Outcrops of the oldest strata in the center of the basin
Strata oriented in roughly circular outcrop patterns
Strata dipping outward away from the center of the basin
Older strata at the edges of a basin dip away from a central horizontal fold axis
An eroded syncline with older sedimentary strata in the axial region and younger metamorphic rocks around the margins.
A basin filled with folded sedimentary rocks and thick coal beds.
A large graben deeply eroded by Pleistocene glaciers.
An elongate dome cored by Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Closely spaced, parallel faults along which the blocks have moved in opposite directions
Structures formed where normal and reverse faults intersect
The hinge lines connecting two limbs of an anticline or syncline
Roughly parallel fractures separating blocks that show no displacement
All of the above
Brittle deformation causes rocks to be transported on faults and folds, whereas ductile deformation involves elastic and recoverable strain only.
Brittle deformation is very similar to ductile deformation except for the elastic strain energy found in rocks that have undergone brittle deformation.
Brittle deformation occurs in rocks that are hotter, whereas brittle deformation occurs at low temperature where energy is lower.
Brittle deformation occurs in rocks that are colder, whereas ductile deformation occurs at high temperature where energy is higher.
A vertical normal fault
A near vertical strike slip fault
A low angle reverse fault
A low angle strike slip fault
High confining pressures
All of the above
In case one or the other breaks during an earthquake
So a full range of motion of the earthquake waves can be observed
Because p-waves aren’t picked up by a horizontal seismograph
Because p-waves aren’t picked up by a vertical seismograph
They cause the land to ripple and oscillate
They are faster than seismic surface waves
They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths
They are easily seen at sea but are lost in the swell and breaking waves along a coast
A sliver of continent west of the fault is moving northward with the Pacific plate.
A sliver of land west of the fault is sinking under the North American plate.
Continental crust east of the fault is moving east with the North American plate.
The North American plate is slowly moving northward with respect to the continental fragment west of the fault.
1 to 12 that rates the energy required for faulting to occur
1 to 10 that rates the energy released by an earthquake
I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake
I to X that rates the total energy released during the main quake and all aftershocks
A rapid release of energy that deforming rocks can no longer store
A source of sound vibrations that propagate through Earth
A violent environmental hazard that damages many human made structures
All of the above
Refracted S waves
Unconsolidated moist soil
Sand and mud
Reflection of P waves from the inner core-outer core boundary
Lower P-wave velocities in the mantle than in the crust
Refraction of P waves crossing the mantle-outer core boundary
Reflection of P waves at the boundary between the inner and outer cores.
Crystalline iron was found in lavas erupted from the deepest known hot spots
By analysis of the P-wave and S-wave shadow zones
Because P-wave speeds are higher in the outer core than in the lower mantle
By using the ratio of iron meteorites to stony meteorites to deduce the relative diameters of the core and mantle
S waves from this quake but not P waves
Both P and S waves from this quake separated in arrival times by two minutes
Neither P waves nor S waves from the quake
P waves from this quake but no S waves would be detected
Is a self-generating and self-reversing dynamo in the outer core
Is a high temperature superconductor in the inner core
Results from self-induction of rising magmas in the asthenosphere
Is a permanent field due to magnetized, iron-rich mineral grains in the oceanic lithosphere
Mantle peridotite is an ultramafic rock mostly composed of the minerals olivine and pyroxene. It is richer in the metals magnesium and iron that the minerals found in the crust
One set of waves moves across the Earth at 6 km/sec and another set at 8 km/sec. From these two waves, Mohoroviĉiĉ correctly determined that the different waves were coming from two different layers
The ocean crust is usually about 7 km thick. All ocean crust forms at mid-ocean ridges, which separate two diverging tectonic plates
If one fills a bottle with clay, iron, water, and air, then shakes it, it would appear to have a single, muddy composition. If that bottle were allowed to sit, however, the different materials would settle out into layers
Iron and magnesium
Magnesium and aluminum
Silicon and aluminum
Iron and nickel
Nitrogen and silicon
By using long asbestos probes
By looking at plate tectonic cycles
By observing earthquake waves
By measuring heat loss from the core