Sociology Final Exam Re-do

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| By Sullivank
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Sociology Final Exam Re-do - Quiz


Someone let me know that the only questions that are going to be on the test are the ones that our professor gave us last week. My bad! Here is the abridged test.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Believing that "all politicians are corrupt" is an example of

    • A.

      Racism

    • B.

      Stereotyping

    • C.

      Discrimination

    • D.

      Prejudice

    Correct Answer
    B. Stereotyping
    Explanation
    Believing that "all politicians are corrupt" is an example of stereotyping because it involves making a generalization about a group of people based on a perceived characteristic. In this case, it assumes that all politicians possess the negative trait of being corrupt without considering individual differences or the possibility of some politicians being honest and ethical. Stereotyping can lead to unfair judgments and biases towards certain groups, limiting our ability to see individuals as unique and diverse.

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  • 2. 

    Forcing Native Americans onto reservations is an example of

    • A.

      Anglo-conformity

    • B.

      Subjugation

    • C.

      Demographic transition

    • D.

      Partition

    • E.

      Population transfer

    Correct Answer
    E. Population transfer
    Explanation
    Forcing Native Americans onto reservations is an example of population transfer because it involves the movement of a specific population, in this case Native Americans, from their original lands to designated areas, known as reservations. This transfer was enforced by the dominant Anglo-American society, resulting in the displacement and confinement of Native Americans to limited territories.

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  • 3. 

    According to the text, Asian Americans have been especially successful because they

    • A.

      Possess superior intelligence

    • B.

      Profit from illegal activities such as gambling and prostitution

    • C.

      Refuse to work at jobs that do not pay well

    • D.

      Embrace education as the key to success

    • E.

      Place little value on human life

    Correct Answer
    D. Embrace education as the key to success
    Explanation
    The text suggests that Asian Americans have been especially successful because they embrace education as the key to success. This means that they prioritize education and view it as a crucial factor in achieving their goals and improving their lives. They likely invest time and effort into their education, seeking higher levels of education and using their knowledge and skills to excel in various fields. This emphasis on education may contribute to their success in different areas, such as career advancement, financial stability, and social mobility.

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  • 4. 

    The evidence clearly shows that race is declining in importance in America.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that race is declining in importance in America. However, without any evidence or context provided, it is difficult to determine the accuracy of this statement. Therefore, the answer cannot be determined based on the given information.

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  • 5. 

    Almost ________ percent of all Americans will be members of minority groups in 2050.

    Correct Answer
    50
    fifty
    Explanation
    By the year 2050, approximately half or 50 percent of the American population is projected to be composed of minority groups. This suggests that there will be a significant increase in the diversity of the American population, with minority groups playing a substantial role in shaping the country's social and cultural landscape. The use of both the numerical value "50" and the word "fifty" in the answer provides clarity and reinforces the idea that the percentage of Americans belonging to minority groups will be significant.

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  • 6. 

    Whereas _______ is a biological term, _______ is a psychological and cultural term.

    • A.

      Gender; sex

    • B.

      Identity; role

    • C.

      Gender; gender identity

    • D.

      Sex; gender

    • E.

      Phenotype; genotype

    Correct Answer
    D. Sex; gender
    Explanation
    Sex refers to the biological characteristics of an individual, such as their reproductive organs and chromosomes, whereas gender is a psychological and cultural term that encompasses the roles, behaviors, and identities that society attributes to individuals based on their sex. Sex is determined by physical attributes, while gender is a social construct that can vary across different cultures and societies.

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  • 7. 

    The debate over explanations for sex differences persists, with the  ________ distinction still at the heart of the controversy.

    • A.

      Nature versus nurture

    • B.

      Culture versus socialization

    • C.

      Innate forces versus genetic forces

    • D.

      Gender roles versus gender identity

    • E.

      Testosterone versus estrogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Nature versus nurture
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "nature versus nurture". This distinction refers to the ongoing debate about whether sex differences are primarily influenced by biological factors (nature) or by environmental and social factors (nurture). The controversy revolves around understanding the relative contributions of genetics and upbringing in shaping individuals' characteristics and behavior.

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  • 8. 

    According to conflict theory, gender roles persist because

    • A.

      Men and women have differential access to the resources needed to succeed outside the home

    • B.

      They are beneficial and efficient for human living

    • C.

      Gender roles are incorporated into the self-concept through role taking and the looking-glass self

    • D.

      They are essential to human survival

    • E.

      Women are naturally better suited to perform certain tasks.

    Correct Answer
    A. Men and women have differential access to the resources needed to succeed outside the home
    Explanation
    According to conflict theory, gender roles persist because men and women have differential access to the resources needed to succeed outside the home. This theory suggests that societal inequalities and power imbalances contribute to the perpetuation of traditional gender roles. Men historically have had more access to resources such as education, job opportunities, and political power, which allows them to maintain dominant positions in society. This unequal distribution of resources creates and reinforces gender roles, as women are often limited in their ability to pursue certain roles and opportunities.

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  • 9. 

    Women are hurt by the set of beliefs, norms, and values used to justify sexual inequality, known as

    • A.

      Sexism

    • B.

      Prejudice

    • C.

      Gender identity

    • D.

      Discrimination

    • E.

      Gender roles

    Correct Answer
    A. Sexism
    Explanation
    Sexism refers to the set of beliefs, norms, and values that are used to justify sexual inequality. It is a system of discrimination and prejudice based on a person's sex, typically against women. This means that women are negatively impacted by these beliefs and norms, as they are often subjected to unequal treatment, limited opportunities, and various forms of discrimination solely based on their gender. Therefore, sexism is the correct answer as it accurately describes the harmful effects of these beliefs and norms on women.

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  • 10. 

    On the average, women in the United States are now earning ________ cents for every dollar earned by men.

    • A.

      45

    • B.

      52

    • C.

      60

    • D.

      76

    • E.

      83

    Correct Answer
    D. 76
    Explanation
    In the United States, women are earning 76 cents for every dollar earned by men on average. This statistic highlights the gender wage gap, where women tend to earn less than men for doing the same job. This gap can be attributed to various factors such as occupational segregation, discrimination, and unequal opportunities for career advancement. Efforts are being made to address this issue and achieve pay equity between genders.

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  • 11. 

    According to the text, the political position of women in the United States is

    • A.

      Among the worst in the Western world

    • B.

      More favorable than that of women in Scandinavian countries

    • C.

      Harmed by "women's lib"

    • D.

      Actually superior to that of men because women vote in greater numbers

    • E.

      Measured by the dependency ratio

    Correct Answer
    A. Among the worst in the Western world
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "among the worst in the Western world". This is supported by the statement in the text that suggests the political position of women in the United States is not as favorable as it is in Scandinavian countries. It implies that women in the United States face challenges and obstacles in their political participation and representation compared to their counterparts in other Western countries.

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  • 12. 

    Sexual harassment laws passed in

    • A.

      1964

    • B.

      1991

    • C.

      2002

    • D.

      1980

    Correct Answer
    B. 1991
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1991 because in that year, the United States passed the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which amended the original Civil Rights Act of 1964 to include provisions against sexual harassment in the workplace. This legislation provided additional protections and remedies for victims of sexual harassment, making it illegal for employers to discriminate against individuals on the basis of sex and creating a legal framework for addressing sexual harassment complaints.

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  • 13. 

    Although _____ constitute only about 10 percent of health-care workers in the United States, they establish the framework within which everyone else works.

    • A.

      Hospice personell

    • B.

      Physicians

    • C.

      Registered nurses

    • D.

      Practical nurses

    • E.

      Medical consultants

    Correct Answer
    B. Physicians
    Explanation
    Physicians are the correct answer because they are the primary healthcare providers who diagnose and treat patients. They play a crucial role in establishing the framework for healthcare delivery, making decisions about patient care, and coordinating with other healthcare professionals. While other healthcare workers such as registered nurses and practical nurses also contribute to patient care, physicians have the highest level of responsibility and authority in the healthcare system.

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  • 14. 

    With the exception of __________, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States have poorer health than the general white population.

    • A.

      Native Americans

    • B.

      Dominicans

    • C.

      Asian Americans

    • D.

      Puerto Ricans

    Correct Answer
    C. Asian Americans
    Explanation
    Asian Americans are the exception to the statement that racial and ethnic minorities in the United States have poorer health than the general white population. This means that, compared to other racial and ethnic minorities, Asian Americans have better health outcomes. This could be due to a variety of factors such as cultural practices, access to healthcare, and socioeconomic status.

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  • 15. 

    Graying (the aging of a population) is most common in

    • A.

      Developing countries

    • B.

      Highly industrialized countries

    • C.

      Preindustrial societies

    • D.

      African and Asian countries

    Correct Answer
    B. Highly industrialized countries
    Explanation
    Graying, or the aging of a population, is most common in highly industrialized countries. This is because these countries typically have advanced healthcare systems and improved living conditions, leading to longer life expectancies. Additionally, highly industrialized countries often have lower birth rates and declining fertility rates, resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population.

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  • 16. 

    The proportion of persons under age fifteen and over sixty-four to those between fifteen and sixty-four is known as the

    • A.

      Dependency ratio

    • B.

      Age cohort

    • C.

      Population pyramid

    • D.

      Ageism

    Correct Answer
    A. Dependency ratio
    Explanation
    The dependency ratio is the proportion of people who are either too young or too old to work, compared to those who are of working age. It is an important measure in understanding the economic burden on the working population to support the dependent population. This ratio is calculated by dividing the number of people under the age of fifteen and over the age of sixty-four by the number of people between the ages of fifteen and sixty-four.

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  • 17. 

    The aging of the population is largely confined to the most highly industrialized societies.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement says that the aging of the population is largely confined to the most highly industrialized societies. However, this is not true. The aging population is a global phenomenon and is not limited to highly industrialized societies only. Developing countries are also experiencing an increase in their elderly population due to factors such as improved healthcare and increased life expectancy. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 18. 

    If a sick person in American society does not attempt to recover, he or she will be labeled a _________.

    Correct Answer
    deviant
    Explanation
    In American society, if a sick person does not make an effort to recover, they will be labeled as deviant. This means that they will be seen as going against the norms and expectations of society, which typically expects individuals to take steps to regain their health when they are unwell. By not attempting to recover, the person is seen as deviating from the accepted behavior, leading to the label of deviant.

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  • 19. 

    By 2050, the population pyramid of the United States is expected to resemble 

    • A.

      A triangle

    • B.

      A classic pyramid

    • C.

      A rectangle

    • D.

      An inverted pyramid

    Correct Answer
    C. A rectangle
    Explanation
    The population pyramid of the United States is expected to resemble a rectangle by 2050 because of the changing demographics and trends in population growth. This shape suggests a more even distribution of population across different age groups, with a relatively equal number of individuals in each age category. This can be attributed to factors such as declining birth rates, longer life expectancy, and a more balanced age structure. The rectangle shape indicates a more stable and balanced population, with fewer extremes in terms of youth or elderly dependency ratios.

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  • 20. 

    The poverty rate for Americans over 65 is lower than the official count indicates.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the poverty rate for Americans over 65 is actually higher than the official count indicates. This is because the official poverty measure does not take into account certain expenses that are more prevalent among older adults, such as high healthcare costs and rising housing expenses. Additionally, the official measure does not account for income from sources like Social Security, which is a significant source of income for many older Americans. Therefore, the actual poverty rate for Americans over 65 is higher than what is officially reported.

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  • 21. 

    In the film "The Gods Must Be Crazy," the tribe started having problems after they found a ________.

    Correct Answer
    bottle
    Explanation
    In the film "The Gods Must Be Crazy," the tribe started having problems after they found a bottle. This is because the tribe had never encountered a man-made object like a bottle before. They believed it was a gift from the gods and initially found it to be useful. However, as they started fighting over it and realizing its negative impact on their peaceful way of life, they saw it as a curse rather than a blessing. The bottle became a source of conflict and disruption within the tribe, leading to their problems.

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  • 22. 

    There is one more question about "The Gods Must Be Crazy," but I don't remember what it is. Just remember that the answer is conflict theory.

    Correct Answer
    conflict theory
  • 23. 

    Including the "near poor" in the number of at-risk elderly means that about one in ________ of those age sixty-five and older is poor.

    • A.

      Ten

    • B.

      Twenty

    • C.

      Two

    • D.

      Six

    Correct Answer
    D. Six
    Explanation
    Including the "near poor" in the number of at-risk elderly means that about one in six of those age sixty-five and older is poor. This suggests that there is a significant portion of elderly individuals who are at risk of falling into poverty, highlighting the vulnerability of this age group. By considering the "near poor" along with those who are officially classified as poor, a more comprehensive understanding of the economic challenges faced by the elderly population can be obtained.

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  • 24. 

    People who posses some distinctive physical or cultural characteristics, are dominated by the majority, and are denied equal treatment are known as

    • A.

      A minority

    • B.

      A race

    • C.

      An ethnic group

    • D.

      A subculture

    • E.

      A caste

    Correct Answer
    A. A minority
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a minority. This term refers to a group of people who possess specific physical or cultural traits, but are dominated by the majority and face unequal treatment. They may be marginalized or discriminated against due to their differences, and may have limited access to resources or opportunities.

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  • 25. 

    The unequal treatment of individuals based on their membership in some minority is known as

    • A.

      Stereotyping

    • B.

      Prejudice

    • C.

      Racism

    • D.

      The ideal-type method

    • E.

      Discrimination

    Correct Answer
    E. Discrimination
    Explanation
    Discrimination refers to the unfair or unequal treatment of individuals based on their membership in a certain minority group. It involves actions or behaviors that deny people their rights, opportunities, or resources based on factors such as race, gender, religion, or sexual orientation. Discrimination can manifest in various forms, including employment, housing, education, and healthcare. It is an act of prejudice and can perpetuate harmful stereotypes, but it is distinct from stereotyping, prejudice, racism, and the ideal-type method, which do not necessarily involve direct actions or behaviors.

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  • Current Version
  • Nov 08, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 31, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Sullivank
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