Social Ethics/Philosophy 226: Ch 12 (E&d) Considerations

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Social Ethics/Philosophy 226: Ch 12 (E&d) Considerations - Quiz

Social Ethics/Philosophy 226: Ch 12 Ethics and Discrimination: Nonconsequentialist or Consequentialist considerations. Label the following examples of arguments regarding Preferential Treatment as appealing to:
(N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations- Do it just because it's right; act out of duty, according to duty, or as duty requires.
or to:
(C) Consequentialist considerations - Utilitarianism. (Greatest good for the greatest number)


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    If we hire people according to their sex or race, they will have less self-esteem than if they are hired on competence.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    B. (C) Consequentialist considerations
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that hiring people based on their competence rather than their sex or race is important because it leads to higher self-esteem for the individuals being hired. This aligns with consequentialist considerations, which prioritize the positive outcomes or consequences of an action over any inherent moral rules or principles. By focusing on competence, individuals are valued for their skills and abilities, which can boost their self-esteem and contribute to a more inclusive and fair workplace environment.

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  • 2. 

    By using race or sex to favor some groups we are using an irrelevant characteristic and this is not right.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    A. (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations
    Explanation
    The given explanation suggests that the correct answer is (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations. This means that the decision to not use race or sex to favor some groups is based on ethical principles that focus on the inherent rightness or wrongness of an action, rather than its consequences. According to this perspective, using an irrelevant characteristic like race or sex is considered morally wrong, regardless of the potential positive outcomes it may bring.

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  • 3. 

    If these programs could be designed so that they would achieve the goal of equality, then they ought to be supported.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    B. (C) Consequentialist considerations
    Explanation
    The correct answer is (C) Consequentialist considerations. This is because consequentialist ethics focus on the outcomes or consequences of actions. In this statement, the goal of achieving equality is the desired outcome, and therefore, supporting programs that can achieve this goal aligns with consequentialist thinking. Nonconsequentialist ethics, on the other hand, prioritize moral duties and principles, regardless of the outcomes.

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  • 4. 

    The fact that some people because of past discrimination are now in a socially disadvantaged position is a relevant reason to treat them differently but now in ways that advantage them.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    A. (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that treating people who have been socially disadvantaged due to past discrimination differently in ways that advantage them is a relevant reason. This aligns with nonconsequentialist (deontological) considerations, which focus on the moral duty to treat individuals fairly and justly, regardless of the consequences or outcomes. Nonconsequentialist ethics prioritize principles and rules, suggesting that it is morally right to address historical injustices and provide advantages to those who have been disadvantaged.

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  • 5. 

    It is not fair to prefer a woman or minority group member over a more well qualified applicant for this is to use an irrelevant difference as a basis for differential treatment.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    A. (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that it is unfair to prioritize a woman or minority group member over a more qualified applicant based on an irrelevant difference. This aligns with nonconsequentialist (deontological) considerations, which focus on the inherent rightness or wrongness of an action rather than its consequences. In this case, the nonconsequentialist perspective argues that it is ethically wrong to discriminate against a well-qualified applicant based on irrelevant factors such as gender or minority status.

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  • 6. 

    We ought to make it up to those who have been victims of discrimination by giving them special consideration in hiring and admissions.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    A. (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations
    Explanation
    The correct answer is (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations. This means that the reason for giving special consideration to those who have been victims of discrimination is not based on the potential consequences or outcomes of doing so, but rather on a sense of moral duty or obligation to rectify past injustices. Nonconsequentialist ethical theories focus on principles and rules that guide our actions, rather than the outcomes or consequences of those actions. In this case, the principle of fairness and justice is guiding the decision to provide special consideration to victims of discrimination.

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  • 7. 

    Simply trying to get rid of overt unjust discrimination has not had the desired effect of bringing certain groups into the mainstream, and thus more drastic measures are necessary.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    B. (C) Consequentialist considerations
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that simply trying to eliminate discrimination has not been effective in integrating certain groups into mainstream society. This implies that a different approach is needed, which aligns with consequentialist considerations. Consequentialism focuses on the outcomes or consequences of actions, suggesting that the decision to take more drastic measures is based on the belief that these measures will lead to better overall outcomes, such as greater inclusion and equality.

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  • 8. 

    Just as race or sex were wrongly used in the past to treat people differently, so also it is just as inherently wrong in present form in preferential treatment programs.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    A. (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that preferential treatment programs, which treat people differently based on certain characteristics, are inherently wrong. This aligns with nonconsequentialist (deontological) considerations, which focus on the inherent rightness or wrongness of actions, regardless of their consequences. Nonconsequentialist ethics prioritize principles and moral duties, suggesting that treating people differently based on race or sex is inherently wrong, regardless of any potential positive outcomes or consequences. Therefore, the correct answer is (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations.

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  • 9. 

    We ought to realize that if we continue with programs of preferential treatment there will likely be a white male backlash and this will make it even more difficult to achieve racial or sexual equality.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    B. (C) Consequentialist considerations
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that the statement is based on consequentialist considerations. Consequentialism is an ethical theory that focuses on the consequences or outcomes of an action rather than the inherent nature of the action itself. In this case, the statement is considering the potential backlash from white males as a consequence of continuing preferential treatment programs. It suggests that this backlash could make it more difficult to achieve racial or sexual equality. Therefore, the statement is looking at the potential outcomes or consequences of the actions described.

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  • 10. 

    If young girls and blacks, for example, have more role models in certain professions, they will be more likely to seek those positions, and if this is possible only through affirmative action programs, then we ought to support such programs.

    • A.

      (N) Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) considerations

    • B.

      (C) Consequentialist considerations

    Correct Answer
    B. (C) Consequentialist considerations
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that the reason to support affirmative action programs is based on consequentialist considerations. Consequentialism is an ethical theory that focuses on the consequences or outcomes of actions. In this case, the argument is that supporting affirmative action programs will lead to more young girls and blacks seeking certain professions, which is seen as a positive outcome. This aligns with a consequentialist perspective that prioritizes the overall consequences or outcomes of actions.

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