Stearns Ch 18 Rise Of Russia

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Stearns Ch 18 Rise Of Russia - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What was the state of the Russian economy immediately after the expulsion of the Mongols in the 15th century?

    • A.

      Russia was already a dependent region within the global economy dominated by the West.

    • B.

      Fueled by the establishment of the Tatar trade routes with the East, Russia had developed a significant export trade and merchant class.

    • C.

      Russia had become a more purely agricultural economy, dependent on peasant labor.

    • D.

      Russia's economic ties were almost exclusively with the Ottoman Empire and hence with Africa.

    • E.

      Russia was following the West into an economy dominated by merchants and capitalists.

    Correct Answer
    C. Russia had become a more purely agricultural economy, dependent on peasant labor.
    Explanation
    After the expulsion of the Mongols in the 15th century, Russia had transitioned into a predominantly agricultural economy that relied heavily on peasant labor. This shift was a result of the establishment of the Tatar trade routes with the East, which led to the development of a significant export trade and merchant class. However, Russia's economic ties were not exclusively with the Ottoman Empire or Africa, as stated in the other options. Instead, it was still a dependent region within the global economy dominated by the West, but it was primarily focused on agricultural production and reliant on the labor of peasants.

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  • 2. 

    What government did Ivan the Great claim to have succeeded as the "third Rome"?

    • A.

      The Byzantine Empire

    • B.

      The Abbasid Empire

    • C.

      The Ottoman Empire

    • D.

      The Umayyad Empire

    • E.

      Holy Roman Empire

    Correct Answer
    A. The Byzantine Empire
    Explanation
    Ivan the Great claimed to have succeeded the Byzantine Empire as the "third Rome" because after the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, Ivan saw Moscow as the rightful heir to the Byzantine legacy. He believed that Moscow was the new center of Orthodox Christianity and the protector of the Eastern Orthodox Church, just as Rome had been for the Western Church and Constantinople had been for the Byzantine Empire. Ivan's claim to be the "third Rome" was a way to assert Moscow's political and religious authority in the Eastern Orthodox world.

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  • 3. 

    Why did the Russian expansion policy focus particularly on central Asia?

    • A.

      The Russians wished to seize control of the trade routes with China.

    • B.

      Most of the Russian population remained ethnically Mongol with clear cultural ties to central Asia.

    • C.

      There were natural barriers to westward expansion.

    • D.

      The Russians were motivated by a desire to push the former Mongol overlords farther back to prevent revewed invasion.

    • E.

      Russians wanted to control the lucrative fur trade in Siberia.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Russians were motivated by a desire to push the former Mongol overlords farther back to prevent revewed invasion.
    Explanation
    The Russian expansion policy focused particularly on central Asia because the Russians were motivated by a desire to push the former Mongol overlords farther back to prevent renewed invasion. The Mongols had previously invaded and ruled over Russia, and the Russians wanted to ensure that they would not face another invasion from them. By expanding into central Asia, they aimed to create a buffer zone and establish control over the region to protect themselves from future Mongol threats.

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  • 4. 

    Following the death of Ivan IV, Russian boyars attempted to limit tsarist autocracy and gain governing rights for themselves during the

    • A.

      Russian civil war.

    • B.

      Boyar War.

    • C.

      Time of Troubles.

    • D.

      Great Schism.

    • E.

      Era of Division.

    Correct Answer
    C. Time of Troubles.
    Explanation
    After the death of Ivan IV, also known as Ivan the Terrible, the Russian boyars, who were the highest-ranking nobles, sought to limit the power of the tsar and gain more control over the government. This period of political instability and conflict in Russia is known as the Time of Troubles. It was characterized by a succession crisis, foreign invasions, and widespread social and economic turmoil. The boyars' attempts to assert their authority and challenge tsarist autocracy were a significant aspect of this troubled period in Russian history.

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  • 5. 

    What family was selected in 1613 to establish a new ruling dynasty in Russia?

    • A.

      Romanov

    • B.

      Radishev

    • C.

      Molotov

    • D.

      Habsburg

    • E.

      Esterhazy

    Correct Answer
    A. Romanov
    Explanation
    In 1613, the Romanov family was selected to establish a new ruling dynasty in Russia. The Romanovs were chosen to lead the country after a period of political instability known as the Time of Troubles. This family went on to rule Russia for over 300 years, until the Russian Revolution in 1917. Their reign saw significant changes and reforms in Russia, including the expansion of the empire and the modernization of the country. The selection of the Romanov family in 1613 marked the beginning of a new era in Russian history.

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  • 6. 

    What tsar was responsible for the abolition of the assemblies of the nobles and reform of the Orthodox church?

    • A.

      Ivan III

    • B.

      Ivan IV

    • C.

      Michael

    • D.

      Alexis

    • E.

      Peter I

    Correct Answer
    D. Alexis
    Explanation
    Alexis, also known as Alexis Mikhailovich, was the tsar responsible for the abolition of the assemblies of the nobles and reform of the Orthodox church. He reigned as the tsar of Russia from 1645 until his death in 1676. During his rule, Alexis implemented significant reforms in the Russian Orthodox Church, including the establishment of a patriarchate and the introduction of a new code of laws. He also centralized power by reducing the influence of the assemblies of the nobles, which were previously powerful institutions. Alexis' reforms laid the foundation for the modernization of Russia and set the stage for further reforms under his successors.

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  • 7. 

    Politically, what aspects of Western culture did Peter the Great emulate in Russia?

    • A.

      Parliamentary government

    • B.

      Aristocratic control of the bureaucracy

    • C.

      Royal control over the bureaucracy and reorganized military

    • D.

      Republicanism

    • E.

      Separation of church and state

    Correct Answer
    C. Royal control over the bureaucracy and reorganized military
    Explanation
    Peter the Great of Russia emulated the aspect of royal control over the bureaucracy and reorganized military from Western culture. He sought to centralize power in his own hands and modernize the Russian state by implementing administrative reforms and restructuring the military. This included creating a professional standing army, introducing new military tactics and technologies, and establishing a bureaucratic system that was directly under the control of the monarchy. By doing so, Peter aimed to strengthen the state and enhance its ability to compete with Western powers.

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  • 8. 

    In what way did Peter the Great shift the foreign policy interests of Russia?

    • A.

      Peter the Great initiated the Russian invasion of China.

    • B.

      Peter abandoned the Russian policies of expansion in favor of consolidation at the center.

    • C.

      Peter allied himself with the traditional Russian enemy, the Ottoman Empire.

    • D.

      Peter's wars with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden indicated a westward shift in Russian expansion.

    • E.

      Peter began Russian expansion into North America and Japan.

    Correct Answer
    D. Peter's wars with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden indicated a westward shift in Russian expansion.
    Explanation
    Peter the Great shifted the foreign policy interests of Russia by engaging in wars with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden. These wars indicated a westward shift in Russian expansion, as Peter sought to expand Russia's influence and territory towards the west. This marked a departure from the previous Russian policies of expansion and demonstrated Peter's focus on expanding Russia's power and influence in Europe.

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  • 9. 

    Peter the Great established a new capital for Russia at

    • A.

      Kiev.

    • B.

      Moscow.

    • C.

      Novgorod.

    • D.

      St. Petersburg.

    • E.

      Ekaterinburg.

    Correct Answer
    D. St. Petersburg.
    Explanation
    Peter the Great established a new capital for Russia at St. Petersburg. This city was founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and served as the capital of Russia until 1918. Peter the Great wanted to establish a new capital that would be closer to Europe and have access to the Baltic Sea. St. Petersburg became an important cultural and political center, known for its grand architecture and beautiful canals. It played a significant role in Russia's history and remains an important city in present-day Russia.

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  • 10. 

    What was Catherine the Great's attitude toward the program of Westernization?

    • A.

      Catherine flirted vigorously with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, but failed to take steps to abolish serfdom.

    • B.

      Catherine rejected the concepts of Westernization in favor of a distinctive Russian culture.

    • C.

      Catherine was eager to continue the policy of Westernization, but was unable to attract Western philosophers to backward Russia.

    • D.

      She was more interested in the process of Asianization and reforming the aristocracy.

    Correct Answer
    A. Catherine flirted vigorously with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, but failed to take steps to abolish serfdom.
    Explanation
    Catherine the Great's attitude toward the program of Westernization was that she flirted vigorously with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, but failed to take steps to abolish serfdom. This means that she was interested in adopting some Western ideas and philosophies, but she did not fully embrace the concept of Westernization and did not take action to address the issue of serfdom in Russia.

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  • 11. 

    What was one of the primary differences between the social organization of the West and Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries?

    • A.

      Russia's merchant class was more fully developed than that of the West.

    • B.

      The West had no formal aristocracy by the 18th century, but in Russia the nobility retained their political and social function.

    • C.

      Russia saw a progressive intensification of sefdom while the West was relaxing this institution in favor of other labor systems.

    • D.

      The agricultural labor of the West was subject to a more restrictive form of serfdom than that of Russia.

    • E.

      There was much more forced labor in Western Europe than in Russia due to the needs of the growing industrial base.

    Correct Answer
    C. Russia saw a progressive intensification of sefdom while the West was relaxing this institution in favor of other labor systems.
    Explanation
    In the 17th and 18th centuries, one of the primary differences between the social organization of the West and Russia was the treatment of serfdom. While the West was relaxing this institution and favoring other labor systems, Russia experienced a progressive intensification of serfdom. This means that in Russia, the system of serfdom became more strict and oppressive, while in the West, it was being phased out or replaced with different labor systems. This difference in the treatment of serfdom highlights a contrasting approach to labor and social organization between the two regions during this time period.

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  • 12. 

    What eastern European nation declined most dramatically after 1500?

    • A.

      Poland

    • B.

      Hungary

    • C.

      Austria

    • D.

      Prussia

    • E.

      Lithuania

    Correct Answer
    A. Poland
    Explanation
    Poland is the correct answer because it experienced a significant decline after 1500. This decline was mainly due to a series of wars, invasions, and partitions that resulted in the loss of territories and political power. Additionally, internal conflicts, weak leadership, and economic struggles further contributed to Poland's decline. These factors ultimately led to the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the late 18th century, marking a significant decline for Poland as a nation.

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