Psychology Quiz On Theories Of Personality!

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Psychology Quiz On Theories Of Personality! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the name of Skinner's theory?

    Explanation
    Skinner's theory is known as the Reinforcement Theory. This theory suggests that behavior is influenced by the consequences that follow it. According to Skinner, behaviors that are reinforced are more likely to be repeated, while behaviors that are not reinforced are less likely to be repeated. This theory emphasizes the role of rewards and punishments in shaping and modifying behavior.

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  • 2. 

    What was the name of the books that SKINNER published?

  • 3. 

    Involves a response made to or elicited by a specific stimulus. A stimulus is applied then a response occurs. This behavior is unlearned. 

    • A.

      Psychology behavior

    • B.

      Operant behavior

    • C.

      Response behavior

    • D.

      Respondent behavior

    • E.

      Childish behavior

    Correct Answer
    D. Respondent behavior
    Explanation
    Respondent behavior refers to a type of behavior that is elicited by a specific stimulus. It is a natural or unlearned response to a stimulus. This type of behavior is different from operant behavior, which is learned through consequences and rewards. Respondent behavior can be observed in various situations where a stimulus is applied and a corresponding response occurs. It is an important concept in psychology as it helps in understanding how individuals react to different stimuli in their environment.

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  • 4. 

    Behavior emitted spontaneously or voluntarily that operates on the environment to change it. Behavior operates on the environment and as a result, changes it.

    • A.

      Respondent behavior

    • B.

      Human behavior

    • C.

      Operant behavior

    • D.

      Shallow behavior

    • E.

      Random behavior

    Correct Answer
    C. Operant behavior
    Explanation
    Operant behavior refers to behavior that is emitted voluntarily or spontaneously and operates on the environment to bring about changes. This type of behavior is not reflexive or automatically elicited by a stimulus, but rather it is influenced by consequences. Through operant behavior, individuals learn to associate their actions with certain outcomes, either positive or negative, and adjust their behavior accordingly. This type of behavior is different from respondent behavior, which is reflexive and elicited by specific stimuli.

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  • 5. 

    What type of behavior was Ivan observed in Pavlov's experiment?

    • A.

      Respondent behavior

    • B.

      Operant behavior

    • C.

      Conclusive behavior

    • D.

      No behavior was observed

    Correct Answer
    A. Respondent behavior
    Explanation
    In Pavlov's experiment, Ivan was observed exhibiting respondent behavior. This type of behavior refers to an automatic response that is triggered by a specific stimulus. In Pavlov's famous experiment, Ivan's salivation in response to the sound of a bell after it had been paired with the presentation of food is an example of respondent behavior. This type of behavior is involuntary and is often associated with reflexes and conditioned responses.

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  • 6. 

    This type of behavior is considered ____________ because it is random, spontaneous, and because it does not respond to any specific stimulus.

    Correct Answer
    Emitted
    emitted
    emitt
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "emitted" because the behavior described in the question is considered emitted. This behavior is random and spontaneous, meaning it occurs without any specific cause or stimulus. The repetition of the word "emitted" in the answer options suggests that it is the correct choice.

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  • 7. 

    What are the four schedules of reinforcement?

    • A.

      Fixed interval, fixed ratio, variable interval & variable ratio

    • B.

      There is only 3 schedules of reinforcement

    • C.

      Fixed variable, interval ratio, ratio fixed & variable ratio

    • D.

      Good, Bad, Sad & Anger

    Correct Answer
    A. Fixed interval, fixed ratio, variable interval & variable ratio
    Explanation
    The correct answer is fixed interval, fixed ratio, variable interval, and variable ratio. These are the four schedules of reinforcement in operant conditioning. Fixed interval refers to reinforcing a behavior after a specific amount of time has passed. Fixed ratio involves reinforcing a behavior after a specific number of responses. Variable interval involves reinforcing a behavior after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. Variable ratio involves reinforcing a behavior after an unpredictable number of responses. These schedules of reinforcement are used to shape and maintain behaviors in both animals and humans.

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  • 8. 

    In_________, The reinforcers arrives only after the passage of a given time period and the emission of the correct response.

    Correct Answer
    fixed interval
    Fixed Interval
    Explanation
    In fixed interval schedules of reinforcement, the reinforcer is delivered only after a specific amount of time has passed since the last reinforcer was given and the correct response was emitted. This means that the reinforcement is not contingent on the number of responses, but rather on the passage of time. For example, if a reinforcer is given every 5 minutes, the first correct response after 5 minutes will be reinforced, regardless of how many responses occurred during that time. This type of schedule often leads to a scalloped pattern of responding, with a higher rate of responding closer to the time of reinforcement.

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  • 9. 

    Reinforcers are only given after the organism has made a specified number of responses, in this reinforcement schedule _____________

    Correct Answer
    Fixed Ratio
    fixed ratio
    Explanation
    In a fixed ratio reinforcement schedule, the organism is only rewarded after it has made a specific number of responses. This means that the reinforcement is delivered consistently every time the organism reaches the predetermined response threshold. This type of schedule creates a high rate of response from the organism, as it knows that it will be rewarded after a certain number of actions. The term "fixed ratio" refers to the fact that the number of responses required for reinforcement remains constant.

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  • 10. 

    This schedule occurs when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed.

    Correct Answer
    Variable Interval
    variable interval
    Explanation
    Variable Interval is the correct answer because it refers to a schedule of reinforcement where a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. In this schedule, the time intervals between reinforcements vary, making it difficult for the individual to predict when the next reinforcement will occur. This can lead to a steady and consistent rate of responding as the individual continues to engage in the behavior in the hopes of receiving a reward.

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  • 11. 

    This schedule _____________ is based on an average number of responses between reinforcers. 

    Correct Answer
    Variable Ratio
    variable ratio
    Explanation
    This schedule, known as variable ratio, is based on an average number of responses between reinforcers. In this schedule, the reinforcement is delivered after an unpredictable number of responses. This means that the individual does not know exactly how many responses they need to make before receiving reinforcement. This schedule is highly effective in maintaining behavior because it leads to high response rates and resistance to extinction.

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  • 12. 

    Persistent behavior that has a coincidental and not a functional relationship to the reinforcement received

    • A.

      Violent behavior

    • B.

      Unreal behavior

    • C.

      Common behavior

    • D.

      Superstitious behavior

    Correct Answer
    D. Superstitious behavior
    Explanation
    Superstitious behavior refers to persistent actions that are performed due to a coincidental, rather than a functional, relationship with the reinforcement received. In other words, individuals engage in superstitious behavior because they believe it is somehow connected to the desired outcome, even though there is no logical or causal link between the two. This behavior is often seen in situations where individuals attribute their success or failure to unrelated actions or rituals, such as wearing lucky socks or performing specific routines before a game.

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  • 13. 

    The ability to exert control over the variables that determine our behavior. According to Skinner, external stimuli, reinforcers are responsible for shaping and controlling our behavior.

    Correct Answer
    self control
    Self Control
    Explanation
    The given answer, "self control," refers to the ability to exert control over the variables that determine our behavior. According to Skinner, external stimuli and reinforcers play a significant role in shaping and controlling our behavior. Self control allows individuals to regulate their actions and resist immediate temptations or impulses in order to achieve long-term goals or adhere to societal norms. It involves making conscious decisions and exerting self-discipline to align behavior with personal values or desired outcomes.

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  • 14. 

    A behavior modification technique in which __________, can be exchanged for valued objects or privileges, are awarded for desirable behaviors. The _____ function as money. It was used to help psychotic females learn to do daily tasks as normal individuals because before the program they were considered helpless and aimless. It is used within the institution.

    Correct Answer
    tokens
    token economy
    Tokens
    Token Economy
    Explanation
    In this behavior modification technique, tokens are awarded to individuals for exhibiting desirable behaviors. These tokens can then be exchanged for valued objects or privileges. The tokens function as a form of currency within the program, similar to money. This technique was used specifically with psychotic females who were previously considered helpless and aimless, helping them learn to perform daily tasks as normal individuals. The technique is implemented within an institution.

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  • 15. 

    According to Skinner what determines behavior?

    • A.

      Anger

    • B.

      Love

    • C.

      Our parents

    • D.

      Reinforcers, cognitive and thought processes

    Correct Answer
    D. Reinforcers, cognitive and thought processes
    Explanation
    Skinner believed that behavior is determined by a combination of reinforcers, cognitive processes, and thought processes. Reinforcers, such as rewards or punishments, can shape and influence behavior. Cognitive processes, such as perception, memory, and problem-solving, also play a role in determining behavior. Additionally, thought processes, including beliefs, attitudes, and motivations, can impact how individuals behave. Skinner's perspective emphasizes the importance of environmental factors and internal mental processes in understanding and predicting behavior.

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  • 16. 

    The strengthening of a response by the removal of an aversive stimulus. In other words, a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of stopping or avoiding of a negative condition.

    Correct Answer
    negative reinforcement
    Negative Reinforcement
    Explanation
    Negative reinforcement refers to the strengthening of a response by removing or avoiding an aversive stimulus. This means that a behavior is reinforced by the consequence of stopping or avoiding a negative condition. In other words, when a behavior leads to the removal of something unpleasant or the avoidance of a negative situation, it is more likely to be repeated in the future. This is different from punishment, which involves the application of an aversive stimulus to decrease a behavior.

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  • 17. 

    A form of therapy that applies the principles of reinforcement to bring about desired behavioral changes.

    • A.

      Therapeutic Behaviorism

    • B.

      Behavior Modification

    • C.

      Behavior Adjusting

    • D.

      Behavior Stimulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Behavior Modification
    Explanation
    Behavior modification is a form of therapy that applies the principles of reinforcement to bring about desired behavioral changes. It involves identifying and analyzing target behaviors, setting specific goals, and employing various techniques such as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment to modify behavior. By using these techniques, behavior modification aims to increase desirable behaviors and decrease undesirable behaviors. It is a widely used approach in psychology and has been effective in treating a variety of behavioral issues, including phobias, addictions, and mental health disorders.

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  • 18. 

    According to Bandura, Learning can occur through ________

    Correct Answer
    observational learning
    Observational Learning
    example
    Example
    observational or example
    Explanation
    Bandura's theory of observational learning suggests that individuals can learn by observing others. This means that learning can occur through the process of observing and imitating the behaviors, attitudes, and actions of others. This can be done by observing real-life situations or through the use of examples, such as in media or role models. Therefore, the correct answer includes both "observational learning" and "example" as they both represent different ways in which learning can take place according to Bandura's theory.

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  • 19. 

    Behavior can be changed or learn through_______.

    • A.

      Reinforcement

    • B.

      Therapy

    • C.

      Behavorial adjusting

    • D.

      Self analysis

    Correct Answer
    A. Reinforcement
    Explanation
    Behavior can be changed or learned through reinforcement. Reinforcement is a technique that involves providing rewards or punishments to encourage or discourage certain behaviors. By reinforcing desired behaviors with rewards and discouraging unwanted behaviors with punishments, individuals are more likely to learn and adopt new behaviors. This process of reinforcement helps shape behavior by associating positive or negative consequences with specific actions, ultimately leading to behavior change or learning.

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  • 20. 

    Why do you think in the experimental group, the children were found to be twice as aggressive as the control group, because

    • A.

      The experimental group was mad at the control group

    • B.

      The experimental group did not watch the model attack the bobo doll

    • C.

      The experimental observed what the model did, and then displayed the same behaviors afterwards.

    • D.

      They were angry to begin with

    Correct Answer
    C. The experimental observed what the model did, and then displayed the same behaviors afterwards.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the experimental group observed what the model did, and then displayed the same behaviors afterwards. This suggests that the children in the experimental group learned aggressive behavior by observing the model's actions and imitating them. This explanation aligns with the principles of social learning theory, which states that individuals learn through observation and imitation of others. The other options provided do not offer a plausible explanation for the increased aggression in the experimental group.

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  • 21. 

    Breanna goes to meet her favorite singer. She realizes that her idol sings really loud in public places, where there are a lot of people around. With this in mind, Breanna begins feeling comfortable and starts to do it as well. It's like the singer is influencing Breanna because if Breanna was walking the street alone, she would just be like a normal pedestrian. This is called __________

    • A.

      Idolization

    • B.

      Disinhibition

    • C.

      Prestige Idenity

    • D.

      Patternalism Behaviors

    Correct Answer
    B. Disinhibition
    Explanation
    Disinhibition refers to the phenomenon where individuals feel more comfortable engaging in certain behaviors when they see others, particularly influential figures, doing the same. In this scenario, Breanna is influenced by her favorite singer's loud singing in public places and starts to feel comfortable doing the same. This behavior is a result of disinhibition, as Breanna's inhibitions are lowered due to the influence of her idol.

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  • 22. 

    A person that appears to be similar to us. There will be a greater imitation if the model is a live model, as opposed to an animated character. Age, and models of the same sex, Prestige, Status.. People low in self-confidence and self-esteem are more likely to imitate a model’s behavior. These are characteristics that influence __________

    Correct Answer
    modeling
    Modeling
    Explanation
    The answer is modeling. Modeling refers to the process of observing and imitating the behavior of others. The characteristics mentioned in the question, such as similarity, live model, age, same sex, prestige, status, self-confidence, and self-esteem, all influence the extent to which a person is likely to imitate the behavior of a model.

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  • 23. 

    What are the types of behaviors that are more likely to be imitated by a model

    • A.

      Easier behaviors

    • B.

      Hostile behaviors

    • C.

      Aggressive behaviors

    • D.

      All The Above

    Correct Answer
    D. All The Above
    Explanation
    The types of behaviors that are more likely to be imitated by a model include easier behaviors, hostile behaviors, and aggressive behaviors. This means that when a model displays behaviors that are simple, aggressive, or hostile in nature, they are more likely to be imitated by others.

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  • 24. 

    Administering rewards or punishments to oneself for a meeting, exceeding, or falling short of one’s own expectations or standards. Is called ___________

    • A.

      Self rewardance

    • B.

      Self analysis

    • C.

      Self acknowledgement

    • D.

      Self reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    D. Self reinforcement
    Explanation
    Self reinforcement refers to the act of administering rewards or punishments to oneself based on meeting, exceeding, or falling short of one's own expectations or standards. It is a process of self-motivation and self-discipline where individuals provide positive or negative consequences to themselves in order to reinforce desired behaviors or discourage undesired behaviors. This practice helps individuals to maintain self-control, stay motivated, and achieve personal goals.

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  • 25. 

    Our feeling of adequacy, efficiency, and competence in coping with life. –it refers to the ability to control life events.

    Correct Answer
    self efficacy
    Explanation
    Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief in their own ability to handle and succeed in various situations and challenges in life. It is the feeling of adequacy, efficiency, and competence in coping with life. This concept is closely related to one's sense of control over their own life events. Self-efficacy plays a crucial role in determining motivation, resilience, and overall well-being, as individuals with higher levels of self-efficacy are more likely to take on challenging tasks, persevere in the face of obstacles, and achieve their goals.

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  • 26. 

    Midterm, Final, number of hours, days, or weeks that elapse. Is an example of what reinforcement schedule?

    Correct Answer
    fixed interval
    Explanation
    This is an example of a fixed interval reinforcement schedule. In this schedule, reinforcement is provided after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement. In this case, the reinforcement is provided based on the time intervals such as midterm, final, number of hours, days, or weeks that elapse. This means that reinforcement is not dependent on the behavior of the individual, but rather on the passage of time.

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  • 27. 

    A salesperson on commission. Is an example of what reinforcement schedule? 

    Correct Answer
    fixed ratio
    Explanation
    A salesperson on commission is an example of a fixed ratio reinforcement schedule. In this type of schedule, reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of desired behaviors or responses. In the case of a salesperson on commission, the reinforcement (commission) is given after a certain number of sales have been made. This schedule can be motivating for the salesperson as they know that they will receive a reward after reaching a specific sales target, which encourages them to continue working hard to achieve the set goal.

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  • 28. 

    A fisher, belongs to what reinforcement schedule?

    Correct Answer
    variable interval
    Explanation
    A fisher belongs to the variable interval reinforcement schedule because the fisherman does not know when they will catch a fish. The time between each catch varies, sometimes it may take a few minutes, and other times it may take hours. This schedule is effective in maintaining the fisherman's behavior because they are motivated to keep fishing, as they know that eventually they will be rewarded with a catch, even if they are uncertain about when it will happen.

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  • 29. 

    People who gamble, and play the lottery using this schedule. It occurs when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses.

    Correct Answer
    variable ratio
    Explanation
    Variable ratio refers to a reinforcement schedule where a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule is commonly observed in gambling and playing the lottery, where individuals continue to engage in the behavior because they do not know when they will receive a reward. The unpredictable nature of reinforcement in variable ratio schedules leads to high rates of response and resistance to extinction, making it an effective reinforcement schedule for maintaining behaviors.

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  • 30. 

    The idea that behavior is determined through the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental or situational variables. 

    • A.

      Tri-variables

    • B.

      Tri-stiumuli

    • C.

      Triadic reciprocality

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Triadic reciprocality
    Explanation
    Triadic reciprocality refers to the concept that behavior is influenced by the interaction between behavioral, cognitive, and environmental or situational factors. This means that our actions are not solely determined by one factor, but rather by the dynamic interplay between these three variables. It suggests that our behavior is not only influenced by our thoughts and beliefs (cognitive), but also by the external circumstances and social context (environmental), and our own actions and responses (behavioral). Triadic reciprocality emphasizes the complex and reciprocal nature of behavior, highlighting the importance of considering multiple factors when trying to understand and explain human actions.

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  • 31. 

    _____________focuses on overt behavior is the theory that people learn new behavior through overt reinforcement or punishment, or by observational learning of the social factors in their environment.

    Correct Answer
    social learning
    social learning theory
    Explanation
    The theory that focuses on overt behavior and how people learn new behavior through reinforcement, punishment, and observational learning of social factors in their environment is known as social learning or social learning theory. This theory suggests that individuals learn by observing others and imitating their behavior, as well as through direct reinforcement or punishment for their own actions. It emphasizes the importance of social interactions and the role they play in shaping behavior.

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  • 32. 

    What are the developmental stages of modeling and self-efficacy?

    Correct Answer
    childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age
    Explanation
    The developmental stages of modeling and self-efficacy are childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. These stages represent different periods in a person's life where they undergo various changes and experiences that shape their modeling abilities and self-beliefs. During childhood, individuals start to observe and imitate the behaviors of others, which influences their self-efficacy. In adolescence, modeling and self-efficacy become more complex as individuals seek role models and develop their own sense of identity. In adulthood, modeling and self-efficacy continue to evolve and adapt to different life roles and responsibilities. Finally, in old age, individuals may reflect on their past experiences and rely on their accumulated modeling skills and self-efficacy to navigate challenges and maintain a sense of competence.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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