Social Stratification - Practice Quiz

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Social Stratification - Practice Quiz - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these systems allows for the most social mobility?

    • A.

      Caste

    • B.

      Monarchy

    • C.

      Endogamy

    • D.

      Class

    Correct Answer
    D. Class
    Explanation
    Class allows for the most social mobility because it is a system that is based on economic and social status, rather than being predetermined by birth or inheritance like in a monarchy or caste system. In a class system, individuals have the opportunity to move up or down the social ladder based on their own efforts, abilities, and achievements. This allows for greater social mobility as individuals can improve their social standing through education, career advancements, and social connections. Endogamy, on the other hand, refers to the practice of marrying within a specific social or cultural group, which can restrict social mobility.

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  • 2. 

    Structural mobility occurs when:

    • A.

      An individual moves up the class ladder

    • B.

      An individual moves down the class ladder

    • C.

      A large group moves up or down the class ladder due to societal changes

    • D.

      A member of a family belongs to a different class than his or her siblings

    Correct Answer
    C. A large group moves up or down the class ladder due to societal changes
    Explanation
    Structural mobility occurs when there is a significant shift in the social class of a large group of people due to changes in society. This can happen when there are economic or political changes that result in a redistribution of resources or opportunities. It is different from individual mobility, where only one person moves up or down the class ladder. Structural mobility reflects broader societal changes and can have a significant impact on social and economic inequality.

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  • 3. 

    The GNI PPP figure represents:

    • A.

      A country’s total accumulated wealth

    • B.

      Annual government spending

    • C.

      The average annual income of a country’s citizens

    • D.

      A country’s debt

    Correct Answer
    C. The average annual income of a country’s citizens
    Explanation
    The GNI PPP figure represents the average annual income of a country's citizens. GNI stands for Gross National Income, which is the total income earned by a country's residents, including income from abroad. PPP stands for Purchasing Power Parity, which takes into account the differences in the cost of living between countries. Therefore, the GNI PPP figure provides a more accurate measure of the average income of a country's citizens, as it adjusts for the purchasing power of their income.

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  • 4. 

    Conflict theorists view capitalists as those who:

    • A.

      Are ambitious

    • B.

      Fund social services

    • C.

      Spend money wisely

    • D.

      Get rich while workers stay poor

    Correct Answer
    D. Get rich while workers stay poor
    Explanation
    Conflict theorists view capitalists as those who get rich while workers stay poor. This perspective suggests that capitalists, who own and control the means of production, exploit the labor of workers to maximize their profits. The capitalist system is seen as perpetuating social inequality and maintaining a power imbalance between the wealthy elite and the working class. This view emphasizes the inherent conflict and competition between these two groups, with capitalists benefiting from the labor of workers while ensuring that they remain in a disadvantaged position.

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  • 5. 

    The behaviors, customs, and norms associated with a class are known as:

    • A.

      Class traits

    • B.

      Power

    • C.

      Prestige

    • D.

      Underclass

    Correct Answer
    A. Class traits
    Explanation
    Class traits refer to the behaviors, customs, and norms that are commonly associated with a particular social class. These traits can include things like language, clothing style, values, and social interactions. They are often shared among individuals within the same class and can serve to distinguish one class from another. Class traits can be influenced by factors such as wealth, education, and occupation, and they play a significant role in shaping social identity and group dynamics within a society.

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  • 6. 

    What factor makes class systems open?

    • A.

      They allow for movement between the classes.

    • B.

      People are more open-minded.

    • C.

      People are encouraged to socialize within their class.

    • D.

      They do not have clearly defined layers.

    Correct Answer
    A. They allow for movement between the classes.
    Explanation
    Class systems are considered open when they allow for movement between the classes. This means that individuals have the opportunity to move up or down the social ladder based on factors such as education, occupation, and wealth. In an open class system, social mobility is possible, allowing individuals to improve their social status or change their class position. This stands in contrast to closed class systems, where social mobility is limited or nonexistent, and individuals are born into and remain in a specific social class throughout their lives.

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  • 7. 

    Social stratification is a system that:

    • A.

      Ranks society members into categories

    • B.

      Destroys competition between society members

    • C.

      Allows society members to choose their social standing

    • D.

      Reflects personal choices of society members

    Correct Answer
    A. Ranks society members into categories
    Explanation
    Social stratification is a system that ranks society members into categories based on factors such as wealth, occupation, education, and social status. This system creates a hierarchy where individuals are placed in different positions in society based on their perceived social worth. This ranking helps to establish social order and define the privileges and opportunities available to individuals in different categories. It is not about destroying competition or allowing individuals to choose their social standing, but rather about the structural organization of society based on various criteria.

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  • 8. 

    Which statement represents stratification from the perspective of symbolic interactionism?

    • A.

      Men often earn more than women, even working the same job.

    • B.

      After work, Pat, a janitor, feels more comfortable eating in a truck stop than a French restaurant.

    • C.

      Doctors earn more money because their job is more highly valued.

    • D.

      Teachers continue to struggle to keep benefits such as health insurance.

    Correct Answer
    B. After work, Pat, a janitor, feels more comfortable eating in a truck stop than a French restaurant.
    Explanation
    This statement represents stratification from the perspective of symbolic interactionism because it highlights the social differences and inequalities experienced by individuals in their everyday interactions. Pat, a janitor, feeling more comfortable eating in a truck stop than a French restaurant suggests that their social status and occupation influence their choices and behaviors, reflecting the unequal distribution of resources and opportunities in society.

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  • 9. 

    Which statement illustrates low status consistency?

    • A.

      A suburban family lives in a modest ranch home and enjoys nice vacation each summer.

    • B.

      A single mother receives food stamps and struggles to find adequate employment.

    • C.

      A college dropout launches an online company that earns millions in its first year.

    • D.

      A celebrity actress owns homes in three countries.

    Correct Answer
    C. A college dropout launches an online company that earns millions in its first year.
    Explanation
    This statement illustrates low status consistency because it shows a college dropout who was able to achieve financial success by launching an online company. This indicates that the person's status in terms of education (college dropout) does not align with their status in terms of wealth (earning millions).

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  • 10. 

    Based on meritocracy, a physician’s assistant would:

    • A.

      Receive the same pay as all the other physician’s assistants

    • B.

      Be encouraged to earn a higher degree to seek a better position

    • C.

      Most likely marry a professional at the same level

    • D.

      Earn a pay raise for doing excellent work

    Correct Answer
    D. Earn a pay raise for doing excellent work
    Explanation
    In a meritocracy, individuals are rewarded based on their skills, abilities, and performance rather than their social status or other factors. Therefore, a physician's assistant who performs excellently would be deserving of a pay raise as a recognition for their outstanding work. This aligns with the principles of meritocracy, where rewards are based on merit and not on other external factors.

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  • 11. 

    Occupational prestige means that jobs are:

    • A.

      All equal in status

    • B.

      Not equally valued

    • C.

      Assigned to a person for life

    • D.

      Not part of a person’s self-identity

    Correct Answer
    B. Not equally valued
    Explanation
    Occupational prestige refers to the varying levels of value and respect that different jobs hold in society. It implies that not all jobs are considered equal in terms of status and importance. This means that certain occupations are highly valued and respected, while others may be seen as less significant. Therefore, the correct answer is "not equally valued."

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  • 12. 

    Unlike Davis and Moore, Melvin Tumin believed that, because of social stratification, some qualified people were _______ higher-level job positions.

    • A.

      Denied the opportunity to obtain

    • B.

      Encouraged to train for

    • C.

      Often fired from

    • D.

      Forced into

    Correct Answer
    A. Denied the opportunity to obtain
    Explanation
    Melvin Tumin disagreed with Davis and Moore's perspective on social stratification. He believed that due to this system, certain individuals who were qualified for higher-level job positions were not given the opportunity to obtain them. In other words, Tumin argued that social stratification prevented deserving individuals from accessing these positions, denying them the chance to advance in their careers.

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  • 13. 

    When Karl Marx said workers experience alienation, he meant that workers:

    • A.

      Must labor alone, without companionship

    • B.

      Do not feel connected to their work

    • C.

      Move from one geographical location to another

    • D.

      Have to put forth self-effort to get ahead

    Correct Answer
    B. Do not feel connected to their work
    Explanation
    Karl Marx believed that workers experience alienation because they do not feel connected to their work. This means that they view their labor as a means to an end rather than finding fulfillment or purpose in their work. Marx argued that capitalism and the division of labor lead to this sense of disconnection, as workers are often reduced to mere cogs in a machine, performing repetitive tasks without any control or ownership over the final product. This lack of connection to their work can lead to feelings of dissatisfaction, powerlessness, and a sense of being disconnected from their own labor.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following scenarios is an example of intergenerational mobility?

    • A.

      A janitor belongs to the same social class as his grandmother did.

    • B.

      An executive belongs to a different class than her parents.

    • C.

      An editor shares the same social class as his cousin.

    • D.

      A lawyer belongs to a different class than her sister.

    Correct Answer
    B. An executive belongs to a different class than her parents.
    Explanation
    The scenario of an executive belonging to a different class than her parents is an example of intergenerational mobility. Intergenerational mobility refers to the movement of individuals or families from one social class to another across different generations. In this scenario, the executive has achieved upward mobility by surpassing the social class of her parents, indicating a change in her social and economic status.

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  • 15. 

    The basic premise of the Davis-Moore thesis is that the unequal distribution of rewards in social stratification:

    • A.

      Is an outdated mode of societal organization

    • B.

      Is an artificial reflection of society

    • C.

      Serves a purpose in society

    • D.

      Cannot be justified

    Correct Answer
    C. Serves a purpose in society
    Explanation
    The Davis-Moore thesis argues that the unequal distribution of rewards in social stratification serves a purpose in society. According to this perspective, social inequality is not simply a result of arbitrary or artificial divisions, but rather a necessary feature that ensures the smooth functioning of society. The thesis suggests that certain positions in society require more skill, talent, and training, and therefore should be rewarded with higher social status and greater material rewards. This unequal distribution of rewards motivates individuals to strive for higher positions, leading to increased productivity and social progress.

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  • 16. 

    In the United States, most people define themselves as:

    • A.

      Middle class

    • B.

      Upper class

    • C.

      Lower class

    • D.

      No specific class

    Correct Answer
    A. Middle class
    Explanation
    The given answer, middle class, is the most accurate and commonly chosen option when defining oneself in the United States. This is because the majority of Americans identify themselves as belonging to the middle class. The middle class is typically associated with a moderate income, stable employment, and a comfortable standard of living. It represents the largest socioeconomic group in the country and encompasses a wide range of occupations and lifestyles. While there are individuals who identify as upper or lower class, the middle class is the prevailing self-identification among Americans.

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  • 17. 

    Which person best illustrates opportunities for upward social mobility in the United States?

    • A.

      First-shift factory worker

    • B.

      First-generation college student

    • C.

      Firstborn son who inherits the family business

    • D.

      First-time interviewee who is hired for a job

    Correct Answer
    B. First-generation college student
    Explanation
    A first-generation college student best illustrates opportunities for upward social mobility in the United States. This is because being the first in their family to attend college means they have the chance to gain higher education and skills that can lead to better job prospects and higher income. It also signifies breaking the cycle of limited opportunities and social status that their family might have experienced. By obtaining a college degree, they can access a wider range of career options and potentially move up the social ladder.

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  • 18. 

    What factor makes caste systems closed?

    • A.

      They are run by secretive governments.

    • B.

      People cannot change their social standings.

    • C.

      Most have been outlawed.

    • D.

      They exist only in rural areas.

    Correct Answer
    B. People cannot change their social standings.
    Explanation
    The factor that makes caste systems closed is that people cannot change their social standings. In a caste system, individuals are born into a specific caste and their social status is determined by birth. This social standing is rigid and fixed, and individuals have limited or no opportunities to move up or down the social hierarchy. This lack of social mobility is what makes caste systems closed.

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  • 19. 

    Which graphic concept best illustrates the concept of social stratification?

    • A.

      Pie chart

    • B.

      Flag poles

    • C.

      Planetary movement

    • D.

      Pyramid

    Correct Answer
    D. Pyramid
    Explanation
    A pyramid best illustrates the concept of social stratification because it represents a hierarchical structure with different levels or layers. Just like social stratification, a pyramid has a top level that represents the highest social class or elite, and lower levels that represent lower social classes or disadvantaged groups. The pyramid shape visually represents the unequal distribution of power, wealth, and resources in society, with a small number of individuals or groups at the top and a larger number of individuals or groups at the bottom.

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