Test 3 Ch. 10-12

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A deeply eroded structural basin would exhibit ____________.

    • A.

      Outcrops of the oldest strata in the center of the basin

    • B.

      Strata oriented in roughly circular outcrop patterns

    • C.

      Strata dipping outward away from the center of the basin

    • D.

      Older strata at the edges of a basin dip away from a central horizontal fold axis

    Correct Answer
    B. Strata oriented in roughly circular outcrop patterns
    Explanation
    A deeply eroded structural basin would exhibit strata oriented in roughly circular outcrop patterns. This is because erosion would have removed the outer layers of the basin, leaving behind the older, more resistant strata in the center. As a result, the remaining strata would appear in a circular pattern when viewed from above.

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  • 2. 

    Which one of the following best describes the geology of the Black Hills region in South Dakota?

    • A.

      An eroded syncline with older sedimentary strata in the axial region and younger metamorphic rocks around the margins.

    • B.

      A basin filled with folded sedimentary rocks and thick coal beds.

    • C.

      A large graben deeply eroded by Pleistocene glaciers.

    • D.

      An elongate dome cored by Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks.

    Correct Answer
    D. An elongate dome cored by Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "An elongate dome cored by Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks." This means that the Black Hills region in South Dakota is characterized by a dome-shaped geological structure composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Proterozoic era. The term "cored" implies that these rocks form the central part or core of the dome.

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  • 3. 

    Jointing in rocks is characterized by ____________.

    • A.

      Closely spaced, parallel faults along which the blocks have moved in opposite directions

    • B.

      Structures formed where normal and reverse faults intersect

    • C.

      The hinge lines connecting two limbs of an anticline or syncline

    • D.

      Roughly parallel fractures separating blocks that show no displacement

    Correct Answer
    D. Roughly parallel fractures separating blocks that show no displacement
    Explanation
    Jointing in rocks refers to the presence of fractures or cracks that separate blocks of rock without any displacement. These fractures are roughly parallel to each other and do not show any movement or offset between the blocks. Jointing is a common characteristic in many types of rocks and can occur due to various factors such as cooling and contraction, tectonic stresses, or weathering. It provides important information about the mechanical properties and behavior of rocks, as well as their potential for fluid flow and deformation.

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  • 4. 

    In a normal fault, the hanging wall moves:

    • A.

      Up

    • B.

      Down

    • C.

      Sideways

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Up
    Explanation
    In a normal fault, the hanging wall moves up. This type of fault occurs when tensional forces cause the hanging wall to move upward relative to the footwall. The fault plane is inclined, with the hanging wall above the footwall. This movement is a result of the stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust.

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  • 5. 

    How is “brittle” deformation different from “ductile” deformation, and why?

    • A.

      Brittle deformation causes rocks to be transported on faults and folds, whereas ductile deformation involves elastic and recoverable strain only.

    • B.

      Brittle deformation is very similar to ductile deformation except for the elastic strain energy found in rocks that have undergone brittle deformation.

    • C.

      Brittle deformation occurs in rocks that are hotter, whereas brittle deformation occurs at low temperature where energy is lower.

    • D.

      Brittle deformation occurs in rocks that are colder, whereas ductile deformation occurs at high temperature where energy is higher.

    Correct Answer
    D. Brittle deformation occurs in rocks that are colder, whereas ductile deformation occurs at high temperature where energy is higher.
    Explanation
    Brittle deformation occurs in rocks that are colder because at lower temperatures, rocks are more rigid and less able to undergo plastic deformation. On the other hand, ductile deformation occurs at high temperature where energy is higher because at elevated temperatures, rocks become more malleable and can undergo plastic deformation without fracturing.

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  • 6. 

    A thrust fault is described as a________.

    • A.

      A vertical normal fault

    • B.

      A near vertical strike slip fault

    • C.

      A low angle reverse fault

    • D.

      A low angle strike slip fault

    Correct Answer
    C. A low angle reverse fault
    Explanation
    A low angle reverse fault is a type of thrust fault where the hanging wall moves up and over the footwall at a shallow angle. This type of fault is characterized by compression forces causing the rocks to deform and the hanging wall to move upward. The angle of the fault plane is less than 45 degrees, distinguishing it from a steep angle reverse fault. This fault type is commonly associated with mountain building and can result in the uplift of rock layers.

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  • 7. 

    Brittle deformation would be favored over plastic deformation in which of the following conditions____________.

    • A.

      Warmer temperatures

    • B.

      High confining pressures

    • C.

      Shallow depths

    • D.

      Cooler temperatures

    Correct Answer
    D. Cooler temperatures
    Explanation
    Cooler temperatures would favor brittle deformation over plastic deformation because at lower temperatures, rocks are more likely to be rigid and less ductile. This means that they are more prone to fracturing and breaking rather than undergoing plastic deformation, which involves the rocks bending and flowing. In contrast, warmer temperatures promote plastic deformation as they increase the rocks' ductility and ability to deform without fracturing.

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  • 8. 

    Plastic deformation only occurs under what temperatures?

    • A.

      Medium temperatures

    • B.

      Low temperatures

    • C.

      High temperatures

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. High temperatures
    Explanation
    Plastic deformation refers to the permanent change in shape of a material without fracturing. This process occurs when the material is subjected to stress beyond its elastic limit. High temperatures facilitate plastic deformation as they increase the mobility of atoms and allow for easier movement of dislocations within the material's crystal structure. At low temperatures, the material becomes more brittle and is more likely to fracture rather than undergo plastic deformation. Medium temperatures may still allow for some plastic deformation, but high temperatures are generally more favorable for this process. Therefore, plastic deformation mainly occurs under high temperatures.

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  • 9. 

    A _______ is a recognizable, mappable, rock unit of know age.

    • A.

      Strata set

    • B.

      Stratigraphic sequence

    • C.

      Formation

    • D.

      Lithologic section

    Correct Answer
    C. Formation
    Explanation
    A formation is a recognizable, mappable, rock unit of known age. Formations are distinct layers of rock that have similar characteristics and are typically named based on the location where they were first identified. They can be mapped and correlated across different areas, allowing geologists to understand the geological history and make predictions about the rock layers in a particular region. Formations are an important tool in stratigraphy, the study of rock layers and their relationships, and they help to establish a chronological framework for understanding Earth's history.

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  • 10. 

    Why do we use a horizontal and a vertical seismograph?

    • A.

      In case one or the other breaks during an earthquake

    • B.

      So a full range of motion of the earthquake waves can be observed

    • C.

      Because p-waves aren’t picked up by a horizontal seismograph

    • D.

      Because p-waves aren’t picked up by a vertical seismograph

    Correct Answer
    B. So a full range of motion of the earthquake waves can be observed
    Explanation
    A horizontal and a vertical seismograph are used so that a full range of motion of the earthquake waves can be observed. By using both types of seismographs, we can capture the horizontal and vertical components of the seismic waves. This allows us to accurately measure the amplitude and direction of the waves, providing a comprehensive understanding of the earthquake's characteristics.

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  • 11. 

    Which one of the following best characterizes tsunamis?

    • A.

      They cause the land to ripple and oscillate

    • B.

      They are faster than seismic surface waves

    • C.

      They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths

    • D.

      They are easily seen at sea but are lost in the swell and breaking waves along a coast

    Correct Answer
    C. They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths
    Explanation
    Tsunamis are characterized by their relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths. This means that while they may not appear to be very tall or noticeable in terms of height, they can extend over a large distance and have a significant impact on coastal areas. This is why they can be particularly dangerous, as their low height may not be indicative of the destructive force they can carry.

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  • 12. 

    Which one of the following regarding the San Andreas Fault in California is true?

    • A.

      A sliver of continent west of the fault is moving northward with the Pacific plate.

    • B.

      A sliver of land west of the fault is sinking under the North American plate.

    • C.

      Continental crust east of the fault is moving east with the North American plate.

    • D.

      The North American plate is slowly moving northward with respect to the continental fragment west of the fault.

    Correct Answer
    A. A sliver of continent west of the fault is moving northward with the Pacific plate.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that a sliver of continent west of the fault is moving northward with the Pacific plate. This means that the tectonic movement at the San Andreas Fault is causing a portion of the landmass on the west side of the fault to move in a northward direction along with the Pacific plate. This movement is a result of the relative motion between the Pacific plate and the North American plate, which is responsible for the formation and activity of the San Andreas Fault.

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  • 13. 

    Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?

    • A.

      3000 times

    • B.

      3 times

    • C.

      300 times

    • D.

      30 times

    Correct Answer
    D. 30 times
    Explanation
    The Richter scale is logarithmic, meaning that each whole number increase represents a tenfold increase in the amplitude of the seismic waves and approximately 31.6 times more energy release. Therefore, a 6.5 magnitude earthquake releases approximately 30 times more energy than a 5.5 magnitude earthquake.

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  • 14. 

    The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ____________.

    • A.

      1 to 12 that rates the energy required for faulting to occur

    • B.

      1 to 10 that rates the energy released by an earthquake

    • C.

      I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake

    • D.

      I to X that rates the total energy released during the main quake and all aftershocks

    Correct Answer
    C. I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake
    Explanation
    The Mercalli Scale is a scale that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake. It ranges from I to XII, with I representing minimal damage and XII representing total destruction. The scale is based on observations of the effects of an earthquake on buildings, structures, and the environment. It takes into account factors such as shaking intensity, ground rupture, and the impact on human-made structures. By assigning a rating to the observed damage, the Mercalli Scale provides a qualitative measure of the earthquake's intensity and its impact on the built environment.

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  • 15. 

    What is an earthquake?

    • A.

      A rapid release of energy that deforming rocks can no longer store

    • B.

      A source of sound vibrations that propagate through Earth

    • C.

      A violent environmental hazard that damages many human made structures

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    An earthquake is a natural phenomenon characterized by a rapid release of energy stored in deforming rocks, causing them to move and creating vibrations that propagate through the Earth. This release of energy can result in violent shaking of the ground, posing a significant environmental hazard that can cause damage to many human-made structures. Therefore, all of the given options accurately describe different aspects of an earthquake.

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  • 16. 

    ________ have the highest velocities.

    • A.

      Primary waves

    • B.

      Secondary waves

    • C.

      Surface waves

    • D.

      Refracted S waves

    Correct Answer
    A. Primary waves
    Explanation
    Primary waves, also known as P-waves, are the fastest seismic waves and therefore have the highest velocities. These waves are compressional waves that travel through solids, liquids, and gases. They are the first waves to be detected during an earthquake and can move through the Earth's interior in a straight line. Primary waves have the ability to travel through both solid and liquid layers of the Earth, making them faster than secondary waves and surface waves.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following foundation materials is most stable during earthquake shaking?

    • A.

      Water-saturate

    • B.

      Unconsolidated moist soil

    • C.

      Bedrock

    • D.

      Sand and mud

    Correct Answer
    C. Bedrock
    Explanation
    Bedrock is the most stable foundation material during earthquake shaking because it is a solid, dense, and rigid rock that is not easily affected by ground shaking. Unlike water-saturated, unconsolidated moist soil, and sand and mud, which are more prone to liquefaction and shifting during an earthquake, bedrock provides a strong and stable base for structures, minimizing the risk of damage or collapse.

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  • 18. 

    The P-wave shadow zone is largely the result of ____________.

    • A.

      Reflection of P waves from the inner core-outer core boundary

    • B.

      Lower P-wave velocities in the mantle than in the crust

    • C.

      Refraction of P waves crossing the mantle-outer core boundary

    • D.

      Reflection of P waves at the boundary between the inner and outer cores.

    Correct Answer
    C. Refraction of P waves crossing the mantle-outer core boundary
    Explanation
    The P-wave shadow zone is largely the result of refraction of P waves crossing the mantle-outer core boundary. P waves are seismic waves that can travel through both solid and liquid materials. However, when they encounter a boundary between different materials, they can change direction or speed, a phenomenon known as refraction. In the case of the mantle-outer core boundary, the P waves undergo refraction, causing them to bend away from the shadow zone. This results in a region on the opposite side of the Earth from the earthquake where P waves are not detected, known as the P-wave shadow zone.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following best characterizes how the diameter of Earth’s core and the nature of the outer core were discovered?

    • A.

      Crystalline iron was found in lavas erupted from the deepest known hot spots

    • B.

      By analysis of the P-wave and S-wave shadow zones

    • C.

      Because P-wave speeds are higher in the outer core than in the lower mantle

    • D.

      By using the ratio of iron meteorites to stony meteorites to deduce the relative diameters of the core and mantle

    Correct Answer
    B. By analysis of the P-wave and S-wave shadow zones
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the diameter of Earth's core and the nature of the outer core were discovered through the analysis of the P-wave and S-wave shadow zones. This means that scientists observed how seismic waves travel through the Earth and noticed differences in their paths and velocities, which provided insights into the structure and composition of the core. By studying these shadow zones, scientists were able to infer the size and characteristics of Earth's core.

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  • 20. 

    A shallow-focus earthquake occurs directly under the South Pole. A seismic station at the North Pole would receive ____________.

    • A.

      S waves from this quake but not P waves

    • B.

      Both P and S waves from this quake separated in arrival times by two minutes

    • C.

      Neither P waves nor S waves from the quake

    • D.

      P waves from this quake but no S waves would be detected

    Correct Answer
    D. P waves from this quake but no S waves would be detected
    Explanation
    Since the earthquake occurs directly under the South Pole, the seismic waves would travel in all directions, including towards the North Pole. However, S waves cannot pass through the liquid outer core of the Earth, so they would not be detected at the North Pole. On the other hand, P waves can travel through both solid and liquid mediums, so they would be detected at the North Pole. Therefore, the seismic station at the North Pole would receive P waves from this quake but not S waves.

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  • 21. 

    The Earth’s magnetic field ____________.

    • A.

      Is a self-generating and self-reversing dynamo in the outer core

    • B.

      Is a high temperature superconductor in the inner core

    • C.

      Results from self-induction of rising magmas in the asthenosphere

    • D.

      Is a permanent field due to magnetized, iron-rich mineral grains in the oceanic lithosphere

    Correct Answer
    A. Is a self-generating and self-reversing dynamo in the outer core
    Explanation
    The Earth's magnetic field is a self-generating and self-reversing dynamo in the outer core. This means that the magnetic field is created by the movement of molten iron and nickel in the outer core of the Earth. The rotation and convection currents in the outer core generate electric currents, which in turn create the magnetic field. Additionally, the magnetic field periodically reverses its polarity, meaning that the North and South magnetic poles switch places over time. This phenomenon is known as geomagnetic reversal and has been observed in the Earth's magnetic record.

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  • 22. 

    Seismic anisotropy was used to illustrate:

    • A.

      Mantle peridotite is an ultramafic rock mostly composed of the minerals olivine and pyroxene. It is richer in the metals magnesium and iron that the minerals found in the crust

    • B.

      One set of waves moves across the Earth at 6 km/sec and another set at 8 km/sec. From these two waves, Mohoroviĉiĉ correctly determined that the different waves were coming from two different layers

    • C.

      The ocean crust is usually about 7 km thick. All ocean crust forms at mid-ocean ridges, which separate two diverging tectonic plates

    • D.

      If one fills a bottle with clay, iron, water, and air, then shakes it, it would appear to have a single, muddy composition. If that bottle were allowed to sit, however, the different materials would settle out into layers

    Correct Answer
    D. If one fills a bottle with clay, iron, water, and air, then shakes it, it would appear to have a single, muddy composition. If that bottle were allowed to sit, however, the different materials would settle out into layers
  • 23. 

    The core of the Earth is made of:

    • A.

      Iron and magnesium

    • B.

      Magnesium and aluminum

    • C.

      Silicon and aluminum

    • D.

      Iron and nickel

    • E.

      Nitrogen and silicon

    Correct Answer
    D. Iron and nickel
    Explanation
    The core of the Earth is made of iron and nickel. This is supported by scientific evidence and studies that have been conducted on the Earth's composition. The iron-nickel core is believed to be responsible for generating the Earth's magnetic field.

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  • 24. 

    How do we know the Earth has a core, a mantle, and a crust?

    • A.

      By using long asbestos probes

    • B.

      By looking at plate tectonic cycles

    • C.

      By observing earthquake waves

    • D.

      By measuring heat loss from the core

    Correct Answer
    C. By observing earthquake waves
    Explanation
    By observing earthquake waves, scientists have been able to study the behavior of these waves as they travel through the Earth. These waves travel at different speeds and are affected by the different layers of the Earth. By analyzing the patterns and characteristics of these waves, scientists have been able to determine that the Earth has a core, a mantle, and a crust. The way the waves refract and reflect off these layers provides evidence for the existence of these distinct layers within the Earth's structure.

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  • 25. 

    The boundary between the crust and mantle is called the ________.

    • A.

      Ionosphere

    • B.

      Transition zone

    • C.

      Moho

    • D.

      Asthenosphere

    Correct Answer
    C. Moho
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Moho. The Moho, also known as the Mohorovičić discontinuity, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and mantle. It was named after the Croatian seismologist Andrija Mohorovičić, who discovered this boundary in 1909. The Moho is characterized by a significant increase in seismic wave velocity, marking the transition from the solid crust to the more ductile and flowing mantle beneath.

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  • 26. 

    When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The source is also referred to as the __________.

    • A.

      Inertial point

    • B.

      Epicenter

    • C.

      Focus

    • D.

      Seismic zone

    Correct Answer
    C. Focus
    Explanation
    When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The term "focus" refers to the exact point within the Earth's crust where the earthquake originates. It is the location where the seismic waves start to propagate and spread outwards. The term "epicenter" refers to the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus, where the earthquake is typically felt the strongest. The term "inertial point" and "seismic zone" are not commonly used in earthquake terminology.

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  • 27. 

    On a typical seismogram, ____________ will show the highest amplitudes.

    • A.

      P waves

    • B.

      S waves

    • C.

      Surface waves

    • D.

      Body waves

    Correct Answer
    C. Surface waves
    Explanation
    On a typical seismogram, surface waves will show the highest amplitudes. This is because surface waves are the slowest and most destructive seismic waves that travel along the Earth's surface. They cause the most shaking and are responsible for the majority of the damage during an earthquake. P waves and S waves, also known as body waves, travel through the Earth's interior and have lower amplitudes compared to surface waves. Therefore, surface waves exhibit the highest amplitudes on a seismogram.

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  • 28. 

    The ____________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage.

    • A.

      Gutenberg

    • B.

      Reid

    • C.

      Mercalli

    • D.

      Richter

    Correct Answer
    D. Richter
    Explanation
    The Richter magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released during an earthquake. It quantifies the seismic energy based on the amplitude of seismic waves recorded by seismographs. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage caused by the earthquake. The scale is logarithmic, meaning that each whole number increase on the Richter scale represents a tenfold increase in the amplitude of the seismic waves and approximately 31.6 times more energy release. Therefore, the Richter magnitude scale is primarily used to compare the relative size or strength of different earthquakes rather than assessing the damage they cause.

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  • 29. 

    The mechanism by which rocks store and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake is termed __________.

    • A.

      Elastic rebound

    • B.

      Seismic rebound

    • C.

      Fault displacement

    • D.

      Stress fracture

    Correct Answer
    A. Elastic rebound
    Explanation
    The mechanism by which rocks store and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake is called elastic rebound. This refers to the process where rocks deform and accumulate stress along a fault line until they reach their elastic limit. Once the stress exceeds this limit, the rocks snap back into their original shape, releasing the stored energy and causing an earthquake. The term "seismic rebound" is not commonly used and "fault displacement" and "stress fracture" do not specifically describe the process of energy storage and release in earthquakes.

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  • 30. 

    The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined from the __________.

    • A.

      Earthquake magnitude

    • B.

      Intensity of the earthquake

    • C.

      Length of the seismic record

    • D.

      Arrival times of P and S waves

    Correct Answer
    D. Arrival times of P and S waves
    Explanation
    The arrival times of P and S waves can be used to determine the distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source. P waves, or primary waves, are the fastest seismic waves and arrive at the recording station first. S waves, or secondary waves, are slower and arrive after the P waves. By measuring the time difference between the arrival of P and S waves, scientists can calculate the distance based on the known speed of the waves. This information is crucial for understanding the location and intensity of an earthquake.

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  • 31. 

    The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the __________.

    • A.

      Duration of the earthquake

    • B.

      Intensity of the earthquake

    • C.

      Arrival time of P and S waves

    • D.

      Amplitude of the surface waves

    Correct Answer
    D. Amplitude of the surface waves
    Explanation
    The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the amplitude of the surface waves. The amplitude refers to the maximum displacement of the ground during the earthquake. By measuring the amplitude of the surface waves, scientists can estimate the amount of energy released by the earthquake and assign it a magnitude on the Richter scale. This scale is logarithmic, meaning that each whole number increase represents a tenfold increase in the amplitude and approximately 31.6 times more energy released. Therefore, the amplitude of the surface waves is a crucial factor in determining the Richter magnitude of an earthquake.

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  • 32. 

    A ____________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking.

    • A.

      Slurrying

    • B.

      Liquefaction

    • C.

      Motion slip

    • D.

      Seismoflowage

    Correct Answer
    B. Liquefaction
    Explanation
    Liquefaction refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking. This occurs when saturated or partially saturated soil temporarily loses its strength and behaves like a liquid, leading to ground failure and potential damage to structures. Liquefaction is a common phenomenon in areas with loose, water-saturated soils, and it can have significant impacts on the stability and safety of infrastructure during seismic events.

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  • 33. 

    Most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from __________.

    • A.

      drill holes

    • B.

      volcanic eruptions

    • C.

      Seismic waves

    • D.

      Examination of deep mine shafts

    Correct Answer
    C. Seismic waves
    Explanation
    Seismic waves are vibrations that travel through the Earth's interior, and they provide valuable information about its structure and composition. By studying the behavior of seismic waves as they travel through different layers of the Earth, scientists can infer the properties of these layers, such as their density, temperature, and composition. This information helps us understand the structure of the Earth's interior, including the core, mantle, and crust. Thus, seismic waves are a crucial tool in our quest to gain knowledge about the Earth's interior.

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  • 34. 

    Which one of the following statements about the crust is NOT true?

    • A.

      It is the thinnest of the major subdivisions

    • B.

      It is thickest where prominent mountains exist

    • C.

      Oceanic crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon

    • D.

      Continental rocks are compositionally different than oceanic rocks

    Correct Answer
    C. Oceanic crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon
    Explanation
    The given statement "oceanic crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon" is not true. Oceanic crust is actually enriched in iron, magnesium, and calcium, while continental crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon. This is due to the differences in the composition and formation of these two types of crust. Continental crust is primarily made up of granite, which is rich in potassium, sodium, and silicon, while oceanic crust is mainly composed of basalt, which is rich in iron, magnesium, and calcium.

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  • 35. 

    The dense core of Earth is thought to consist predominantly of __________.

    • A.

      Nickel

    • B.

      Lead

    • C.

      Iron

    • D.

      Copper

    Correct Answer
    C. Iron
    Explanation
    The dense core of Earth is thought to consist predominantly of iron. This is based on scientific evidence such as seismic data and the Earth's magnetic field. Iron is a common element in the Earth's crust and mantle, and it is believed to have sunk to the core during the planet's formation. The high density of iron makes it the most likely candidate for the core's composition. Additionally, experiments and simulations have supported the hypothesis that iron is the primary component of Earth's core.

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  • 36. 

    The lithosphere is defined as __________.

    • A.

      a rocky layer having a relatively uniform chemical composition

    • B.

      A rigid layer of crustal and mantle material

    • C.

      A rocky layer composed mainly of crustal rocks

    • D.

      A plastic layer composed mainly of mantle material

    Correct Answer
    B. A rigid layer of crustal and mantle material
    Explanation
    The lithosphere is defined as a rigid layer of crustal and mantle material. This layer is characterized by its rigidity and is composed of both crustal and mantle rocks. It is the outermost layer of the Earth and is broken into several tectonic plates. These plates float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere beneath them. The lithosphere plays a crucial role in plate tectonics and is responsible for the formation of mountains, earthquakes, and volcanic activity.

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  • 37. 

    The average composition of the continental crust most closely approximates that of __________.

    • A.

      Granite

    • B.

      Basalt

    • C.

      Peridotite

    • D.

      Iron

    Correct Answer
    A. Granite
    Explanation
    The average composition of the continental crust is most similar to granite. Granite is a common type of rock found in the continental crust and is composed mainly of quartz, feldspar, and mica. Basalt, on the other hand, is a type of rock found in the oceanic crust and has a different composition. Peridotite is a type of rock found in the Earth's mantle and is not part of the continental crust. Iron, while present in the Earth's crust, is not the main component of the continental crust.

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  • 38. 

    The Earth’s magnetic field originates by ____________.

    • A.

      Weak electrical currents associated with hot, rising, mantle plumes

    • B.

      Magnetic mineral grains in the inner core

    • C.

      Weak electrical currents associated with fluid motions in the outer core

    • D.

      Magnetization of oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the atmospheric ozone layer by solar radiation

    Correct Answer
    C. Weak electrical currents associated with fluid motions in the outer core
    Explanation
    The Earth's magnetic field is generated by weak electrical currents associated with fluid motions in the outer core. These fluid motions are caused by the convective movement of molten iron and nickel in the outer core. As the fluid moves, it creates electrical currents, which in turn generate a magnetic field. This process is known as the dynamo theory and is responsible for the creation and maintenance of Earth's magnetic field.

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  • 39. 

    The asthenosphere is located __________.

    • A.

      Within the crust

    • B.

      In the upper mantle

    • C.

      Between the mantle and outer core

    • D.

      Within the outer core

    Correct Answer
    B. In the upper mantle
    Explanation
    The asthenosphere is located in the upper mantle. This region is characterized by its semi-fluid state, where the rock is hot and under high pressure. It lies beneath the lithosphere, which includes the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. The asthenosphere plays a crucial role in plate tectonics, as it is the layer where convection currents occur, causing the movement of the Earth's tectonic plates.

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  • 40. 

    A ____________ fault has little or no vertical movements of the two blocks.

    • A.

      Stick slip

    • B.

      Oblique slip

    • C.

      Strike slip

    • D.

      Dip slip

    Correct Answer
    C. Strike slip
    Explanation
    A strike-slip fault is characterized by horizontal movements of the two blocks, with little to no vertical movement. In this type of fault, the blocks slide past each other horizontally, parallel to the fault line. This is different from a dip-slip fault, where the movement is primarily vertical, and from oblique slip faults, where there is a combination of both vertical and horizontal movements. Stick-slip is not a type of fault, but rather a phenomenon that occurs when friction causes the blocks to stick and accumulate stress before eventually slipping and releasing energy in the form of an earthquake.

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  • 41. 

    In thrust faulting, ____________.

    • A.

      Grabens develop on the footwall block

    • B.

      The crust is shortened and thickened

    • C.

      Horizontal, tensional stresses drive the deformation

    • D.

      The hanging wall block slips downward along the thrust fault

    Correct Answer
    B. The crust is shortened and thickened
    Explanation
    In thrust faulting, the crust is shortened and thickened. This occurs when two tectonic plates collide, causing compression and the crust to be pushed upward. As a result, the crust is shortened horizontally and becomes thicker. This process can lead to the formation of mountains and other elevated landforms.

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  • 42. 

    A graben is characterized by ____________.

    • A.

      A hanging wall block that has moved up between two reverse faults

    • B.

      A footwall block that has moved up between two normal faults

    • C.

      A hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults

    • D.

      A footwall block that has moved down between two reverse faults

    Correct Answer
    C. A hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults
    Explanation
    A graben is characterized by a hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults. In a normal fault, the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall due to tensional forces pulling the rocks apart. In a graben, this downward movement of the hanging wall creates a depressed area or basin between the two normal faults. This is in contrast to a horst, which is characterized by a hanging wall block that has moved up between two reverse faults.

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  • 43. 

    The mountains and valleys of the Basin and Range Province of western United States formed in response to ____________.

    • A.

      Strike-slip faulting and hanging wall block uplifts

    • B.

      Reverse faults and large displacement, thrust faulting

    • C.

      Tensional stresses and normal-fault movements

    • D.

      Normal faulting and horizontal compression

    Correct Answer
    C. Tensional stresses and normal-fault movements
    Explanation
    The correct answer is tensional stresses and normal-fault movements. The Basin and Range Province in western United States is characterized by a series of mountain ranges and valleys that formed due to tensional stresses, which caused the Earth's crust to stretch and thin. This stretching resulted in normal-fault movements, where the hanging wall moved downward relative to the footwall. This process led to the formation of the distinct mountain ranges and valleys seen in the Basin and Range Province.

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  • 44. 

    In a normal fault ____________.

    • A.

      The hanging wall block below an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block

    • B.

      the footwall block below an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block

    • C.

      the hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block

    • D.

      The footwall block above an inclined fault plane moves upward relative to the other block

    Correct Answer
    C. the hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
    Explanation
    In a normal fault, the hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block. This is because normal faults occur when the hanging wall block drops down relative to the footwall block due to tensional forces pulling the blocks apart. As a result, the hanging wall block moves downward while the footwall block remains relatively stationary or moves upward.

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  • 45. 

    A transform fault is ____________.

    • A.

      A strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates

    • B.

      A dip-slip fault connecting an anticline with a syncline

    • C.

      A reverse fault that steepens into a thrust fault

    • D.

      The rift bounding faults on a mid-ocean ridge

    Correct Answer
    A. A strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates
    Explanation
    A transform fault is a type of fault that occurs when two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally. This movement is known as strike-slip motion. Transform faults are commonly found at the boundaries between tectonic plates, where they accommodate the lateral movement of the plates. Unlike other types of faults, such as dip-slip or reverse faults, transform faults do not involve vertical displacement or the creation of new crust. They are characterized by the absence of significant seismic activity and are often associated with features like offset rivers and linear valleys.

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  • 46. 

    A horst is ____________.

    • A.

      An uplifted block bounded by two normal faults

    • B.

      A downdropped block bounded by two reverse faults

    • C.

      An uplifted block bounded by two reverse faults

    • D.

      A downdropped block bounded by two normal faults

    Correct Answer
    A. An uplifted block bounded by two normal faults
    Explanation
    A horst is an uplifted block bounded by two normal faults. Normal faults occur when the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall, resulting in the block being uplifted. In the case of a horst, two normal faults are present on either side of the block, causing it to be uplifted. This geological feature is commonly found in areas of tectonic activity, where tensional forces cause the crust to stretch and create normal faults.

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  • 47. 

    A syncline is ____________.

    • A.

      A fold in which the strata dip away from the axis

    • B.

      A fold with only one limb

    • C.

      A fold in which the strata dip toward the axis

    • D.

      A fold characterized by recumbent limbs

    Correct Answer
    C. A fold in which the strata dip toward the axis
    Explanation
    A syncline is a type of fold in rock layers where the strata dip toward the axis. In other words, the layers of rock are folded downwards, forming a U-shape. This is in contrast to an anticline, where the strata dip away from the axis. Synclines are often found in areas of compression and can be a result of tectonic forces. They are important in geological studies as they provide insights into the deformation and folding of rock layers over time.

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  • 48. 

    Large circular downwarped structures are called __________.

    • A.

      Anticlines

    • B.

      Synclines

    • C.

      Basins

    • D.

      Domes

    Correct Answer
    C. Basins
    Explanation
    Basins are large circular downwarped structures. They are characterized by their concave shape, with the center being lower than the surrounding areas. Basins often form due to tectonic forces, such as the subsidence of crustal blocks or the collapse of volcanic calderas. They can also be formed by the erosion of softer rocks, creating a depression in the landscape. Basins are important geological features as they can accumulate sediments and form reservoirs for water, oil, and gas.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following combinations should favor folding rather than faulting?

    • A.

      High temperature and low confining pressure

    • B.

      low confining pressure and low temperature

    • C.

      high confining pressure and low temperature

    • D.

      High temperature and high confining pressure

    Correct Answer
    D. High temperature and high confining pressure
    Explanation
    High temperature and high confining pressure should favor folding rather than faulting because at high temperatures, rocks become more ductile and are more likely to deform plastically. Additionally, high confining pressure helps to evenly distribute the stress on the rocks, allowing them to deform more easily without fracturing. This combination of high temperature and high confining pressure promotes folding, which is a type of ductile deformation where rocks bend and fold instead of breaking along faults.

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  • 50. 

    Tensional forces normally cause which one of the following?

    • A.

      Strike-slip faults

    • B.

      Reverse faults

    • C.

      Normal faults

    • D.

      Thrust faults

    Correct Answer
    C. Normal faults
    Explanation
    Tensional forces typically cause normal faults. In a normal fault, the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall, resulting in the extension and stretching of the Earth's crust. This type of faulting is commonly associated with divergent plate boundaries, where the crust is being pulled apart.

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  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
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