Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, Somatic Reflexes

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Spinal Cord Injury Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    List the function of the spinal cord

    Explanation
    The spinal cord is responsible for two-way impulse conduction, which means it carries sensory information from the body to the brain and motor information from the brain to the body. Sensory impulses travel up the spinal cord to the brain, allowing us to perceive sensations such as touch, pain, and temperature. Motor impulses travel down the spinal cord, enabling us to control our muscles and perform voluntary movements. This two-way communication between the brain and the body is essential for coordinating and regulating various bodily functions.

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  • 2. 

    List the three meningeal layers of spinal cord

    • A.

      Dura mater

    • B.

      Posterior horn

    • C.

      Anterior horn

    • D.

      Arachnoid mater

    • E.

      Pia mater

    • F.

      Grey commissure

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dura mater
    D. Arachnoid mater
    E. Pia mater
    Explanation
    The three meningeal layers of the spinal cord are the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. The dura mater is the outermost layer, providing protection and support to the spinal cord. The arachnoid mater is the middle layer, containing cerebrospinal fluid and serving as a cushioning layer. The pia mater is the innermost layer, closely adhering to the spinal cord and providing nourishment and support. These three layers work together to protect and support the delicate spinal cord.

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  • 3. 

    Grey matter is superficial to white matter

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Grey matter is not superficial to white matter. In fact, it is the other way around. Grey matter is found deep within the brain and spinal cord, while white matter surrounds and connects different areas of grey matter. White matter gets its name from the myelin sheaths that cover the nerve fibers, giving it a white appearance. So, the correct answer is False.

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  • 4. 

    Central canal is made up of __________ fluid, and is located in____________.

    Correct Answer
    cerebrospinal, center of spinal cord
    cerebrospinal center of spinal cord
    cerebrospinal. center spinal cord
    cerebrospinal fluid, center of spinal cord
    cerebrospinal fluid center of spinal cord
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "cerebrospinal fluid, center of spinal cord." The central canal is a narrow channel filled with cerebrospinal fluid that runs through the center of the spinal cord. This fluid provides cushioning and support to the spinal cord, as well as nutrients and waste removal.

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  • 5. 

    Dura mater is made up of a__________layer of __________tissue and an _________space filled with___________tissue

    Correct Answer
    superficial dense epidural adipose
    superficial, dense, epidural, adipose
    superficial layer, dense tissue, epidural space, adipose tissue
    superficial layer dense tissue epidural space adipose tissue
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "superficial layer, dense tissue, epidural space, adipose tissue." The dura mater is the tough outermost layer of the meninges, which are the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It consists of a superficial layer made up of dense connective tissue and an epidural space filled with adipose tissue.

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  • 6. 

    Define meninges

    • A.

      Layer of dense tissue which surrounds nerve fasicles

    • B.

      Branches of cervical spinal nerve

    • C.

      Three layers of connective tissue that encases spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    C. Three layers of connective tissue that encases spinal cord
    Explanation
    The meninges are three layers of connective tissue that surround and protect the spinal cord. These layers include the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. The dura mater is the outermost layer, providing a tough and protective barrier. The arachnoid mater is the middle layer, containing blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid. The pia mater is the innermost layer, directly covering the spinal cord and providing nourishment. Together, these layers form a protective covering around the spinal cord, helping to maintain its structure and function.

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  • 7. 

    Below L2, the vertebral canal is occupied by a bundle of spinal nerve roots called:

    • A.

      Terminal filum

    • B.

      Descending tracts

    • C.

      Gracile fasciculus

    • D.

      Medullary cone

    • E.

      Cauda equina

    Correct Answer
    E. Cauda equina
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cauda equina. The cauda equina is a bundle of spinal nerve roots that extends from the end of the spinal cord. It resembles a horse's tail, which is what "cauda equina" means in Latin. The cauda equina is located below the level of the second lumbar vertebra and occupies the vertebral canal. It is responsible for transmitting nerve signals between the spinal cord and the lower extremities.

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  • 8. 

    The brachial plexus gives rise to all of the following nerves except:

    • A.

      Axillary nerve

    • B.

      Radial nerve

    • C.

      Obturator nerve

    • D.

      Median nerve

    • E.

      Ulnar nerve

    Correct Answer
    C. Obturator nerve
    Explanation
    The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck and supplies the upper limb. It gives rise to several nerves including the axillary nerve, radial nerve, median nerve, and ulnar nerve. The obturator nerve, however, is not derived from the brachial plexus. Instead, it arises from the lumbar plexus and supplies the muscles of the medial thigh. Therefore, the correct answer is the obturator nerve.

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  • 9. 

    Which of these is not a region of the spinal cord?

    • A.

      Cervical

    • B.

      Thoracic

    • C.

      Pelvic

    • D.

      Lumbar

    • E.

      Sacral

    Correct Answer
    C. Pelvic
    Explanation
    The pelvic region is not a region of the spinal cord. The spinal cord is divided into different regions based on the vertebrae that protect it. The cervical region is located in the neck area, the thoracic region is in the upper back, the lumbar region is in the lower back, and the sacral region is in the pelvis. However, there is no specific region called the pelvic region in the spinal cord.

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  • 10. 

    In the spinal cord, the somas of the lower motor neurons are found in:

    • A.

      The cauda equina

    • B.

      Posterior horns

    • C.

      Anterior horns

    • D.

      Posterior root ganglia

    • E.

      Fasiculi

    Correct Answer
    C. Anterior horns
    Explanation
    The somas of the lower motor neurons are found in the anterior horns of the spinal cord. The anterior horns are responsible for transmitting motor signals from the central nervous system to the muscles. The cauda equina refers to the bundle of nerves at the lower end of the spinal cord, while the posterior horns and posterior root ganglia are associated with sensory functions. Fasiculi are bundles of nerve fibers within the spinal cord.

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  • 11. 

    The outermost connective tissue wrappings of a nerve is called the:

    • A.

      Epineurium

    • B.

      Perineurium

    • C.

      Endoneurium

    Correct Answer
    A. Epineurium
    Explanation
    The outermost connective tissue wrappings of a nerve is called the epineurium. This layer of connective tissue surrounds the entire nerve, providing protection and support. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue and helps to maintain the structural integrity of the nerve. The epineurium also contains blood vessels that supply nutrients to the nerve.

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  • 12. 

    The intercostal nerves between the ribs arise from which spinal nerve plexus?

    • A.

      Cervical

    • B.

      Brachial

    • C.

      Lumbar

    • D.

      Sacral

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The intercostal nerves between the ribs do not arise from any of the spinal nerve plexuses mentioned (cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral). Instead, they arise directly from the thoracic spinal nerves.

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  • 13. 

    All somatic reflexes share all of the following properties except:

    • A.

      They are quick

    • B.

      They are monosynaptic

    • C.

      They require stimulation

    • D.

      They are involuntary

    • E.

      They are stereotyped

    Correct Answer
    B. They are monosynaptic
    Explanation
    All somatic reflexes share the properties of being quick, involuntary, requiring stimulation, and being stereotyped. However, they do not all share the property of being monosynaptic. Monosynaptic reflexes involve a single synapse, while polysynaptic reflexes involve multiple synapses. Therefore, the correct answer is that somatic reflexes are not always monosynaptic.

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  • 14. 

    Outside the CNS, the somas of neurons are clustered in swellings called __________.

    Correct Answer
    ganglia
    Explanation
    Outside the central nervous system (CNS), the somas of neurons are clustered in swellings called ganglia. Ganglia are collections of nerve cell bodies located outside the brain and spinal cord. These clusters serve as relay stations for transmitting signals between different parts of the body and the CNS. They play a crucial role in coordinating sensory and motor functions, allowing for efficient communication and response to stimuli.

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  • 15. 

    Distal to the intervertebral foramen, a spinal nerve branches into an anterior and posterior _______.

    Correct Answer
    ramus
    Explanation
    Distal to the intervertebral foramen, a spinal nerve branches into an anterior and posterior ramus. The term "ramus" refers to a branch or division. In the context of spinal nerves, the anterior and posterior rami are the major branches that emerge from the spinal nerve after it passes through the intervertebral foramen. The anterior ramus supplies the anterior portion of the body, including the muscles and skin of the trunk and limbs, while the posterior ramus supplies the posterior portion, including the muscles and skin of the back.

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  • 16. 

    The ______ nerves arise from the cervical plexus and innervate the diaphragm.

    Correct Answer
    phrenic
    Explanation
    The phrenic nerves arise from the cervical plexus and are responsible for innervating the diaphragm. These nerves play a crucial role in controlling the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, which is essential for breathing. The diaphragm is the main muscle involved in respiration, and the phrenic nerves ensure its proper functioning by transmitting signals from the brain to the diaphragm.

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  • 17. 

    The crossing of a nerve fiber or tract fromt he right side of the CNS to the left, or vice versa, is called____________.

    Correct Answer
    crossing-over
    decussation
    Explanation
    The crossing of a nerve fiber or tract from one side of the central nervous system (CNS) to the other is called decussation. This process allows for the integration and coordination of information between the two sides of the body. Crossing-over, on the other hand, refers to the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Therefore, crossing-over is not the correct term for the crossing of nerve fibers or tracts in the CNS.

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  • 18. 

    The nonvisual awareness of the body's postition and movements is called _____________.

    Correct Answer
    proprioception
    Explanation
    Proprioception refers to the ability to sense the position, movement, and orientation of one's body without relying on visual cues. It is the nonvisual awareness of the body's position and movements. This sense is possible due to specialized nerve endings called proprioceptors, which are located in muscles, tendons, and joints. Through proprioception, individuals are able to have a sense of where their body parts are in relation to each other and how they are moving.

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  • 19. 

    The ________ ganglion contains the ________ of neurons that carry sensory signals to the spinal cord.

    Correct Answer
    posterior root, somas
    posterior root somas
    Explanation
    The posterior root ganglion contains the somas of neurons that carry sensory signals to the spinal cord. The posterior root ganglion is a cluster of cell bodies (somas) located in the posterior root of a spinal nerve. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the spinal cord, where it can then be processed and interpreted.

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  • 20. 

    Define sensation.

  • 21. 

    List the four requirements to experience a sensation

    • A.

      Modality

    • B.

      Stimulus

    • C.

      Adaptation

    • D.

      Projection

    • E.

      Affector

    • F.

      Sensory conduction pathway

    • G.

      Afterimaging

    • H.

      Interpretation center

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Stimulus
    E. Affector
    F. Sensory conduction pathway
    H. Interpretation center
    Explanation
    To experience a sensation, four requirements must be met. First, a stimulus is needed, which can be any external event or internal condition that triggers a response in the sensory receptors. Second, an affector, which refers to the specific sensory receptor that is sensitive to the stimulus, is required. Third, a sensory conduction pathway is necessary to transmit the sensory information from the receptor to the brain. Finally, an interpretation center in the brain is needed to process and interpret the sensory information, allowing us to perceive and understand the sensation.

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  • 22. 

    Describe affector

    • A.

      Sensory neuron

    • B.

      Affector

    • C.

      Effector

    Correct Answer
    B. Affector
    Explanation
    An affector is a term used in the field of neuroscience to describe a sensory neuron that carries information from the periphery of the body to the central nervous system. It is responsible for detecting stimuli, such as touch, pressure, temperature, or pain, and transmitting this information to the brain or spinal cord. Unlike an effector, which is a motor neuron that carries information from the central nervous system to the muscles or glands, an affector is involved in the sensory process of detecting and relaying information about the external environment to the brain.

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  • 23. 

    The _________ is the middle meninges.

    Correct Answer
    arachnoid mater
    Explanation
    The arachnoid mater is the middle layer of the meninges, which are the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the dura mater (outer layer) and the pia mater (inner layer). The arachnoid mater is a thin, web-like membrane that helps cushion and protect the brain and spinal cord from injury. It also contains cerebrospinal fluid, which helps nourish and support the central nervous system.

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  • 24. 

    Pia mater is made up of ______ tissue.

    Correct Answer
    areolar
    Explanation
    The Pia mater is a delicate and thin membrane that is part of the meninges, the protective layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is made up of areolar tissue, which is a loose connective tissue characterized by its abundance of cells and fibers. Areolar tissue provides support and elasticity to the Pia mater, allowing it to protect and cushion the central nervous system.

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  • 25. 

    Arachnoid mater is made up of ____________ and ____________.

    Correct Answer
    simple squamous epithelium reticular fibers
    reticular fibers simple squamous epithelium
    Explanation
    The arachnoid mater is a thin, delicate membrane that is one of the layers of the meninges that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord. It is composed of two main components: simple squamous epithelium and reticular fibers. The simple squamous epithelium provides a smooth surface for the arachnoid mater, while the reticular fibers provide structural support. Therefore, the correct answer is "simple squamous epithelium reticular fibers" and "reticular fibers simple squamous epithelium".

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  • 26. 

    The _________ are areas of gray matter

    Correct Answer
    horns
    Explanation
    The term "horns" refers to areas of gray matter in the spinal cord. These regions are shaped like horns and are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the body and the brain.

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  • 27. 

    The ________ are areas of white matter.

    Correct Answer
    columns
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "columns". In the context of the question, it is stated that the areas being referred to are white matter. White matter refers to the regions of the central nervous system that primarily consist of myelinated axons. Columns, in this context, are specific regions within the white matter that are organized into vertical structures. Therefore, it can be inferred that the areas being described in the question are these organized vertical structures within the white matter, known as columns.

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  • 28. 

    The _______ is the portion of the grey matter within the spinal cord connectiognt he right and left regions of grey matter.

    Correct Answer
    grey commissure
    gray commissure
    Explanation
    The grey commissure, also known as the gray commissure, is the part of the spinal cord's grey matter that connects the right and left regions of grey matter. It allows for communication and coordination between the two sides of the spinal cord, ensuring proper functioning of sensory and motor signals.

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  • 29. 

    The _______ root of the spinal cord has a ganglion.

    Correct Answer
    dorsal
    Explanation
    The dorsal root of the spinal cord has a ganglion. The dorsal root is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the spinal cord. It contains sensory nerve fibers that carry signals from the body's periphery to the central nervous system. The presence of a ganglion in the dorsal root is significant because ganglia are clusters of nerve cell bodies that serve as relay stations for sensory information. Therefore, the dorsal root with its ganglion plays a crucial role in sensory processing and transmission within the spinal cord.

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  • 30. 

    At the inferior end, the adult spinal cord ends before the vertebral column does.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the adult spinal cord does not extend all the way to the end of the vertebral column. Instead, it ends at the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra, while the vertebral column continues further down. This is known as the conus medullaris, and below this point, the spinal cord becomes a bundle of nerves called the cauda equina. Therefore, the adult spinal cord does not reach the inferior end of the vertebral column.

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  • 31. 

    Each spinal cord segment has only one pair of spinal nerves.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Each spinal cord segment is associated with a pair of spinal nerves. The spinal cord is divided into different segments, and each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body. These segments are connected to pairs of spinal nerves, which emerge from the spinal cord and branch out to innervate different parts of the body. Therefore, it is correct to say that each spinal cord segment has only one pair of spinal nerves.

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  • 32. 

    Some spinal nerves are sensory and others are motor

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    All spinal nerves are mixed nerves; none are purely sensory or motor

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  • 33. 

    The anterior and posterior horns of the spinal cord are composed of white matter.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    horns are composed of grey matter

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  • 34. 

    Somatic reflexes are those that do not involve the brain.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    some somatic reflexes are mediated primarily through the brainstem and cerebellum

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  • 35. 

    Name the four components of a reflex arc.

    Correct Answer
    sensory receptors affector sensory neuron association neurons response organ effector
    association neuron
    affector/sesory receptors
    effector
    sensory neuron
    Explanation
    The four components of a reflex arc are sensory receptors, sensory neurons, association neurons, and effectors. Sensory receptors detect stimuli and convert them into electrical signals. Sensory neurons transmit these signals from the receptors to the central nervous system. Association neurons are located in the spinal cord or brain and help relay the signals to the appropriate response organ. Effectors are muscles or glands that produce a response to the stimulus. Therefore, the correct answer includes all four components: sensory receptors, sensory neuron, association neuron, and effector.

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  • 36. 

    How many and what type of neurons are in a monosynaptic reflex arc?

    • A.

      One sensory and one motor neuron

    • B.

      Two sensory and two motor neurons

    • C.

      One sensory neuron and two motor neurons

    • D.

      Two sensory neurons and one motor neuron

    • E.

      Three association neurons and one motor neuron

    • F.

      One association neurons and three motor neurons

    Correct Answer
    A. One sensory and one motor neuron
    Explanation
    In a monosynaptic reflex arc, there is only one sensory neuron and one motor neuron involved. The sensory neuron carries the sensory information from the receptor to the central nervous system, while the motor neuron carries the motor response from the central nervous system to the effector. This direct connection between the sensory and motor neuron is what characterizes a monosynaptic reflex arc.

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  • 37. 

    List the number of pairs of cervical spinal nerves

    • A.

      12

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      8

    • D.

      1

    Correct Answer
    C. 8
    Explanation
    There are 8 pairs of cervical spinal nerves. The cervical spinal nerves are the nerves that emerge from the spinal cord in the neck region. They are numbered from C1 to C8. Each pair of cervical spinal nerves is responsible for transmitting sensory and motor signals to and from different parts of the neck, shoulders, arms, and hands. Therefore, the correct answer is 8.

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  • 38. 

    How many pairs of thoracic spinal nerves are there?

    • A.

      8

    • B.

      12

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      1

    Correct Answer
    B. 12
    Explanation
    There are 12 pairs of thoracic spinal nerves. The spinal nerves are divided into different regions, and the thoracic region is specifically associated with 12 pairs of spinal nerves. Each pair of spinal nerves emerges from the spinal cord and extends to various parts of the body, including the chest, abdomen, and back. These nerves play a crucial role in transmitting sensory and motor signals between the body and the spinal cord.

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  • 39. 

    How many pairs of lumbar spinal nerves are there?

    • A.

      8

    • B.

      12

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      1

    Correct Answer
    C. 5
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 5 because there are typically five pairs of lumbar spinal nerves in the human body. These nerves emerge from the lumbar region of the spinal cord and are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor signals to and from the lower limbs and pelvic region.

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  • 40. 

    How many pairs of sacral spinal nerves are there?

    • A.

      8

    • B.

      12

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      1

    Correct Answer
    C. 5
    Explanation
    There are 5 pairs of sacral spinal nerves. The sacral spinal nerves are a part of the spinal cord and are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor signals to and from the lower extremities.

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  • 41. 

    How many pairs of coccygeal spinal nerves are there?

    • A.

      8

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      12

    • D.

      1

    Correct Answer
    D. 1
    Explanation
    The coccygeal spinal nerves are a set of nerves that emerge from the bottom of the spinal cord. Unlike the other spinal nerves, which are composed of multiple pairs, there is only one pair of coccygeal spinal nerves. This is because the coccyx, or tailbone, is a small bone at the base of the spine and does not require as many nerves for sensory and motor functions compared to the rest of the spinal cord. Therefore, the correct answer is 1.

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