Sociological Theory Final Exam Practice

112 Questions | Total Attempts: 84

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Sociology Quizzes & Trivia

SOC3000 Final Exam Lisa M. Kruse Sociological Theory WMU


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The progress of Sociological knowledge has gone through three phases: Theological, Theoretical and Empirical 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
  • 3. 
    • A. 

      George Herbert Mead

    • B. 

      August Comte

    • C. 

      Karl Marx

    • D. 

      Harriet Martineau

  • 4. 
    According to Comte, what was the purpose of Sociology? What were we to study? 
    • A. 

      Reorganizing society after the French Revolution destroyed democracy

    • B. 

      Study the progress of new democracy

    • C. 

      Observe society's laws and rights through Empiricism

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 5. 
    • A. 

      To prove things to be true

    • B. 

      Explain phenomena

    • C. 

      To come up with new concepts

    • D. 

      To provide insight

  • 6. 
  • 7. 
    For Durkheim, what is the root of everything social? 
    • A. 

      Collective Effervescence

    • B. 

      Society

    • C. 

      The Economy

    • D. 

      Religion

  • 8. 
    • A. 

      Competition

    • B. 

      The enlightenment

    • C. 

      Division of labor

    • D. 

      Class consciousness

  • 9. 
    The four types of suicide are: _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
  • 10. 
    • A. 

      Emile Durkheim

    • B. 

      George Herbert Mead

    • C. 

      Karl Marx

    • D. 

      August Comte

  • 11. 
    According to George Herbert Mead, humans don't act, they react. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    • A. 

      We are born a blank slate

    • B. 

      We use symbols to react

    • C. 

      There are natural laws ordering society

    • D. 

      A and B

  • 13. 
    Overproduction leads to social change and a collapse in capitalism through class struggle.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 14. 
    To increase the value of an item, one must create surplus labor. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    The major sociological question Karl Marx tackled in his life work is:
    • A. 

      What is the ideal or utopian society?

    • B. 

      How does capitalism work?

    • C. 

      Why is capitalism so exploitative?

    • D. 

      Why are individuals social and altruistic?

  • 16. 
    Peter Kivitso, in Classical Sociological Theory: An Introduction, also states that Marx was more concerned with determining how communism or socialism would work as a utopian society than in studying the existing system of capitalism.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    • A. 

      Social Physics

    • B. 

      Structural Functionalism

    • C. 

      Social Conflict

    • D. 

      Symbolic Interactionism

  • 18. 
    In discussing paradigms: tradition and religion is to theology what _________ is to science.
    • A. 

      Facts

    • B. 

      Laws

    • C. 

      Truth

    • D. 

      Theory

  • 19. 
    Sociologists believe that we never directly experience the world, we only encounter it through our perspectives.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    Assumptions are considered to be the basis of thinking and theorizing.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    Concepts are:
    • A. 

      Used to provide examples

    • B. 

      Tricky to define

    • C. 

      Parts of theory

    • D. 

      Concepts consist of all of the above

  • 22. 
    Enlightenment thinkers believed that progress was only possible if societies choose to advance.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    Auguste Comte, the father of modern sociology, believed that there were natural laws ordering society and human interaction that could be discovered and adhered to in order to create a more just and peaceful society.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Pre-modern society was conceptualized as individual, or micro-level, interactions and it wasn't until the scientific stage that society was thought of as a structural entity (i.e. as a state or nation).
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    This is defined as the attempt of alienated individuals to find self-worth in belongings and wealth.
    • A. 

      Commodification

    • B. 

      Market expansion

    • C. 

      Commodity Fetish

    • D. 

      All of the above are attempts of the alienated to find self-worth

  • 26. 
    Marx believes that false consciousness is reinforced and capitalism continues to thrive because ideologies of the elite prevent bipolarization instead pitting us against one another along meaningless lines of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 27. 
    In order to increase the value of an item and therefore, profit, one must:
    • A. 

      Increase labor time and skill

    • B. 

      Increase use value

    • C. 

      Increase exchange value

    • D. 

      Increase surplus labor

  • 28. 
    The two types of objective knowledge that Weber believed could be obtained by social scientists employing the scientific method were:
    • A. 

      Historical preconditions and laws of society

    • B. 

      Historical preconditions and subjective perspectives

    • C. 

      Historical preconditions and social facts

    • D. 

      Historical preconditions and class consciousness

  • 29. 
    This type of person is described by Weber as being "bureaucracy's manpower," because we increasingly rely on them in advanced bureaucratic states where credentialing and legitimation go hand-in-hand.
    • A. 

      Laborers

    • B. 

      The Poor

    • C. 

      The Expert

    • D. 

      Aggressive Capitalists

  • 30. 
    Unlike Marx, Weber believed that society only existed subjectively, through an interpretation of culture. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 31. 
    Weber believed that once a culture/society entered into an rationalized state they would not be able to move out of this type of organized, bureaucratic structure. Weber calls this phenomena the:
    • A. 

      Cycle of Rationality

    • B. 

      Iron Cage of Efficiency

    • C. 

      Iron Cage of Bureaucracy

    • D. 

      Cycle of Bureaucracy

  • 32. 
    • A. 

      Bureaucracies are most efficient at organizing large populations

    • B. 

      Bureaucracy operates without values or morals and can be used for any purpose.

    • C. 

      Bureaucracies are based on expert knowledge and are capable of promoting recruitment

    • D. 

      All of the above are reasons why bureaucracy is inescapable

  • 33. 
    In studying religion, Weber is "most interested" in explaining what?
    • A. 

      Why monotheism came about

    • B. 

      Why religion was the chief organizing structure historically

    • C. 

      Why there was a shift from magic to religion

    • D. 

      Why we saw a separation of religion from other institutions

  • 34. 
    Weber falls under what theoretical framework?
    • A. 

      Conflict Theorist

    • B. 

      Structural Functionalist

    • C. 

      Symbolic Interactionist

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 35. 
    The protestant ethic caused capitalism.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
    One aspect of the "spirit" of capitalism is that making money is no longer a means to an end but rather is the end (the goal) of rational capitalism. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 37. 
    Credentialing, in a bureaucratic society, leads to an overemphasis on education and is why we typically listen to experts rather than elders.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    Weber was a big fan of bureaucracy.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 39. 
    • A. 

      Parental Authority

    • B. 

      Rational-Legal Authority

    • C. 

      Charismatic Authority

    • D. 

      Traditional Authority

  • 40. 
    Monarchies would be an example of what type of authority?
  • 41. 
    Hitler is considered what type of authority?
  • 42. 
    Durkheim assumed human beings are innately selfish, driven by insatiable desires, and that we have to be reminded that we also like to be social.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 43. 
    Durkheim concludes that this is the new sacred element, and the most general ideal a society can have.
    • A. 

      Collective Consensus

    • B. 

      Individuality

    • C. 

      Social Solidarity

    • D. 

      Collective Effervescence

  • 44. 
    Durkheim believed that humans, innately, are connected through our:
    • A. 

      Intermediary Groups

    • B. 

      Division of Labor

    • C. 

      Emotions

    • D. 

      The Internet

  • 45. 
    Social facts cannot cause other social facts
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 46. 
    Sacredness is an intrinsic quality
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 47. 
    • A. 

      A book

    • B. 

      A hammer

    • C. 

      A piece of string

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 48. 
    A handshake is a significant gesture because:
    • A. 

      It is a privately learned behavior particular to your individual experience

    • B. 

      Arouses the same response, or same meaning, in others as it does to you.

    • C. 

      Because it is a sacred element

    • D. 

      All of the above are true

  • 49. 
    The premodern person existed within a collective environment.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 50. 
    It is thought that the modern person is incapable of reason or rational thought.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 51. 
    The modern person appeared during which Comtean stage of development?
    • A. 

      The Metaphysical Stage

    • B. 

      The Theological Stage

    • C. 

      The Scientific Stage

    • D. 

      The Conflict Theory Stage

  • 52. 
    • A. 

      Language acquisition and role-taking

    • B. 

      Interacting with groups

    • C. 

      Anomie

    • D. 

      Natural signs and individual experiences

  • 53. 
    There are five stages of role taking 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 54. 
    In what stage does the child take on the role of one or two others?
    • A. 

      The Play Stage

    • B. 

      The Game Stage

    • C. 

      The Generalized Other Stage

    • D. 

      The Scientific Stage

  • 55. 
    The "Me" is the set of impulses, and the "I" is the social object.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 56. 
    The development of the self is dependent on what?
    • A. 

      Pragmatism

    • B. 

      Natural signs

    • C. 

      Role-taking

    • D. 

      Emergence

  • 57. 
    _______________ was born out of a response to the Civil War and is the only uniquely American philosophy.
  • 58. 
    For Mead, meaning is emergent, pragmatically arising out of different interactions.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 59. 
    The self is static and unchanging.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 60. 
    Mead believes that the mind evolves as the social process or he social interaction comes to live inside an individual.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 61. 
    According to Mead, the mind is a behavior involving several behavioral elements such as the use of symbols to denote objects.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 62. 
    Pragmatists believe in the existence of universal truths and facts.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 63. 
    Mead believes that human beings are a blank slate ("tabula rasa").
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 64. 
    Mead agreed with Durkheim that too much diversity would lead to a fractured identity.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 65. 
    Simmel agreed with Mead that people are born as a blank slate with no predispositions.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 66. 
    Simmel argues that the proliferation of the modern world increases:
    • A. 

      Organic group membership

    • B. 

      Objective culture

    • C. 

      Subjective culture

    • D. 

      The use of barter

  • 67. 
    Simmel believed that the purpose and goal of knowledge was to uncover the a priori conditions of society.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 68. 
    One consequence of rational group membership is increased boredom or lack of concern.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 69. 
    • A. 

      The use of money and markets

    • B. 

      The self

    • C. 

      Urbanization

    • D. 

      Division of Labor

  • 70. 
    The modern world is one where we are ultimately concerned with developing an individual self, a self that stands out and is differentiated from others.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 71. 
    The increase in the division of labor is due to:
    • A. 

      The need to make products more quickly for distribution among an ever denser population

    • B. 

      The need to control a larger workforce

    • C. 

      Worker innovation leading to more specialized positions for job security

    • D. 

      All of the above increased the division of labor.

  • 72. 
    Simmel departs from Mead's concern with the self in modernity by focusing on the influence of:
    • A. 

      Objective culture

    • B. 

      Subjective culture

    • C. 

      Separation and the identity of self

    • D. 

      The culture of individuality

  • 73. 
    Rational group memberships last longer than organic group memberships.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 74. 
    The more variation a culture has, the more objective the culture.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 75. 
    Rational group membership leads to:
    • A. 

      Anomie

    • B. 

      Greater individual freedom of expression

    • C. 

      Alienation

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 76. 
    Organic groups tend to be segmented, only occupying parts of an individual's life.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 77. 
    Overstimulation and overpopulation lead to a desire to stand out and be noticed.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 78. 
    Urbanization started as a result of:
    • A. 

      The Civil War

    • B. 

      World War I

    • C. 

      World War II

    • D. 

      The Industrial Revolution

  • 79. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 80. 
    Of the following, which is NOT a condition identified by Dahrendorf through which quasi-groups become active groups?
    • A. 

      Technical conditions

    • B. 

      Political conditions

    • C. 

      Cultural conditions

    • D. 

      Social conditions

  • 81. 
    For Dahrendorf, as groups become better organized, they become less likely to engage in intense and violent conflict.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 82. 
    The idea that we assume a collective consensus or that everyone generally agrees on a set of values and beliefs is called the:
    • A. 

      Constraint Approach

    • B. 

      Equilibrium Approach

    • C. 

      Conflict Approach

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 83. 
    Dahrendorf believes that society's culture reflects the interests of the elite.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 84. 
  • 85. 
    Conflicts are less likely to be violent if there appears to be legitimate means to resolving.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 86. 
    Individuals who experience absolute deprivation are more likely to engage in conflict.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 87. 
    Relative deprivation is the sense of being underprivileged.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 88. 
    Coser believed that while internal conflict was functional, external conflict was always dysfunctional.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 89. 
    A functional consequence of internal consequence is:
    • A. 

      Conflict can release hostilities, it is a way of venting

    • B. 

      Conflict can lead to changes in social norms that govern conflict

    • C. 

      Both releasing of hostilities and changes in social norms are considered functions of conflict by Coser

    • D. 

      There is no functionality in conflict

  • 90. 
    Increased patriotism, or solidarity, an us vs. them boundary results from:
    • A. 

      Internal conflict

    • B. 

      External conflict

    • C. 

      Rational group membership

    • D. 

      Multi-focused conflict

  • 91. 
    In his geopolitical theory, Collins labels the "legitimated use of power at the nation-state level:"
    • A. 

      Geographic territory

    • B. 

      Dictatorship

    • C. 

      Nationalism

    • D. 

      Heartland advantage

  • 92. 
    The geographic territory is the fundamental element over which conflict occurs.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 93. 
    Randall Collins insists that people who live within the United States have trouble understanding geopolitical theory.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 94. 
    For a conflict to continue for a long period of time, a group needs which of the following:
    • A. 

      Bureaucracies

    • B. 

      A moral cause

    • C. 

      Strong organization

    • D. 

      Sufficient material resources

  • 95. 
    Goffman's theory serves to refute and contradict the claims made by George Herbert Mead.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 96. 
    The Late Modern Person is an individual who understands themselves through:
    • A. 

      Words

    • B. 

      Objective culture

    • C. 

      Self-image

    • D. 

      Rational group membership

  • 97. 
    For Goffman, this is the central organizing feature for all social interactions:
    • A. 

      Rational and organic group memberships

    • B. 

      Ego

    • C. 

      The self

    • D. 

      Objective culture

  • 98. 
    According to lecture, critical theory extends Marx's take on:
    • A. 

      Commodification

    • B. 

      Alienation

    • C. 

      Ideology

    • D. 

      Capitalism

  • 99. 
    In organized capitalism, we saw a shift from economic ideology driven by Adam Smith to:
    • A. 

      John Maynard Keynes

    • B. 

      John Wilkes Booth

    • C. 

      J. Edgar Hoover

    • D. 

      Adolf Hitler

  • 100. 
    Critical theory in the United States is more of a social action oriented approach than its European or Postmodern counterparts.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 101. 
    The colonialization of the lifeworld by political and economic systems is possible, in part, due to welfare programs such as social security.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 102. 
    The Frankfort School was NOT influenced by:
    • A. 

      The installation of communism

    • B. 

      The rise of Fascism

    • C. 

      WWII

    • D. 

      Postmodern critical theory

  • 103. 
    The central question or concern for critical theorists is how to realize the ideals of modernity and the enlightenment.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 104. 
    Critical theorists believed that ideology was even more insidious than Marx thought.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 105. 
    In ideal speech communities, each person should strive to keep their speech free from:
    • A. 

      Insecurities

    • B. 

      Ideologies

    • C. 

      Contradictions

    • D. 

      Negative statements

  • 106. 
    Critical theorists charge individuals to look at things taken for granted.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 107. 
    In order to realize a civil society, we must be open to the idea of equal rights for all.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 108. 
    Which of the following was NOT a reason for the shift from liberal to organized capitalism?
    • A. 

      The rise of monopolies

    • B. 

      The presence of "robber barons"

    • C. 

      The deindustrialization of Flint

    • D. 

      Economic fluctuations

  • 109. 
    Postmodernism arose from which of the following fundamental changes:
    • A. 

      Compression of time and space

    • B. 

      Spread of Markets

    • C. 

      The commodification of everything and the voiding of culture

    • D. 

      All of the above are changes that led to postmodernity

  • 110. 
    A consequence of organized capitalism is that the state faces crises of legitimation and rationality.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 111. 
    Critical theorists within the United States work toward eliminating the invisibility of oppression, particularly toward women and minorities.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 112. 
    Critical theorists believe that while objectivity is possible, subjectivity is preferable.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False