological activity, including the formation of volcanoes and deep trenches. The subducting plate, as it moves deeper into the Earth's mantle, melts and causes magma to rise to the surface, leading to volcanic eruptions. The collision and sliding of the plates also result in the formation of deep trenches, such as the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean.

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  • 13. 

    _______________________ is the gradual wearing down of rock by wind or water

    Explanation
    Weathering is the correct answer because it refers to the gradual wearing down of rock by wind or water. Wethering is not a valid term and does not have any meaning in the context of rock erosion.

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  • 14. 

    ______________________ scale is a scale that rates earthquakes from 1 to 10 based on the power of the vibrations that travel through the ground when the earthquake occurs

    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Richter, Richter scale, rickter." The Richter scale is a scale used to measure the magnitude or strength of earthquakes. It rates earthquakes from 1 to 10 based on the power of the vibrations that travel through the ground during an earthquake. The scale was developed by Charles F. Richter in 1935 and is widely used by seismologists to quantify the size of earthquakes.

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  • 15. 

    ______________________ is the wearing away of the topsoil by rain or wind

    Explanation
    Soil erosion is the process in which the top layer of soil is gradually removed or worn away by the action of rain or wind. This can lead to the loss of fertile soil and nutrients, making it difficult for plants to grow. Erosion, on the other hand, is a broader term that refers to the general wearing away or displacement of materials by natural forces such as water, wind, or ice. Therefore, the correct answer is Soil Erosion, as it specifically describes the wearing away of topsoil by rain or wind.

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  • 16. 

    Satellites can help cartographers produce more accurate maps of the Earth

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Satellites have revolutionized the field of cartography by providing accurate and up-to-date data about the Earth's surface. These devices can capture high-resolution images and collect various types of data, such as elevation, vegetation, and land use. By analyzing this information, cartographers can create detailed and precise maps that accurately represent the Earth's features. Satellites also enable continuous monitoring and updating of maps, ensuring that they remain accurate over time. Therefore, it is true that satellites play a crucial role in helping cartographers produce more accurate maps of the Earth.

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  • 17. 

    Cartogrphers use projections to make flat maps of the Earth.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cartographers use projections to make flat maps of the Earth because the Earth is a three-dimensional object while maps are two-dimensional. Projections are mathematical methods that allow cartographers to represent the curved surface of the Earth on a flat surface, such as a map. This process involves distorting certain aspects of the Earth, such as shape, size, distance, or direction, in order to create an accurate representation of the Earth's features on a flat map.

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  • 18. 

    The Earth is magnetic due to the molten iron in its core.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Earth is magnetic due to the molten iron in its core. The molten iron in the Earth's outer core generates a magnetic field through a process called the geodynamo effect. This magnetic field extends into space and creates a protective shield around the planet, known as the magnetosphere. It helps deflect harmful solar radiation and charged particles from the Sun, preventing them from directly reaching the Earth's surface. This magnetic field also plays a crucial role in navigation, as it allows compasses to align with the Earth's magnetic poles. Hence, it is true that the Earth is magnetic due to the molten iron in its core.

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  • 19. 

    The tectonic plates move because they float on top of a liquid mantle.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Tectonic plates are able to move because they float on top of the liquid mantle beneath them. The Earth's mantle is made up of hot, semi-fluid rock called magma. This magma moves in convection currents, causing the tectonic plates to move along with it. As the plates float on the semi-fluid mantle, they can slide, collide, or separate from each other, leading to various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains. Therefore, the statement "The tectonic plates move because they float on top of a liquid mantle" is true.

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  • 20. 

    Active bolcanoes will never erupt again

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Active volcanoes are characterized by their ability to erupt. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that active volcanoes will never erupt again. In fact, active volcanoes have a history of erupting and are likely to erupt in the future. Hence, the correct answer is False.

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  • 21. 

    Volcanoes occur at weak spots in the Earths crust

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Volcanoes occur at weak spots in the Earth's crust because these weak spots allow magma from the Earth's mantle to rise to the surface. The Earth's crust is made up of several tectonic plates that float on the semi-fluid mantle. When these plates move or collide, they can create areas of weakness where magma can escape. This magma then erupts through the surface, forming a volcano. Therefore, it is true that volcanoes occur at weak spots in the Earth's crust.

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  • 22. 

    Earthquakes usually occur near a plate boundary.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Earthquakes usually occur near a plate boundary because the majority of seismic activity is caused by the movement and interaction of tectonic plates. These plates are constantly shifting and colliding, creating stress and pressure along their boundaries. When the stress becomes too great, it is released in the form of an earthquake. Therefore, it is true that earthquakes typically occur near plate boundaries where the tectonic activity is the highest.

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  • 23. 

    The focus of an earthquake is the point at which the rock gives way and the earthquake begins

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the focus of an earthquake refers to the exact location within the Earth where the seismic energy is released. It is the point where the rock breaks and the earthquake starts. This is usually deep underground, and the energy then radiates outwards in the form of seismic waves, causing the shaking and destruction associated with earthquakes. Therefore, it is true that the focus of an earthquake is the point at which the rock gives way and the earthquake begins.

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  • 24. 

    Soil contains pieces of rock, minerals, dead organic matter, tiny living creatures, gases and water.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Soil is composed of various components such as pieces of rock, minerals, dead organic matter, tiny living creatures, gases, and water. These components contribute to the overall composition and fertility of the soil. Therefore, the statement that soil contains these elements is true.

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  • 25. 

    The soil cycle follows where rocks can be found in the soil.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because rocks are not typically found in the soil. Instead, rocks are weathered and broken down over time to form smaller particles such as sand, silt, and clay, which make up the soil. The soil cycle involves the continuous process of weathering, erosion, and deposition of rocks, along with the addition of organic matter and nutrients, which ultimately leads to the formation and development of soil.

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  • 26. 

    Minerals are simple chemical substances that make up rocks.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Minerals are indeed simple chemical substances that compose rocks. They are naturally occurring inorganic solids with a specific chemical composition and a crystalline structure. Rocks, on the other hand, are made up of one or more minerals. Therefore, it is correct to say that minerals are the basic building blocks of rocks.

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  • 27. 

    Rock weathering can be chemical, physical or biological.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Rock weathering can occur through various processes, including chemical, physical, and biological mechanisms. Chemical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks through chemical reactions, such as oxidation or dissolution. Physical weathering refers to the mechanical breakdown of rocks, often caused by factors like temperature changes or the expansion of ice. Biological weathering occurs when living organisms, such as plants or animals, contribute to the disintegration of rocks through their activities. Therefore, the statement that rock weathering can be chemical, physical, or biological is true.

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  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Aug 04, 2012
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