Sociological Theory Final Exam Practice

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Sociology Quizzes & Trivia

SOC3000 Final Exam
Lisa M. Kruse
Sociological Theory
WMU


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The progress of Sociological knowledge has gone through three phases: Theological, Theoretical and Empirical 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    the three phases of the progression of knowledge is: Theological, Metaphysical, and Scientific

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  • 2. 

    What are the two main ideas of the Enlightenment? 

    Correct Answer
    Progress and Empiricism
    Explanation
    The Enlightenment was a philosophical movement that emphasized reason, science, and progress. Progress refers to the belief that society and individuals can improve through the application of reason and knowledge. It encouraged the idea of social, political, and economic advancements. Empiricism, on the other hand, is the idea that knowledge is gained through experience and observation rather than through innate ideas or religious beliefs. It emphasized the importance of evidence and experimentation in understanding the world. Both progress and empiricism were central ideas of the Enlightenment, as they promoted rationality, critical thinking, and the pursuit of knowledge.

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  • 3. 

    Which theorist is most closely linked to Positivism? 

    • A.

      George Herbert Mead

    • B.

      August Comte

    • C.

      Karl Marx

    • D.

      Harriet Martineau

    Correct Answer
    B. August Comte
    Explanation
    August Comte is most closely linked to Positivism. He is considered the founder of the positivist school of thought, which emphasizes the use of scientific methods to study society. Comte believed that society could be understood and improved through the application of scientific principles, and he emphasized the importance of empirical evidence and observation in social research. His work laid the foundation for the development of sociology as a scientific discipline.

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  • 4. 

    According to Comte, what was the purpose of Sociology? What were we to study? 

    • A.

      Reorganizing society after the French Revolution destroyed democracy

    • B.

      Study the progress of new democracy

    • C.

      Observe society's laws and rights through Empiricism

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The purpose of Sociology, according to Comte, was to study and observe various aspects of society. This included reorganizing society after the French Revolution, studying the progress of new democracy, and observing society's laws and rights through Empiricism. All of these aspects were considered important in understanding and analyzing society, making "All of the above" the correct answer.

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  • 5. 

    What is the function of theory? Check all that are correct. 

    • A.

      To prove things to be true

    • B.

      Explain phenomena

    • C.

      To come up with new concepts

    • D.

      To provide insight

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Explain phenomena
    D. To provide insight
    Explanation
    The function of theory is to explain phenomena and provide insight. Theories are developed to understand and interpret various phenomena in the world. They help to explain why certain events occur and how they are connected. Theories also provide insight by offering new perspectives and understanding of the phenomena being studied. They help researchers and scientists to make predictions, analyze data, and develop new concepts or ideas.

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  • 6. 

    What are the three main assumptions of the field of Sociology? Assumptions about   ___________________ Assumptions about   ___________________ Assumptions about   ___________________

    Correct Answer(s)
    Human Nature
    The existence of society
    Purposes and goals of knowledge
    Explanation
    The field of Sociology is based on three main assumptions. Firstly, it assumes that there is a certain human nature that shapes individuals' behavior and interactions within society. Secondly, it assumes the existence of society itself, recognizing that individuals are not isolated but are part of a larger social structure. Lastly, Sociology assumes that the purposes and goals of knowledge are important, emphasizing the importance of understanding and studying society to gain knowledge and insight into human behavior and social dynamics.

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  • 7. 

    For Durkheim, what is the root of everything social? 

    • A.

      Collective Effervescence

    • B.

      Society

    • C.

      The Economy

    • D.

      Religion

    Correct Answer
    D. Religion
    Explanation
    Durkheim believed that religion is the root of everything social. He argued that religion provides the framework and moral values that bind individuals together and create social cohesion. Through religious rituals and beliefs, people experience a sense of collective effervescence, a heightened state of group solidarity and shared emotions. This collective effervescence reinforces social norms, strengthens social bonds, and gives individuals a sense of belonging to a larger community. Therefore, Durkheim viewed religion as the foundation of social order and the driving force behind societal cohesion.

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  • 8. 

    What caused the shift from mechanical to organic solidarity?

    • A.

      Competition

    • B.

      The enlightenment

    • C.

      Division of labor

    • D.

      Class consciousness

    Correct Answer
    C. Division of labor
    Explanation
    The shift from mechanical to organic solidarity was caused by the division of labor. In mechanical solidarity, individuals are bound together by shared beliefs and values, while in organic solidarity, individuals are interdependent due to their specialized roles and tasks. The division of labor leads to a more complex and interconnected society, where individuals rely on each other for their specific skills and contributions. This shift is a result of the increased specialization and differentiation of roles in modern societies, leading to a greater need for cooperation and interdependence among individuals.

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  • 9. 

    The four types of suicide are: _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

    Correct Answer
    Egoistic
    Altruistic
    Anomic
    Fatalistic
    Explanation
    The correct answer lists the four types of suicide, which are egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. These four types represent different motivations or causes behind suicidal behavior. Egoistic suicide occurs when an individual feels disconnected or isolated from society. Altruistic suicide happens when a person sacrifices their life for the benefit of others or their community. Anomic suicide occurs as a result of a breakdown in social norms and values, leading to feelings of confusion and instability. Fatalistic suicide occurs when an individual feels trapped or oppressed by oppressive social conditions.

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  • 10. 

    Which theorist considers the cult o the individual to be the new sacred element? 

    • A.

      Emile Durkheim

    • B.

      George Herbert Mead

    • C.

      Karl Marx

    • D.

      August Comte

    Correct Answer
    A. Emile Durkheim
    Explanation
    Emile Durkheim considers the cult of the individual to be the new sacred element. Durkheim believed that in modern society, traditional religious beliefs and practices were being replaced by a new form of sacredness centered around the individual. He argued that as society becomes more individualistic, people start to worship and idolize themselves, their own desires, and their own achievements. This cult of the individual becomes the new source of meaning and moral values in society, replacing the traditional religious institutions and beliefs. Durkheim's theory highlights the shift in the sacred and the role of individualism in modern societies.

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  • 11. 

    According to George Herbert Mead, humans don't act, they react. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    George Herbert Mead believed that humans do not simply react to stimuli, but rather they have the ability to think and act based on their interpretations of the situation. He argued that human behavior is not solely determined by external factors, but also by the individual's own thoughts, meanings, and interpretations. Therefore, the correct answer is False, as Mead's theory suggests that humans do indeed act, rather than just react.

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  • 12. 

    What is George Herbert Mead's assumption about human nature?

    • A.

      We are born a blank slate

    • B.

      We use symbols to react

    • C.

      There are natural laws ordering society

    • D.

      A and B

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B
    Explanation
    George Herbert Mead's assumption about human nature is that we are born a blank slate and that we use symbols to react. This means that Mead believed that individuals are not born with innate knowledge or characteristics, but rather acquire them through social interaction and the use of symbols. He emphasized the role of language and communication in shaping our understanding of the world and our interactions with others. Additionally, Mead believed that society is not governed by natural laws, but rather constructed through social interactions and shared meanings.

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  • 13. 

    Overproduction leads to social change and a collapse in capitalism through class struggle.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Overproduction refers to a situation where there is an excessive supply of goods or services in relation to the demand. This can lead to various social changes and ultimately result in a collapse of capitalism through class struggle. When there is overproduction, businesses may face difficulties in selling their excess products, leading to layoffs, reduced wages, and increased inequality. This can create tension and conflict between different social classes, as the working class fights for better conditions and the redistribution of wealth. Ultimately, these social tensions can contribute to the downfall of capitalism as it fails to address the needs and demands of the majority.

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  • 14. 

    To increase the value of an item, one must create surplus labor. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that in order to increase the value of an item, surplus labor must be created. This implies that the value of an item is directly related to the amount of labor put into its production. When there is surplus labor, it means that more labor is being invested in the production of the item than what is necessary. This additional labor adds value to the item, making it more valuable. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 15. 

    The major sociological question Karl Marx tackled in his life work is:

    • A.

      What is the ideal or utopian society?

    • B.

      How does capitalism work?

    • C.

      Why is capitalism so exploitative?

    • D.

      Why are individuals social and altruistic?

    Correct Answer
    B. How does capitalism work?
    Explanation
    Karl Marx's major sociological question was how capitalism works. He dedicated his life's work to understanding the mechanisms and dynamics of capitalism, its effects on society, and the exploitation inherent within it. Marx believed that capitalism operated through the exploitation of the working class by the bourgeoisie, leading to social inequality and alienation. He analyzed the capitalist mode of production, the role of labor, and the accumulation of capital to unravel the workings of this economic system. Marx's critique of capitalism laid the foundation for his theory of communism and his vision of a more equitable and just society.

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  • 16. 

    Peter Kivitso, in Classical Sociological Theory: An Introduction, also states that Marx was more concerned with determining how communism or socialism would work as a utopian society than in studying the existing system of capitalism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. According to Peter Kivitso's book, Marx was actually more focused on studying the existing system of capitalism rather than envisioning a utopian society under communism or socialism.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the three theoretical frameworks within the field of sociology?

    • A.

      Social Physics

    • B.

      Structural Functionalism

    • C.

      Social Conflict

    • D.

      Symbolic Interactionism

    Correct Answer
    A. Social Physics
    Explanation
    Social Physics is not one of the three theoretical frameworks within the field of sociology. The three theoretical frameworks in sociology are Structural Functionalism, Social Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionism. Social Physics is not a recognized theoretical framework in sociology, but rather a term that refers to the application of scientific methods and principles to the study of social behavior.

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  • 18. 

    In discussing paradigms: tradition and religion is to theology what _________ is to science.

    • A.

      Facts

    • B.

      Laws

    • C.

      Truth

    • D.

      Theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Theory
    Explanation
    In discussing paradigms, tradition and religion are to theology what theory is to science. Just as tradition and religion form the foundation and guiding principles of theology, theory serves as the foundation and guiding framework for scientific inquiry. Theories in science are well-substantiated explanations that have been repeatedly tested and supported by evidence. Similarly, tradition and religion provide a framework of beliefs and practices that guide theological understanding and interpretation. Therefore, theory is the most appropriate analogy for the relationship between tradition and religion in theology and theory in science.

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  • 19. 

    Sociologists believe that we never directly experience the world, we only encounter it through our perspectives.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement aligns with the perspective of sociologists who argue that our experiences of the world are always mediated through our subjective perspectives. They believe that our understanding of the world is shaped by social factors such as culture, language, and socialization. Therefore, we can never have a completely objective or direct experience of the world, as our perspectives always influence how we perceive and interpret it.

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  • 20. 

    Assumptions are considered to be the basis of thinking and theorizing.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Assumptions are indeed considered to be the basis of thinking and theorizing. When we make assumptions, we are essentially making educated guesses or hypotheses about a certain situation or concept. These assumptions form the foundation on which we build our thoughts and theories. They guide our reasoning and help us make sense of the world around us. Without assumptions, it would be difficult to form any meaningful ideas or theories. Therefore, it is true that assumptions are considered to be the basis of thinking and theorizing.

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  • 21. 

    Concepts are:

    • A.

      Used to provide examples

    • B.

      Tricky to define

    • C.

      Parts of theory

    • D.

      Concepts consist of all of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Concepts consist of all of the above
    Explanation
    Concepts consist of all of the above because they are used to provide examples, they are tricky to define, and they are parts of theory. Concepts are abstract ideas or general notions that represent a category or class of objects, events, or behaviors. They are used to provide examples by illustrating specific instances or cases that fall under a particular concept. However, concepts can be tricky to define because they often involve complex or abstract ideas that may vary in interpretation. Additionally, concepts are essential parts of theory as they form the building blocks of understanding and organizing knowledge in a particular field or subject.

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  • 22. 

    Enlightenment thinkers believed that progress was only possible if societies choose to advance.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Enlightenment thinkers did not believe that progress was only possible if societies choose to advance. Instead, they believed that progress was inevitable and would occur naturally through the use of reason and rationality. They believed that by embracing scientific knowledge and promoting education, societies would naturally progress and improve. Therefore, the statement that progress was only possible if societies choose to advance is not in line with the beliefs of Enlightenment thinkers.

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  • 23. 

    Auguste Comte, the father of modern sociology, believed that there were natural laws ordering society and human interaction that could be discovered and adhered to in order to create a more just and peaceful society.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Auguste Comte, known as the father of modern sociology, believed that society and human interaction were governed by natural laws. He argued that by understanding and adhering to these laws, it was possible to create a more just and peaceful society. This suggests that the statement "Auguste Comte believed that there were natural laws ordering society and human interaction that could be discovered and adhered to in order to create a more just and peaceful society" is true.

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  • 24. 

    Pre-modern society was conceptualized as individual, or micro-level, interactions and it wasn't until the scientific stage that society was thought of as a structural entity (i.e. as a state or nation).

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that in pre-modern society, interactions were viewed at an individual level, while in the scientific stage, society was seen as a structural entity such as a state or nation. This implies that the understanding of society evolved over time, with a shift towards recognizing the larger structures and systems that shape social interactions. Therefore, the answer "True" indicates that the statement accurately reflects the conceptualization of society in different stages.

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  • 25. 

    This is defined as the attempt of alienated individuals to find self-worth in belongings and wealth.

    • A.

      Commodification

    • B.

      Market expansion

    • C.

      Commodity Fetish

    • D.

      All of the above are attempts of the alienated to find self-worth

    Correct Answer
    C. Commodity Fetish
    Explanation
    Commodity Fetish refers to the phenomenon where individuals attribute excessive value and importance to material possessions and wealth, believing that these things define their self-worth. This concept stems from the idea that in a capitalist society, individuals become disconnected from the true meaning and purpose of their lives, leading them to seek validation and identity through consumerism. The term "commodity fetish" highlights the distorted perception of value and the obsession with material objects that alienated individuals develop in their pursuit of self-worth.

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  • 26. 

    Marx believes that false consciousness is reinforced and capitalism continues to thrive because ideologies of the elite prevent bipolarization instead pitting us against one another along meaningless lines of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Marx argues that false consciousness is perpetuated by the ruling class through the promotion of divisive ideologies based on race, class, gender, and sexual orientation. These ideologies distract individuals from recognizing their shared class interests and instead pit them against each other. By maintaining this division, capitalism is able to thrive as the ruling class maintains control and prevents the formation of a united working class. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 27. 

    In order to increase the value of an item and therefore, profit, one must:

    • A.

      Increase labor time and skill

    • B.

      Increase use value

    • C.

      Increase exchange value

    • D.

      Increase surplus labor

    Correct Answer
    D. Increase surplus labor
    Explanation
    Increasing surplus labor refers to increasing the amount of time and effort that workers put into producing goods or services beyond what is necessary to cover their own wages. This allows the employer to extract more value from the labor of the workers, resulting in higher profits. By increasing surplus labor, the value of the item is increased, leading to higher profits. This can be achieved by increasing work hours, reducing breaks, or implementing more efficient work processes.

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  • 28. 

    The two types of objective knowledge that Weber believed could be obtained by social scientists employing the scientific method were:

    • A.

      Historical preconditions and laws of society

    • B.

      Historical preconditions and subjective perspectives

    • C.

      Historical preconditions and social facts

    • D.

      Historical preconditions and class consciousness

    Correct Answer
    B. Historical preconditions and subjective perspectives
    Explanation
    Weber believed that social scientists could obtain two types of objective knowledge through the scientific method: historical preconditions and subjective perspectives. Historical preconditions refer to the specific conditions and events that have shaped a society, while subjective perspectives refer to the individual interpretations and meanings that individuals attach to their actions and behaviors. By studying both historical preconditions and subjective perspectives, social scientists can gain a comprehensive understanding of society and its dynamics.

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  • 29. 

    This type of person is described by Weber as being "bureaucracy's manpower," because we increasingly rely on them in advanced bureaucratic states where credentialing and legitimation go hand-in-hand.

    • A.

      Laborers

    • B.

      The Poor

    • C.

      The Expert

    • D.

      Aggressive Capitalists

    Correct Answer
    C. The Expert
    Explanation
    Weber describes this type of person as "bureaucracy's manpower" because they are highly valued in advanced bureaucratic states where credentialing and legitimation are important. This suggests that these individuals possess specialized knowledge and skills that are necessary for the functioning of bureaucratic systems. They are likely to be highly educated and trained in their respective fields, making them experts in their areas of expertise.

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  • 30. 

    Unlike Marx, Weber believed that society only existed subjectively, through an interpretation of culture. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Weber believed that society exists subjectively, meaning that it is not an objective reality but rather a product of individuals' interpretations and understanding of culture. This is in contrast to Marx, who viewed society as an objective entity shaped by material conditions and class struggle. Therefore, the statement that Weber believed society only existed subjectively is true.

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  • 31. 

    Weber believed that once a culture/society entered into an rationalized state they would not be able to move out of this type of organized, bureaucratic structure. Weber calls this phenomena the:

    • A.

      Cycle of Rationality

    • B.

      Iron Cage of Efficiency

    • C.

      Iron Cage of Bureaucracy

    • D.

      Cycle of Bureaucracy

    Correct Answer
    C. Iron Cage of Bureaucracy
    Explanation
    Weber believed that once a culture/society entered into a rationalized state, they would become trapped in an organized, bureaucratic structure that he referred to as the "Iron Cage of Bureaucracy". This term suggests that once a society adopts bureaucratic systems and processes, it becomes difficult for them to escape from the rigid and efficient but also dehumanizing and restrictive nature of such structures. This concept highlights the potential negative consequences of excessive rationalization and the loss of individual freedom and creativity within bureaucratic systems.

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  • 32. 

    What reason is given by Weber for society's inability to escape bureaucracy?

    • A.

      Bureaucracies are most efficient at organizing large populations

    • B.

      Bureaucracy operates without values or morals and can be used for any purpose.

    • C.

      Bureaucracies are based on expert knowledge and are capable of promoting recruitment

    • D.

      All of the above are reasons why bureaucracy is inescapable

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are reasons why bureaucracy is inescapable
    Explanation
    Weber argues that all of the given reasons contribute to society's inability to escape bureaucracy. Bureaucracies are efficient at organizing large populations, as they provide structure and clear roles for individuals. Additionally, bureaucracy operates without values or morals, making it adaptable to any purpose, which can be both beneficial and detrimental. Lastly, bureaucracies are based on expert knowledge, allowing them to effectively recruit and promote individuals. These factors combined make bureaucracy difficult to escape, according to Weber.

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  • 33. 

    In studying religion, Weber is "most interested" in explaining what?

    • A.

      Why monotheism came about

    • B.

      Why religion was the chief organizing structure historically

    • C.

      Why there was a shift from magic to religion

    • D.

      Why we saw a separation of religion from other institutions

    Correct Answer
    A. Why monotheism came about
    Explanation
    Weber is most interested in explaining why monotheism came about. This suggests that he is focused on understanding the reasons and factors that led to the development and prevalence of monotheistic religious beliefs and practices.

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  • 34. 

    Weber falls under what theoretical framework?

    • A.

      Conflict Theorist

    • B.

      Structural Functionalist

    • C.

      Symbolic Interactionist

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Symbolic Interactionist
    Explanation
    Weber falls under the theoretical framework of Symbolic Interactionist because his work focuses on the understanding of social interactions and the meanings individuals attach to them. He emphasized the importance of individual actions and interpretations in shaping society, rather than solely focusing on larger social structures or conflicts. Weber's ideas align with the core principles of symbolic interactionism, which emphasize the role of symbols, meanings, and social interactions in the construction of reality.

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  • 35. 

    The protestant ethic caused capitalism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests a causal relationship between the protestant ethic and capitalism, implying that the protestant ethic was the cause of capitalism. However, this is not entirely accurate. While Max Weber's theory of the protestant ethic argued that certain Protestant beliefs and values contributed to the rise of capitalism, it is important to note that capitalism existed before the protestant ethic and was influenced by various other factors as well. Therefore, it would be incorrect to say that the protestant ethic caused capitalism.

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  • 36. 

    One aspect of the "spirit" of capitalism is that making money is no longer a means to an end but rather is the end (the goal) of rational capitalism. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that in capitalism, the ultimate goal is to make money rather than using money as a means to achieve other objectives. This implies that individuals and businesses in a capitalist system prioritize profit-making above all else, shaping their decisions and actions accordingly.

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  • 37. 

    Credentialing, in a bureaucratic society, leads to an overemphasis on education and is why we typically listen to experts rather than elders.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that credentialing in a bureaucratic society often places a high value on formal education and qualifications. This can lead to an overemphasis on the expertise and opinions of those who possess these credentials, such as experts. As a result, the knowledge and wisdom of elders may be undervalued or overlooked in favor of the perceived expertise of educated individuals. Therefore, it is true that credentialing can contribute to a tendency to listen to experts rather than elders.

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  • 38. 

    Weber was a big fan of bureaucracy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Weber was not a big fan of bureaucracy. He actually believed that while bureaucracy was an efficient and rational way to organize large organizations, it also had its limitations and drawbacks. He acknowledged that bureaucracy could lead to excessive red tape, impersonal relationships, and a lack of flexibility. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that Weber was a big fan of bureaucracy.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the types of authority identified by Weber?

    • A.

      Parental Authority

    • B.

      Rational-Legal Authority

    • C.

      Charismatic Authority

    • D.

      Traditional Authority

    Correct Answer
    A. Parental Authority
    Explanation
    Weber's types of authority are rational-legal authority, charismatic authority, and traditional authority. Parental authority is not one of the types identified by Weber.

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  • 40. 

    Monarchies would be an example of what type of authority?

    Correct Answer
    Traditional Authority
    Explanation
    Monarchies would be an example of traditional authority because they are based on long-standing customs, traditions, and hereditary succession. In a traditional authority system, power and legitimacy are derived from the belief in the sanctity of traditions and the authority of long-established leaders or rulers. Monarchies typically have a king or queen who inherits the position from their ancestors, and their rule is justified by the belief in the divine right to rule or by the acceptance of the traditional norms and values of the society.

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  • 41. 

    Hitler is considered what type of authority?

    Correct Answer
    Charismatic Authority
    Explanation
    Charismatic authority refers to a type of authority that is based on the personal qualities and charisma of a leader. In the case of Hitler, he was able to captivate and inspire a large number of people with his powerful speeches, strong personality, and nationalist ideology. His ability to rally masses and gain their loyalty and support through his charismatic appeal is what categorizes him as a charismatic authority.

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  • 42. 

    Durkheim assumed human beings are innately selfish, driven by insatiable desires, and that we have to be reminded that we also like to be social.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Durkheim's assumption that human beings are innately selfish and driven by insatiable desires suggests that our natural inclination is towards individualism rather than social behavior. However, he also believed that we have a need for social interaction and that society plays a crucial role in regulating our behavior and reminding us of our social nature. Therefore, the statement that Durkheim assumed human beings are innately selfish and need to be reminded of their social nature is true.

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  • 43. 

    Durkheim concludes that this is the new sacred element, and the most general ideal a society can have.

    • A.

      Collective Consensus

    • B.

      Individuality

    • C.

      Social Solidarity

    • D.

      Collective Effervescence

    Correct Answer
    B. Individuality
    Explanation
    Durkheim concludes that individuality is the new sacred element and the most general ideal a society can have. This suggests that Durkheim believes that in modern societies, the focus is shifting towards valuing and prioritizing individuality over collective consensus, social solidarity, or collective effervescence. Durkheim may argue that individuality is becoming a central aspect of society's ideals and values, highlighting the importance of personal autonomy and uniqueness.

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  • 44. 

    Durkheim believed that humans, innately, are connected through our:

    • A.

      Intermediary Groups

    • B.

      Division of Labor

    • C.

      Emotions

    • D.

      The Internet

    Correct Answer
    C. Emotions
    Explanation
    Durkheim believed that humans are connected through emotions. Emotions play a crucial role in social interactions and relationships, as they allow individuals to experience and express feelings that can be shared and understood by others. Emotions create a sense of empathy and solidarity among individuals, fostering social cohesion and collective consciousness. Durkheim argued that emotions serve as a social glue that binds individuals together and contributes to the maintenance of social order and integration within a society.

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  • 45. 

    Social facts cannot cause other social facts

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false because social facts can indeed cause other social facts. Social facts refer to the shared beliefs, values, norms, and practices that exist within a society. These social facts can influence and shape the behavior, attitudes, and actions of individuals and groups, thereby causing changes in the social fabric. For example, the introduction of new laws or policies can lead to changes in social behavior and practices. Additionally, social movements and cultural shifts can also cause changes in social facts. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that social facts cannot cause other social facts.

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  • 46. 

    Sacredness is an intrinsic quality

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Sacredness is not an intrinsic quality. It is a subjective concept that varies from person to person and is often influenced by cultural, religious, and personal beliefs. What one person may consider sacred, another person may not. Therefore, the statement that sacredness is an intrinsic quality is incorrect.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following is considered a social object?

    • A.

      A book

    • B.

      A hammer

    • C.

      A piece of string

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options mentioned (a book, a hammer, and a piece of string) can be considered social objects. A social object is something that can stimulate social interactions and conversations among people. A book can be discussed, recommended, and shared among individuals, leading to social engagement. Similarly, a hammer or a piece of string can be used in collaborative activities or shared among people, fostering social connections. Therefore, all of these options can be categorized as social objects.

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  • 48. 

    A handshake is a significant gesture because:

    • A.

      It is a privately learned behavior particular to your individual experience

    • B.

      Arouses the same response, or same meaning, in others as it does to you.

    • C.

      Because it is a sacred element

    • D.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    B. Arouses the same response, or same meaning, in others as it does to you.
    Explanation
    A handshake is a significant gesture because it arouses the same response or meaning in others as it does to you. This implies that the act of shaking hands is universally understood and carries the same significance across different cultures and individuals. It serves as a form of nonverbal communication that conveys trust, respect, and a willingness to establish a connection with another person. The fact that it elicits a similar response in others emphasizes its importance as a gesture of social interaction and mutual understanding.

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  • 49. 

    The premodern person existed within a collective environment.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The premodern person existed within a collective environment because in premodern societies, individuals were heavily influenced by their community and social group. They relied on their community for survival, shared values, and decision-making. Individualism was not as prominent as it is in modern societies, and people's identities and actions were often shaped by their roles within the collective. This collective environment fostered a sense of belonging and interdependence among individuals.

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  • 50. 

    It is thought that the modern person is incapable of reason or rational thought.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the modern person is incapable of reason or rational thought. However, this is an extreme and incorrect assumption. The modern person is just as capable of reason and rational thought as any other person from any other time period. In fact, advancements in education, technology, and critical thinking have made it easier for modern individuals to engage in reasoned and rational thought. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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