Test 3 Ch. 10-12

60 Questions | Total Attempts: 54

SettingsSettingsSettings
Please wait...
Test 3 Ch. 10-12

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A deeply eroded structural basin would exhibit ____________.
    • A. 

      Outcrops of the oldest strata in the center of the basin

    • B. 

      Strata oriented in roughly circular outcrop patterns

    • C. 

      Strata dipping outward away from the center of the basin

    • D. 

      Older strata at the edges of a basin dip away from a central horizontal fold axis

  • 2. 
    Which one of the following best describes the geology of the Black Hills region in South Dakota?
    • A. 

      An eroded syncline with older sedimentary strata in the axial region and younger metamorphic rocks around the margins.

    • B. 

      A basin filled with folded sedimentary rocks and thick coal beds.

    • C. 

      A large graben deeply eroded by Pleistocene glaciers.

    • D. 

      An elongate dome cored by Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  • 3. 
    Jointing in rocks is characterized by ____________.
    • A. 

      Closely spaced, parallel faults along which the blocks have moved in opposite directions

    • B. 

      Structures formed where normal and reverse faults intersect

    • C. 

      The hinge lines connecting two limbs of an anticline or syncline

    • D. 

      Roughly parallel fractures separating blocks that show no displacement

  • 4. 
    In a normal fault, the hanging wall moves:
    • A. 

      Up

    • B. 

      Down

    • C. 

      Sideways

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 5. 
    How is “brittle” deformation different from “ductile” deformation, and why?
    • A. 

      Brittle deformation causes rocks to be transported on faults and folds, whereas ductile deformation involves elastic and recoverable strain only.

    • B. 

      Brittle deformation is very similar to ductile deformation except for the elastic strain energy found in rocks that have undergone brittle deformation.

    • C. 

      Brittle deformation occurs in rocks that are hotter, whereas brittle deformation occurs at low temperature where energy is lower.

    • D. 

      Brittle deformation occurs in rocks that are colder, whereas ductile deformation occurs at high temperature where energy is higher.

  • 6. 
    A thrust fault is described as a________.
    • A. 

      A vertical normal fault

    • B. 

      A near vertical strike slip fault

    • C. 

      A low angle reverse fault

    • D. 

      A low angle strike slip fault

  • 7. 
    Brittle deformation would be favored over plastic deformation in which of the following conditions____________.
    • A. 

      Warmer temperatures

    • B. 

      High confining pressures

    • C. 

      Shallow depths

    • D. 

      Cooler temperatures

  • 8. 
    Plastic deformation only occurs under what temperatures?
    • A. 

      Medium temperatures

    • B. 

      Low temperatures

    • C. 

      High temperatures

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 9. 
    A _______ is a recognizable, mappable, rock unit of know age.
    • A. 

      Strata set

    • B. 

      Stratigraphic sequence

    • C. 

      Formation

    • D. 

      Lithologic section

  • 10. 
    Why do we use a horizontal and a vertical seismograph?
    • A. 

      In case one or the other breaks during an earthquake

    • B. 

      So a full range of motion of the earthquake waves can be observed

    • C. 

      Because p-waves aren’t picked up by a horizontal seismograph

    • D. 

      Because p-waves aren’t picked up by a vertical seismograph

  • 11. 
    Which one of the following best characterizes tsunamis?
    • A. 

      They cause the land to ripple and oscillate

    • B. 

      They are faster than seismic surface waves

    • C. 

      They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths

    • D. 

      They are easily seen at sea but are lost in the swell and breaking waves along a coast

  • 12. 
    Which one of the following regarding the San Andreas Fault in California is true?
    • A. 

      A sliver of continent west of the fault is moving northward with the Pacific plate.

    • B. 

      A sliver of land west of the fault is sinking under the North American plate.

    • C. 

      Continental crust east of the fault is moving east with the North American plate.

    • D. 

      The North American plate is slowly moving northward with respect to the continental fragment west of the fault.

  • 13. 
    Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?
    • A. 

      3000 times

    • B. 

      3 times

    • C. 

      300 times

    • D. 

      30 times

  • 14. 
    The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ____________.
    • A. 

      1 to 12 that rates the energy required for faulting to occur

    • B. 

      1 to 10 that rates the energy released by an earthquake

    • C. 

      I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake

    • D. 

      I to X that rates the total energy released during the main quake and all aftershocks

  • 15. 
    What is an earthquake?
    • A. 

      A rapid release of energy that deforming rocks can no longer store

    • B. 

      A source of sound vibrations that propagate through Earth

    • C. 

      A violent environmental hazard that damages many human made structures

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 16. 
    ________ have the highest velocities.
    • A. 

      Primary waves

    • B. 

      Secondary waves

    • C. 

      Surface waves

    • D. 

      Refracted S waves

  • 17. 
    Which of the following foundation materials is most stable during earthquake shaking?
    • A. 

      Water-saturate

    • B. 

      Unconsolidated moist soil

    • C. 

      Bedrock

    • D. 

      Sand and mud

  • 18. 
    The P-wave shadow zone is largely the result of ____________.
    • A. 

      Reflection of P waves from the inner core-outer core boundary

    • B. 

      Lower P-wave velocities in the mantle than in the crust

    • C. 

      Refraction of P waves crossing the mantle-outer core boundary

    • D. 

      Reflection of P waves at the boundary between the inner and outer cores.

  • 19. 
    Which of the following best characterizes how the diameter of Earth’s core and the nature of the outer core were discovered?
    • A. 

      Crystalline iron was found in lavas erupted from the deepest known hot spots

    • B. 

      By analysis of the P-wave and S-wave shadow zones

    • C. 

      Because P-wave speeds are higher in the outer core than in the lower mantle

    • D. 

      By using the ratio of iron meteorites to stony meteorites to deduce the relative diameters of the core and mantle

  • 20. 
    A shallow-focus earthquake occurs directly under the South Pole. A seismic station at the North Pole would receive ____________.
    • A. 

      S waves from this quake but not P waves

    • B. 

      Both P and S waves from this quake separated in arrival times by two minutes

    • C. 

      Neither P waves nor S waves from the quake

    • D. 

      P waves from this quake but no S waves would be detected

  • 21. 
    The Earth’s magnetic field ____________.
    • A. 

      Is a self-generating and self-reversing dynamo in the outer core

    • B. 

      Is a high temperature superconductor in the inner core

    • C. 

      Results from self-induction of rising magmas in the asthenosphere

    • D. 

      Is a permanent field due to magnetized, iron-rich mineral grains in the oceanic lithosphere

  • 22. 
    Seismic anisotropy was used to illustrate:
    • A. 

      Mantle peridotite is an ultramafic rock mostly composed of the minerals olivine and pyroxene. It is richer in the metals magnesium and iron that the minerals found in the crust

    • B. 

      One set of waves moves across the Earth at 6 km/sec and another set at 8 km/sec. From these two waves, Mohoroviĉiĉ correctly determined that the different waves were coming from two different layers

    • C. 

      The ocean crust is usually about 7 km thick. All ocean crust forms at mid-ocean ridges, which separate two diverging tectonic plates

    • D. 

      If one fills a bottle with clay, iron, water, and air, then shakes it, it would appear to have a single, muddy composition. If that bottle were allowed to sit, however, the different materials would settle out into layers

  • 23. 
    The core of the Earth is made of:
    • A. 

      Iron and magnesium

    • B. 

      Magnesium and aluminum

    • C. 

      Silicon and aluminum

    • D. 

      Iron and nickel

    • E. 

      Nitrogen and silicon

  • 24. 
    How do we know the Earth has a core, a mantle, and a crust?
    • A. 

      By using long asbestos probes

    • B. 

      By looking at plate tectonic cycles

    • C. 

      By observing earthquake waves

    • D. 

      By measuring heat loss from the core

  • 25. 
    The boundary between the crust and mantle is called the ________.
    • A. 

      Ionosphere

    • B. 

      Transition zone

    • C. 

      Moho

    • D. 

      Asthenosphere

Related Topics
Back to Top Back to top