Spirochetes

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| By Darkrain9000
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Darkrain9000
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Quizzes Created: 16 | Total Attempts: 20,441
Questions: 32 | Attempts: 1,775

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Bacteria Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    There are two recognize species of Leptospires. L.interrogans and L. biblexa. L.interrogans are _______.

    • A.

      Pathogenic

    • B.

      Saprophytic

    Correct Answer
    A. Pathogenic
    Explanation
    L.interrogans is a recognized species of Leptospires and it is pathogenic. This means that it is capable of causing diseases in humans and animals. Pathogenic organisms have the ability to invade and multiply within the host's body, leading to the development of various illnesses. In contrast, saprophytic organisms obtain their nutrients from dead organic matter and do not cause diseases. Therefore, L.interrogans being pathogenic suggests that it has the potential to cause infections and should be handled with caution.

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  • 2. 

    There are two recognize species of Leptospires. L.interrogans and L. biblexa. L.biblexa are _______.

    • A.

      Pathogenic

    • B.

      Saprophytic

    Correct Answer
    B. Saprophytic
    Explanation
    L.biblexa refers to one of the recognized species of Leptospires. The question asks for the characteristic of L.biblexa, and the correct answer is "saprophytic." This means that L.biblexa is capable of obtaining nutrients and energy by decomposing dead organic matter.

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  • 3. 

    The ends of Leptospire have ________ rather than just tapering off.

    • A.

      Circle end

    • B.

      Hook

    • C.

      Balloon shape

    Correct Answer
    B. Hook
    Explanation
    Leptospire is a type of bacteria that is characterized by having hook-shaped ends rather than just tapering off. The hook shape gives the bacteria a distinct appearance and allows it to attach to surfaces or other cells more effectively. This adaptation may play a role in the bacteria's ability to infect and invade host organisms.

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  • 4. 

    The motility of Leptospires are

    • A.

      Slow and straight

    • B.

      Rapid and rotational

    • C.

      Rapid and straight

    • D.

      Slow and rotational

    Correct Answer
    B. Rapid and rotational
    Explanation
    Leptospires are known to exhibit rapid and rotational motility. This means that they are capable of moving quickly in a spinning or rotating motion. This type of motility allows them to navigate through their environment efficiently and reach their target sites. The rapid and rotational motility of Leptospires is essential for their survival and ability to cause infections in their hosts.

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  • 5. 

    Leptospires cannot be readily stained but can be covered with ______ and then seen.

    • A.

      Platinum

    • B.

      Bronze

    • C.

      Gold

    • D.

      Silver

    Correct Answer
    D. Silver
    Explanation
    Leptospires are a type of bacteria that are difficult to stain using traditional staining methods. However, they can be covered with silver and then visualized under a microscope. This technique, known as silver staining, allows for the detection and observation of leptospires.

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  • 6. 

    Unstained cells are only visible under

    • A.

      Brightfield

    • B.

      Darkfield

    • C.

      Phase contrast

    • D.

      Immunofluorescent

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Darkfield
    C. Phase contrast
    D. Immunofluorescent
    Explanation
    Unstained cells are only visible under darkfield, phase contrast, and immunofluorescent microscopy techniques. Darkfield microscopy involves illuminating the sample with oblique light, making the cells appear bright against a dark background. Phase contrast microscopy enhances the contrast of transparent samples by exploiting differences in refractive index. Immunofluorescent microscopy uses fluorescently labeled antibodies to specifically target and visualize specific molecules or structures within the cells. These techniques are necessary to observe unstained cells because they provide contrast and enhance visibility of the cells.

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  • 7. 

    Leptospires are ____ and can be grown on artifical media.

    • A.

      Anaerobic

    • B.

      Aerobic

    Correct Answer
    B. Aerobic
    Explanation
    Leptospires are aerobic, meaning they require oxygen to survive and grow. They can be cultivated on artificial media, which provides the necessary nutrients and oxygen for their growth. This suggests that these organisms have adapted to an oxygen-rich environment and are unable to thrive in anaerobic conditions.

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  • 8. 

    Leptospires commonly used media is ______ medium.

    • A.

      Mitchell's

    • B.

      Danny's

    • C.

      Randolph's

    • D.

      Fletcher's

    Correct Answer
    D. Fletcher's
    Explanation
    Leptospires commonly used medium is Fletcher's.

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  • 9. 

    Dogs, rats and other rodents are the principle animal reservoirs of Leptospires. The organism is excreted in the _______.

    • A.

      Blood

    • B.

      CSF

    • C.

      Urine

    • D.

      Stool

    Correct Answer
    C. Urine
    Explanation
    Leptospires, the organism responsible for causing leptospirosis, are primarily found in the urine of dogs, rats, and other rodents. This means that these animals can act as reservoirs for the bacteria, spreading it through their urine. Therefore, urine is the correct answer as it is the main excretion route for Leptospires.

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  • 10. 

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease usually associated with occupation exposure to animals or working with rats.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. It is commonly associated with occupational exposure to animals or working with rats. This suggests that individuals who work closely with animals, such as farmers or veterinarians, are at a higher risk of contracting leptospirosis. Therefore, the statement "Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease usually associated with occupation exposure to animals or working with rats" is true.

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  • 11. 

    Laboratory diagnosis of Leptospires using either Blood or CSF requires the urine to be _______ prior to inoculation on Fletcher's medium in the dark.

    • A.

      Evaporated

    • B.

      Diluted

    • C.

      Sterilized

    • D.

      Concentrated

    Correct Answer
    B. Diluted
    Explanation
    The urine needs to be diluted prior to inoculation on Fletcher's medium in the dark in order to properly diagnose Leptospires using either blood or CSF. Dilution is necessary to ensure that the concentration of Leptospires in the sample is at an optimal level for accurate detection and growth on the medium.

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  • 12. 

    Borrelia is made up of several species of spirochetes, similar in morphology but different in pathogenic properties. Borrelia recurrentis causes _________.

    • A.

      Lyme disease

    • B.

      Relapsing fever

    Correct Answer
    B. Relapsing fever
    Explanation
    Borrelia recurrentis causes relapsing fever. Relapsing fever is a bacterial infection characterized by recurring episodes of high fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected ticks or lice. Borrelia is a genus of bacteria that includes several species of spirochetes, and Borrelia recurrentis is one of these species that specifically causes relapsing fever. Lyme disease, on the other hand, is caused by another species of Borrelia called Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks.

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  • 13. 

    Borrelia is made up of several species of spirochetes, similar in morphology but different in pathogenic properties. Borrelia burgodorferi causes _________.

    • A.

      Lyme disease

    • B.

      Relapsing fever

    Correct Answer
    A. Lyme disease
    Explanation
    Borrelia burgdorferi is a species of spirochete bacteria that is primarily responsible for causing Lyme disease. Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, joint pain, and a characteristic skin rash. The bacteria is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks. If left untreated, Lyme disease can lead to more severe complications, affecting the joints, heart, and nervous system. Therefore, Borrelia burgdorferi is the correct answer for the given question.

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  • 14. 

    All pathogenic borreliae are _______-borne.

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Air

    • C.

      Arthropod

    Correct Answer
    C. Arthropod
    Explanation
    All pathogenic borreliae are arthropod-borne because they are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as ticks or lice. These arthropods act as vectors, carrying the borreliae and transmitting them to humans during feeding. The borreliae then infect the human host, causing various diseases such as Lyme disease or relapsing fever. Therefore, it is important to recognize the role of arthropods in the transmission of pathogenic borreliae.

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  • 15. 

    Borreliae are highly flexible and much more coiled than the Leptospires.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Borreliae are highly flexible but MUCH LESS coiled than the Leptospires.

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  • 16. 

    Borrelia can be stained and seen under the ______ microscope.

    • A.

      Phase-contrast

    • B.

      Brightfield

    • C.

      Darkfield

    Correct Answer
    B. Brightfield
    Explanation
    Borrelia can be stained and seen under the brightfield microscope. This type of microscope illuminates the sample with a bright, uniform light source, allowing for clear visualization of stained specimens. Brightfield microscopy is commonly used in microbiology to observe various types of bacteria, including Borrelia.

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  • 17. 

    Borreliae are cultured using what medium?

    • A.

      Flecther medium

    • B.

      Randolph medium

    • C.

      Kelly medium

    • D.

      Danny medium

    Correct Answer
    C. Kelly medium
    Explanation
    Borreliae are cultured using Kelly medium.

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  • 18. 

    Ticke-borne B. recurrentis has ________ louse-borne infection.

    • A.

      Shorter

    • B.

      Longer

    Correct Answer
    A. Shorter
    Explanation
    The given question is asking about the comparison between ticket-borne B. recurrentis and louse-borne infection. The correct answer is "shorter". This suggests that the duration or length of the ticket-borne B. recurrentis infection is shorter than that of the louse-borne infection.

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  • 19. 

    Involving Borrelia recurrentis spirochetemia is worse during febrile epsiodes and is _______ between recurrences.

    • A.

      More

    • B.

      Less

    Correct Answer
    B. Less
    Explanation
    During febrile episodes, the involvement of Borrelia recurrentis spirochetemia is worse, meaning that the symptoms and severity of the infection are heightened. However, between these episodes or recurrences, the involvement of spirochetemia is less, indicating that the symptoms and severity decrease during the periods of remission.

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  • 20. 

    Borrelia recurrentis infection is accompanied by sudden high fever, rigors, headache, muscle pain and weakness; febrile period is ___ to _____ days and ends abruptly with thedevelopment of an immune response. 

    • A.

      1 to 5

    • B.

      3 to 7

    • C.

      5 to 10

    • D.

      4 to 6

    Correct Answer
    B. 3 to 7
    Explanation
    Borrelia recurrentis infection is characterized by a sudden onset of symptoms including high fever, rigors, headache, muscle pain, and weakness. The febrile period, which refers to the duration of the fever, lasts for 3 to 7 days. After this period, the fever ends abruptly with the development of an immune response.

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  • 21. 

    Borrelia recurrentis when it recurs several days to weeks later is less severe but similar in course.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Borrelia recurrentis is a bacterium that causes relapsing fever. The statement suggests that when the infection recurs after a few days to weeks, it is less severe but follows a similar course. This implies that the symptoms and progression of the illness may be milder during subsequent episodes. Therefore, the answer "True" indicates that the statement accurately reflects the behavior of Borrelia recurrentis infections.

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  • 22. 

    Relapes that occur in Borrelia recurrentis are caused by antigenic variation; ____________ are changed during the course of an infection which allows them to evade the host response.

    • A.

      Chromosomes

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Surface antigens

    Correct Answer
    C. Surface antigens
    Explanation
    Relapses that occur in Borrelia recurrentis are caused by antigenic variation. Surface antigens are changed during the course of an infection, allowing the bacteria to evade the host response. This means that the immune system recognizes and targets specific surface antigens of the bacteria, but as the bacteria change these antigens, the immune response becomes less effective in clearing the infection. This antigenic variation is a mechanism used by the bacteria to persist in the host and cause relapses.

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  • 23. 

    Borreliae are suseceptible to many antibiotic but ______ is drug of choice.

    • A.

      Quinone

    • B.

      Tetracycline

    • C.

      Penicillin

    • D.

      Metrocylin

    Correct Answer
    B. Tetracycline
    Explanation
    Borreliae are susceptible to many antibiotics, but tetracycline is the drug of choice. Tetracycline is commonly used to treat Borrelia infections because it is effective against a wide range of bacteria, including Borreliae. It works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of the bacteria, ultimately leading to their elimination. Other antibiotics such as penicillin and metronidazole may also be effective against Borreliae, but tetracycline is specifically mentioned as the drug of choice, indicating that it is the preferred treatment option.

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  • 24. 

    2 out of  these 3 drugs are used to treat B. burgdorferi in early diagnosis.

    • A.

      Ceftriaxone

    • B.

      Doxycycline

    • C.

      Amoxicillin

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Doxycycline
    C. Amoxicillin
    Explanation
    Doxycycline and amoxicillin are used to treat B. burgdorferi in early diagnosis. Ceftriaxone is not mentioned in the context of treating B. burgdorferi, so it is not one of the drugs used for this purpose.

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  • 25. 

    This drug is used to treat late stages of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    • A.

      Tetracycline

    • B.

      Ceftriaxone

    • C.

      Doxycycline

    • D.

      Amoxicillin

    Correct Answer
    B. Ceftriaxone
    Explanation
    Ceftriaxone is the correct answer because it is commonly used to treat late stages of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. Ceftriaxone is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is effective against many types of bacteria, including Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often used in cases where the infection has spread to the central nervous system or other organs. Ceftriaxone is administered intravenously and has been shown to be highly effective in treating late-stage Lyme disease.

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  • 26. 

    Pathogenic treponemes are thin, spiral organisms. Spiral are regular with _____ to _____ spirals per organism.

    • A.

      5-10

    • B.

      9-20

    • C.

      1-2

    • D.

      4-14

    Correct Answer
    D. 4-14
    Explanation
    Pathogenic treponemes are thin, spiral organisms. The given answer, 4-14, suggests that the spirals of these organisms can range from 4 to 14 per organism. This means that the number of spirals can vary within this range, indicating that there is no fixed number of spirals for pathogenic treponemes.

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  • 27. 

    Trepones are so thin and can be difficult to see on darkfield microscopy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Treponemes are difficult to see with a light microscope because they are so thin but they can easily be seen on darkfield microscopy.

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  • 28. 

    Endemic syphilis or bejel is caused by T. pallidum. It is transmitted by direct contact or sharing contaminated __________.

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Eating utensils

    • C.

      Food

    Correct Answer
    B. Eating utensils
    Explanation
    Endemic syphilis or bejel is caused by T. pallidum, a bacterium that can be transmitted through direct contact or by sharing contaminated eating utensils. This means that if someone with endemic syphilis uses eating utensils that are contaminated with the bacterium, it can be passed on to others who use the same utensils. Therefore, eating utensils can serve as a mode of transmission for endemic syphilis.

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  • 29. 

    Pinta is caused by T. carateum, found in tropical areas of Central and South America.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pinta is indeed caused by T. carateum, a bacterium found in tropical areas of Central and South America. This infection primarily affects the skin and can cause various symptoms such as red or pink patches, scaly skin, and changes in skin color. It is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or through contaminated objects. Therefore, the statement "Pinta is caused by T. carateum, found in tropical areas of Central and South America" is true.

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  • 30. 

    Yaws is caused by T. pallidum ssp. pertinue.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Yaws is a tropical infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue. This bacterium is a subspecies of Treponema pallidum, which also causes syphilis. Yaws is transmitted through direct contact with the skin of an infected person. The infection leads to the formation of skin lesions, which can progress to more severe symptoms if left untreated. Therefore, the statement that Yaws is caused by T. pallidum ssp. pertenue is true.

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  • 31. 

    Yaws resembles what in the early stages?

    • A.

      HIV

    • B.

      Measles

    • C.

      Syphilis

    • D.

      Cancer

    • E.

      Chicken pox

    Correct Answer
    C. Syphilis
    Explanation
    Yaws, a tropical disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue, resembles syphilis in its early stages. Both diseases are sexually transmitted and can cause similar symptoms such as skin lesions, rash, and fever. However, yaws is typically less severe than syphilis and primarily affects the skin and bones, while syphilis can progress to affect multiple organs and cause more serious complications if left untreated.

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  • 32. 

    Three nonveneral treponemal diseases occur in different geographic areas. All three have primary, secondary and tertiary stage but which one is uncommon?

    • A.

      Primary

    • B.

      Secondary

    • C.

      Tertiary

    Correct Answer
    C. Tertiary
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the tertiary stage is uncommon among the three nonvenereal treponemal diseases. This implies that primary and secondary stages are more commonly observed. However, without any additional information about these diseases or their characteristics, it is difficult to provide a more detailed explanation.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 05, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Darkrain9000
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