Telecom Practice Exam: Quiz!

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Telecom Practice Exam: Quiz! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which is not one of the main types of Ethernet Cabling?

    • A.

      RG-58

    • B.

      UTP

    • C.

      FTP

    • D.

      RG-11

    Correct Answer
    C. FTP
    Explanation
    FTP (Foil Twisted Pair) is not one of the main types of Ethernet cabling. The main types of Ethernet cabling include UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair), which is the most common type used for Ethernet connections, and RG-58 and RG-11, which are coaxial cables used for Ethernet connections in certain applications. FTP, on the other hand, is a type of cable that combines the characteristics of both coaxial and twisted pair cables, but it is not commonly used for Ethernet connections.

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  • 2. 

    What type of cable is used with ubs and switches?

    • A.

      RG-58

    • B.

      UTP

    • C.

      FTP

    • D.

      RG-11

    Correct Answer
    B. UTP
    Explanation
    UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable is used with USBs and switches. UTP cables are commonly used in Ethernet networks due to their cost-effectiveness and versatility. They consist of four pairs of twisted copper wires, which help to reduce electromagnetic interference. UTP cables are the most widely used type of cable for local area networks (LANs) and are compatible with most networking devices, including USBs and switches.

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  • 3. 

    RG-11 cable is considered the backbone of cable.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    RG-11 cable is considered the backbone of cable because it is a thick, high-performance coaxial cable that is designed to carry signals over long distances with minimal signal loss. It has a larger diameter and a lower attenuation rate compared to other cables, making it suitable for transmitting signals over longer distances. Due to its superior performance, RG-11 cable is commonly used in applications that require high bandwidth and long cable runs, such as in cable TV distribution systems, satellite installations, and high-speed internet connections.

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  • 4. 

    Reduction of noise and crosstalk is one advantage of twisted pair wires.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Twisted pair wires have the ability to reduce noise and crosstalk, which are unwanted disturbances or interference that can affect the quality of the transmitted signal. This is achieved by twisting the pairs of wires together, which helps to cancel out the electromagnetic interference from external sources. As a result, twisted pair wires are commonly used in telecommunications and networking applications where maintaining signal integrity is crucial. Therefore, the statement that reduction of noise and crosstalk is one advantage of twisted pair wires is true.

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  • 5. 

    Fiber optic cable can be constructed only using plastic.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    It can also be constructed using glass.

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  • 6. 

    One advantage of fiber optic wire is that it eliminates the problems found in copper wires.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fiber optic wire eliminates the problems found in copper wires due to several reasons. Firstly, fiber optic cables are made of glass or plastic, which makes them immune to electromagnetic interference. This ensures that the signal transmitted through the cable is not affected by nearby electrical devices or power lines. Additionally, fiber optic cables have a much higher bandwidth capacity compared to copper wires, allowing for faster data transmission over longer distances. Furthermore, fiber optic cables are also more resistant to environmental factors such as temperature changes, moisture, and corrosion, making them more reliable and durable than copper wires.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following acts as an interface between the networked device and physical network connections?

    • A.

      WAN

    • B.

      LAN

    • C.

      INET

    • D.

      NIC

    Correct Answer
    D. NIC
    Explanation
    A NIC (Network Interface Card) acts as an interface between the networked device (such as a computer) and the physical network connections. It is responsible for connecting the device to the network and facilitating communication between the device and other devices on the network. The NIC converts digital data from the device into signals that can be transmitted over the physical network connections, and vice versa, allowing the device to send and receive data over the network.

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  • 8. 

    Which layer of the OSI model does the NIC operate in?

    • A.

      Data-link layer

    • B.

      Transmission layer

    • C.

      Physical Layer

    • D.

      THE CHOCOLATE LAYER

    Correct Answer
    C. Physical Layer
    Explanation
    The NIC (Network Interface Card) operates in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. This layer is responsible for the physical transmission of data over the network, including the electrical, mechanical, and functional specifications of the physical medium. The NIC handles tasks such as converting digital data into electrical signals for transmission and vice versa, as well as regulating the flow of data between the computer and the network.

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  • 9. 

    This type of address consists of 48 bits and is unique.

    • A.

      IP

    • B.

      MAC

    • C.

      IF

    • D.

      Machine

    Correct Answer
    B. MAC
    Explanation
    MAC stands for Media Access Control and refers to the unique identifier assigned to a network interface card (NIC) by the manufacturer. It consists of 48 bits and is unique for every NIC in the world. The MAC address is used in Ethernet networks to ensure that data is sent to the correct device. It is different from an IP address, which is used for network routing and can be dynamically assigned or changed.

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  • 10. 

    The last six digits of a MAC address represent the NIC serial number.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The last six digits of a MAC address do indeed represent the NIC serial number. A MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on a network. It consists of six pairs of hexadecimal digits, with the last three pairs typically representing the serial number of the network interface card (NIC). Therefore, the given statement is correct.

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  • 11. 

    The NIC utilizes two addresses.  The __________and the _____________.

    Correct Answer
    MAC, IP, IP, MAC
    Explanation
    The Network Interface Card (NIC) uses two addresses: the MAC address and the IP address. The MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to the physical hardware of the NIC, allowing devices on the same network to communicate with each other. The IP address, on the other hand, is a logical address assigned to the NIC, enabling communication between devices on different networks. Therefore, the NIC utilizes the MAC address for local network communication and the IP address for internet communication.

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  • 12. 

    The MAC address is assigned by the manufacture and it changes every time you log in.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface card (NIC) by the manufacturer and it does not change every time you log in. The MAC address remains constant unless the NIC is replaced or manually modified.

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  • 13. 

    The IP address is assigned by the operating system and it stays the same.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. The IP address is not assigned by the operating system, but rather by the network administrator or Internet Service Provider (ISP). Additionally, IP addresses can be dynamic, meaning they can change over time, or static, meaning they remain the same. Therefore, the statement that the IP address stays the same is incorrect.

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  • 14. 

    Token-ring networks make connections using what types of cables?

    • A.

      Ethernet

    • B.

      STP

    • C.

      Coaxial

    • D.

      UTP

    Correct Answer
    B. STP
    Explanation
    Token-ring networks make connections using STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) cables. STP cables have an extra layer of shielding that helps to reduce electromagnetic interference and crosstalk, ensuring a more reliable and stable connection. This type of cable is commonly used in token-ring networks to transmit data between devices. Ethernet, Coaxial, and UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cables are not typically used for token-ring networks.

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  • 15. 

    What is used to connect two network segments?

    • A.

      Transceivers

    • B.

      Repeaters

    • C.

      Ethernet

    • D.

      Coaxial cable

    Correct Answer
    B. Repeaters
    Explanation
    Repeaters are used to connect two network segments by amplifying and regenerating signals. They receive signals from one network segment, amplify them, and then transmit them to the other network segment. This helps to extend the reach of the network and overcome signal degradation that occurs over long distances. Repeaters are commonly used in Ethernet networks to extend the maximum length of the network and improve signal quality.

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  • 16. 

    Repeaters are designed to keep collision detection working properly.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Repeaters are network devices that regenerate and amplify signals in order to extend the length of a network. They operate at the physical layer of the network and do not examine or modify the data being transmitted. By regenerating the signals, repeaters ensure that collision detection mechanisms, which are crucial for detecting and avoiding data collisions on a network, continue to function properly. Therefore, the statement that repeaters are designed to keep collision detection working properly is true.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is NOT true about transceivers?

    • A.

      They concert transmissions from one media type to another

    • B.

      They operate at the OSI model layer

    • C.

      They are important for upgrading a network

    • D.

      The is only one type of transceiver available

    Correct Answer
    D. The is only one type of transceiver available
    Explanation
    The statement "The is only one type of transceiver available" is not true. Transceivers come in various types and are used for different purposes. They can convert transmissions from one media type to another, operate at different layers of the OSI model, and are crucial for upgrading a network.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is NOT true about hubs?

    • A.

      They are different from repeaters

    • B.

      They contain a small amount of intelligence

    • C.

      They operate in the physical layer

    • D.

      The broadcast data received by any port to all other ports on hub

    Correct Answer
    A. They are different from repeaters
    Explanation
    Hubs are not different from repeaters. Unlike repeaters, which simply amplify and regenerate signals, hubs also have the ability to broadcast data received by any port to all other ports on the hub. Hubs operate in the physical layer of the network and contain a small amount of intelligence.

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  • 19. 

    Bridges are used to partition a large network into smaller groups.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Bridges are used to partition a large network into smaller groups. This is true because bridges are network devices that connect multiple network segments together, allowing them to communicate with each other. By dividing a large network into smaller groups or segments, bridges can help improve network performance and manage network traffic more efficiently. They can also enhance network security by isolating network issues and preventing them from spreading across the entire network.

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  • 20. 

    Switches use which type of protocol?

    • A.

      FTP

    • B.

      UTP

    • C.

      SNMP

    • D.

      SMTP

    Correct Answer
    C. SNMP
    Explanation
    Switches use SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) as the type of protocol. SNMP is a protocol used for network management and monitoring. It allows network devices, such as switches, to be managed and monitored remotely by a network management system. SNMP enables the collection and exchange of information between network devices and the management system, making it an essential protocol for managing and monitoring the performance and status of switches in a network.

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  • 21. 

    Bridges and switches operate in the data link layer of the OSI model.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Bridges and switches operate in the data link layer of the OSI model because they are responsible for connecting and forwarding data packets between different network segments. The data link layer is responsible for providing error-free and reliable transmission of data over a physical link. Bridges and switches use MAC addresses to forward data packets within a local area network (LAN), making decisions based on the destination MAC address. Therefore, it is true that bridges and switches operate in the data link layer of the OSI model.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a router?

    • A.

      Basic Internet building block

    • B.

      Examines each packet

    • C.

      Connects two or more networks together

    • D.

      Inspects network traffic

    Correct Answer
    D. Inspects network traffic
    Explanation
    A router is a basic internet building block that connects two or more networks together and examines each packet to determine the best path for it to reach its destination. However, inspecting network traffic is not a characteristic of a router. Routers primarily focus on forwarding packets based on their destination IP addresses, rather than analyzing the content of the packets themselves.

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  • 23. 

    The purpose of a firewall is to protect a network and computer from outside access.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A firewall is a security measure that acts as a barrier between a private internal network and the external network, such as the internet. It monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. By doing so, it helps to prevent unauthorized access and potential threats from reaching the network and computer. Therefore, the statement that the purpose of a firewall is to protect a network and computer from outside access is true.

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  • 24. 

    ISP stand for...

    • A.

      Internal Service Provider

    • B.

      Internet Sales Processor

    • C.

      Internet Service Provider

    • D.

      Internet Service Protocol

    Correct Answer
    C. Internet Service Provider
    Explanation
    ISP stands for Internet Service Provider. An ISP is a company or organization that provides internet access to customers. They offer a range of services such as internet connectivity, email services, web hosting, and domain registration. ISPs connect users to the internet through various technologies like dial-up, DSL, cable, or fiber optic connections. They play a crucial role in enabling individuals and businesses to access and utilize the internet for communication, information retrieval, online services, and entertainment purposes.

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  • 25. 

    Domain names are associated with an IP address.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Domain names are associated with an IP address because they serve as a human-friendly way to identify and access websites on the internet. When a user enters a domain name in their web browser, a DNS (Domain Name System) server translates that domain name into the corresponding IP address of the server hosting the website. This IP address is then used to establish a connection and retrieve the requested web page. Therefore, domain names act as a convenient and memorable alternative to the numerical IP addresses that computers use to communicate with each other.

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  • 26. 

    Even with a growing internet, there will never be a shortage of available networks.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    There will be a shortage of available networks.

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  • 27. 

    ICS stands for...

    • A.

      Internal Control Sharing

    • B.

      Internet Connection Sharing

    • C.

      Internal Connection Sharing

    • D.

      Information Connection Session

    Correct Answer
    B. Internet Connection Sharing
    Explanation
    ICS stands for Internet Connection Sharing. This term refers to the feature in Windows operating systems that allows multiple devices to share a single internet connection. It enables a computer to act as a network gateway, providing internet access to other devices connected to it through wired or wireless connections. This feature is useful in situations where there is only one internet connection available, such as in homes or small offices, and multiple devices need to access the internet simultaneously.

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  • 28. 

    ICS - Contains one connection to the ___________, second connection to the ____________.

    Correct Answer
    ISP, local network, Internet Service Provider, Local network
    Explanation
    The ICS (Internet Connection Sharing) feature in a computer allows it to act as a gateway between two networks. In this case, it contains one connection to the ISP (Internet Service Provider), which is the external network that provides internet access to the local network. The second connection is to the local network itself, which consists of the devices and computers within a specific location or area.

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  • 29. 

    Alternatively, multiple computers can share a single Internet connection if there is a cable modem/DSL router.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Multiple computers can share a single Internet connection if there is a cable modem/DSL router because these devices allow for the creation of a local area network (LAN). The cable modem/DSL router acts as a gateway, allowing multiple devices to connect to the Internet through a single connection. The router assigns unique IP addresses to each device on the network, facilitating communication between the devices and the Internet. This setup is commonly used in homes and small businesses to provide Internet access to multiple devices simultaneously.

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  • 30. 

    What does WINS stand for?

    Correct Answer
    Windows Internet Naming Service
    Explanation
    WINS stands for Windows Internet Naming Service. It is a legacy computer network protocol used to map IP addresses to NetBIOS names. WINS allows computers to easily locate resources on a network by using a central database that maps names to IP addresses. This service is commonly used in Windows environments to enable communication between computers using NetBIOS over TCP/IP.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is a characteristic of WINS (may be multiple answers)?

    • A.

      Translates Windows computer names to IP addresses

    • B.

      Name-to-IP mappings dynamic database

    • C.

      Assigns MAC address manually

    • D.

      Automatically adjusts entries as IP addresses reassigned

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Translates Windows computer names to IP addresses
    B. Name-to-IP mappings dynamic database
    D. Automatically adjusts entries as IP addresses reassigned
    Explanation
    WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) is a network protocol used in Windows operating systems to translate Windows computer names to IP addresses. This allows computers to communicate with each other using names instead of IP addresses. WINS also maintains a dynamic database of name-to-IP mappings, which means that it can automatically update and adjust entries as IP addresses are reassigned or changed. Therefore, the correct answers are: Translates Windows computer names to IP addresses, Name-to-IP mappings dynamic database, and Automatically adjusts entries as IP addresses reassigned.

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  • 32. 

    Linux, Unix and MAC OS are examples of other operating systems on the internet.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Linux, Unix, and MAC OS are indeed examples of other operating systems on the internet. These operating systems are widely used in various devices and are known for their stability, security, and flexibility. Linux is an open-source operating system that is highly customizable and is used in servers, desktops, and mobile devices. Unix is a powerful and stable operating system commonly used in servers and workstations. MAC OS is the operating system developed by Apple for their Macintosh computers. All three operating systems have a significant presence on the internet and are used by millions of users worldwide.

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  • 33. 

    WWW(World Wide Web) is a collection of

    • A.

      Operating systems

    • B.

      Internet Users

    • C.

      Web Servers

    Correct Answer
    C. Web Servers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Web Servers because the World Wide Web (WWW) is a system of interconnected hypertext documents accessed through the internet. These documents are hosted on web servers, which store and deliver the web pages to internet users. Operating systems, on the other hand, are software that manage computer hardware and software resources. Internet users are individuals who access the internet to browse websites, use online services, and communicate with others.

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  • 34. 

    What are the three elements of Web Server Files

    • A.

      Depth, Layout, Organization

    • B.

      Content, Layout, Depth

    • C.

      Users, Servers, Websites

    • D.

      Content, Organization, Layout

    Correct Answer
    D. Content, Organization, Layout
    Explanation
    The three elements of Web Server Files are Content, Organization, and Layout. Content refers to the information or data that is stored on the server and displayed on the website. Organization refers to the structure and arrangement of the files and folders on the server, making it easier to navigate and manage the website. Layout refers to the design and presentation of the website, including the placement of text, images, and other elements to create an appealing and user-friendly interface.

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  • 35. 

    HTML stand for Hypertext Markup Language

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It is a standard markup language used for creating web pages and web applications. HTML uses tags to structure the content and define the layout of a webpage. It is the backbone of the internet and is used to format text, insert images, create links, and much more. Therefore, the given answer "True" is correct.

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  • 36. 

    This is not a question. Make sure you know the difference between WWW/HTTP/URL/HTML. Select true to move on.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is asking the respondent to confirm their understanding of the difference between WWW, HTTP, URL, and HTML. The correct answer is "True" because the respondent should have knowledge of these terms in order to move on.

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  • 37. 

    XHTML is an update to HTML.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language) is indeed an update to HTML (HyperText Markup Language). It was developed to address the limitations and inconsistencies of HTML, providing a stricter and more standardized markup language for web pages. XHTML follows the XML syntax rules, making it more compatible with other web technologies and allowing for easier integration with XML-based systems. Therefore, the statement "XHTML is an update to HTML" is true.

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  • 38. 

    XML is much more advanced.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    XML is considered much more advanced compared to other data formats like HTML or plain text. XML allows for structured data representation, making it easier to organize and exchange information. It provides a standardized way to describe and validate data, making it more reliable and interoperable. XML also supports extensibility, allowing users to define their own elements and attributes. Additionally, XML is widely used in various industries and technologies, such as web services, data storage, and configuration files. Therefore, the statement "XML is much more advanced" is true.

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  • 39. 

    Java is a programming language used to create:

    • A.

      Surveys

    • B.

      Hardware

    • C.

      Computer Programs

    • D.

      Websites

    Correct Answer
    C. Computer Programs
    Explanation
    Java is a programming language that is specifically designed to create computer programs. It is widely used for developing various types of applications, including desktop software, mobile apps, and enterprise systems. Java's versatility and platform independence make it a popular choice among developers for building robust and scalable software solutions. While it is possible to use Java for other purposes such as creating websites or surveys, its primary use and focus lie in the development of computer programs.

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  • 40. 

    The Java Applet program can't be run on other operating systems. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. Java Applets can be run on different operating systems as long as the required Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is installed. The JVM acts as an interpreter for the Java bytecode, allowing the applet to run on any system that supports Java. This platform independence is one of the key advantages of Java.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following programming langauges provides web client side processes, preforms common activities, and custom activities

    • A.

      HTML

    • B.

      CSS

    • C.

      JavaScript

    • D.

      XML

    Correct Answer
    C. JavaScript
    Explanation
    JavaScript is the correct answer because it is a programming language that provides web client side processes, performs common activities, and allows for custom activities. HTML is a markup language used for structuring web pages, CSS is used for styling web pages, and XML is used for storing and transporting data. While all of these languages are important for web development, JavaScript is specifically designed for client-side scripting and allows for interactive and dynamic web content.

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  • 42. 

    VPN's allow for private _____ secure communication (uses encryption).

    • A.

      LAN

    • B.

      WAN

    • C.

      MAN

    • D.

      SPAM

    Correct Answer
    A. LAN
    Explanation
    VPNs allow for private and secure communication by using encryption. A LAN (Local Area Network) is a network that connects devices within a limited area, such as a home, office, or school. Therefore, a VPN can be implemented within a LAN to provide a secure connection for users accessing the network remotely. This allows for private and encrypted communication between the user and the LAN, ensuring that data transmitted over the network is protected from unauthorized access.

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  • 43. 

    Only authorized network members can access data on VPN's

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) are designed to provide secure and private access to a network. They use encryption and authentication protocols to ensure that only authorized users can access the data transmitted over the network. By using VPNs, organizations can create a secure connection between remote users and their internal network, making it difficult for unauthorized individuals to intercept or access sensitive information.

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  • 44. 

    Only authorized network members can access data on VPN's.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) are designed to provide secure and private connections for authorized network members. By encrypting data and establishing a secure tunnel, VPNs ensure that only authorized users can access the data transmitted over the network. This helps to protect sensitive information and prevent unauthorized access from external sources.

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  • 45. 

    VPN's use _________________, which allows the system to make sure you are who you say you are.

    Correct Answer
    authentication
    Explanation
    VPNs use authentication to verify the identity of the user. This process ensures that the system can confirm that the user is who they claim to be before granting access to the VPN. Authentication provides an extra layer of security by preventing unauthorized access and protecting sensitive information.

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  • 46. 

    Web servers are typically set up on a small computer system.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Large Computer systems.

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  • 47. 

    What is the most popular web server program?

    • A.

      Jigsaw

    • B.

      Apache Server

    • C.

      Klone

    • D.

      Lighttpd

    Correct Answer
    B. Apache Server
    Explanation
    Apache Server is the most popular web server program because it is open-source, widely used, and has a large community of developers and users. It is known for its stability, scalability, and flexibility, making it a preferred choice for hosting websites and applications. Apache Server also supports various operating systems and has extensive documentation and support available, making it easy for developers to work with. Its popularity can be attributed to its reliability, performance, and the availability of numerous modules and extensions that enhance its functionality.

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  • 48. 

    Instant Messaging is slower than electronic mail

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is "Instant Messaging is slower than electronic mail." However, the correct answer is "False." This means that the statement is incorrect, and instant messaging is not slower than electronic mail.

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  • 49. 

    Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) Web server is veryy popular with Windows users.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) Web server is indeed very popular with Windows users. IIS is a web server software that is developed by Microsoft and is commonly used on Windows operating systems. It provides a platform for hosting websites and web applications, and it offers various features and tools that make it a preferred choice for many Windows users. Therefore, the statement that IIS is very popular with Windows users is true.

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  • 50. 

    Windows today uses ________ for network operation backbone.

    • A.

      Ethernet

    • B.

      IPv6

    • C.

      TCP/IP

    • D.

      IP/Mac

    Correct Answer
    C. TCP/IP
    Explanation
    Windows today uses TCP/IP for network operation backbone. TCP/IP is a suite of communication protocols that allows devices to communicate over the internet. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ensures reliable delivery of data packets, while IP (Internet Protocol) handles the addressing and routing of these packets. Together, TCP/IP provides the foundation for network communication in modern Windows systems.

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