# Chapters 1-4 Matter, Atoms, & Periodic Table (41 Ques.)

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The following test is aligned with VA SOLs PS. 1, PS. 2, PS. 3 and PS. 4 for 8th grade Physical Science. The student will plan and conduct investigations. The student will investigate and understand the basic nature of matter. The student will investigate and understand the modern and historical models of atomic structure. The student will investigate and understand the organization and use of the periodic table of elements to obtain information. References: Illustrations/clipart, Grade 8: Science (VDOE Released Items 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004), used for educational purposes.

• 1.

### Which of the following is a compound?

• A.

Fe

• B.

0

• C.

N2

• D.

CO

D. CO
Explanation
I was unable to reduce the numbers (subscript). The number (subscripts)should be "smaller" than the letters. The numbers are not coefficients. Remember: A compound is "two or more" elements. CO is correct. If you chose N2, nitrogen is just "one" type of an element. The subscript(number 2) tells there are two of the "same" type of element, nitrogen. It does have two "different" elements.

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• 2.

### What causes the weight of an object?

• A.

Volume

• B.

Density

• C.

Acceleration

• D.

Pull of gravity

D. Pull of gravity
Explanation
Remember the pull of "gravity" causes "weight" on the earth, but "mass",the amount of matter in the object, stays the same on the earth or moon, which does not have gravity

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• 3.

### Which type of elements on the periodic table have some properties or characteristics of metals and some of nonmetals?

• A.

Rare earth metals

• B.

Metalloids

• C.

Metals

• D.

Nonmetals

B. Metalloids
Explanation
Remember: Metalloids are located directly each side of the "zigzag line on the periodical table; therefore having both properties of metals and nonmetals. The physical properties of metals are "hardness, shininess, malleability, and ductility. Physical properties of nonmetals are "gases at room temperature, low boiling poit, dull, brittle, poor conductors, nonmalleable (breaks easily), and low density.

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• 4.

### What is the smallest particle of an element or the "building blocks of all matter"?

• A.

Molecule

• B.

Atom

• C.

Compound

• D.

Cell

B. Atom
Explanation
An atom is the smallest particle of an element and the "building block of all matter". Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. They combine together to form molecules and compounds, which are larger structures. Cells, on the other hand, are the basic structural and functional units of living organisms, not the building blocks of matter.

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• 5.

### What is the curved line of liquid that a person looks at eye level to measure volume (liquid) in a graduated cylinder?

• A.

Low point

• B.

Side view

• C.

Meniscus

• D.

Curve

C. Meniscus
Explanation
The correct answer is "meniscus." When a person looks at eye level to measure the volume of liquid in a graduated cylinder, they see a curved line of liquid called the meniscus. This curve occurs due to the adhesive forces between the liquid and the glass surface of the cylinder. The bottom of the meniscus is used to measure the volume accurately.

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• 6.

### What is an example of a chemical change?

• A.

Ripping paper

• B.

Water freezing

• C.

Paper burning

• D.

Ice melting

C. Paper burning
Explanation
An example of a chemical change is paper burning. In this process, the paper undergoes a chemical reaction with oxygen in the air, resulting in the release of heat, light, and the formation of new substances such as ash and smoke. This transformation is irreversible and involves the breaking and forming of chemical bonds within the paper molecules.

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• 7.

### What are facts, figures, and other evidence recorded and learned through observation?

• A.

Scientific theory

• B.

Inferring

• C.

Hypothesis

• D.

Data

D. Data
Explanation
Data refers to the facts, figures, and evidence that are recorded and learned through observation. It encompasses any information that is collected and analyzed to support or refute a hypothesis or scientific theory. Data is crucial in the scientific process as it provides the basis for making informed conclusions and decisions. It can be quantitative or qualitative and can be obtained through various methods such as experiments, surveys, or observations.

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• 8.

### What are two or more elements that are chemically bonded?

• A.

Compound

• B.

Molecule

• C.

Atom

• D.

Proton

A. Compound
Explanation
A compound is formed when two or more elements chemically bond together. In a compound, the atoms of different elements are held together by chemical bonds, resulting in a new substance with different properties than its constituent elements. Therefore, a compound is the correct answer as it specifically refers to the situation where two or more elements are chemically bonded.

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• 9.

### What is the current (most recent) model we use today of the atom?

• A.

Dalton's Model

• B.

Electron Cloud Model

• C.

Thomson's Model

• D.

Rutherford's Model

B. Electron Cloud Model
Explanation
Electron Could model says the nucleus is where most of the mass or weight is located of an atom. The electrons orbit in a light area similar to a cloud.

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• 10.

### Which one illustrates a gas in the Particle Theory of Matter? A                                            B                                  C

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

C. C
Explanation
The Perticle Theory of Matter is just explaining how the particle move and distance of solids, liquids, and gases.

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• 11.

### Which of the following is not a compound?

• A.

H2O

• B.

CO2

• C.

NaCl

• D.

H2

D. H2
Explanation
A compound must be "two" or more "different" elements chemically combined, "two" of the "same" elements.

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• 12.

### What should students do first to practice safety in a science labortory?

• A.

Taste of food items to identify them.

• B.

Leave hair, shirt sleeves hanging down.

• C.

• D.

Clean up all instruments after the experiment.

Explanation
Never taste unless instructed to do so, it can be poisonous.
Always tie hair back and roll up sleeves to prevent entanglement or catching on fire.
Cleaning up would be the last thing you do.

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• 13.

### What appropriate tool would be used to measure "liters" in an experiment?

• A.

Triple beam balance scale

• B.

Metric stick

• C.

Beaker

• D.

Explanation
A graduated cylinder would be the appropriate tool to measure "liters" in an experiment. This is because a graduated cylinder is specifically designed to measure the volume of liquids with high accuracy. It has markings on its side, indicating different volume measurements, including liters. The other options, such as a triple beam balance scale, metric stick, and beaker, are not designed for measuring volume in liters.

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• 14.

### *REMEMBER THIS NUMBER IS USUALLY WRITTEN ON TOP OF THE SYMBOL.

• A.

Atomic mass (tells how heavy it is)

• B.

Symbol

• C.

SI unit

• D.

Atomic number (number of protons)

D. Atomic number (number of protons)
Explanation
The atomic number of an element represents the number of protons in its nucleus. It is a unique identifier for each element and determines its position in the periodic table. The atomic number is crucial in understanding the chemical properties and behavior of an element.

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• 15.

### What causes "weight" of an object?

• A.

People

• B.

Gravity

• C.

Mass

• D.

Atoms

B. Gravity
Explanation
Gravity is the force that causes the "weight" of an object. It is the natural phenomenon by which objects with mass are attracted to one another. The force of gravity pulls objects towards the center of the Earth, giving them weight. The greater the mass of an object, the greater its weight will be due to gravity. Therefore, gravity is the cause of the weight of an object.

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• 16.

### Which are the 18 vertical columns in the periodic table that have similar properties?

• A.

Groups or families

• B.

Periods

• C.

Rows

• D.

Columns

A. Groups or families
Explanation
The 18 vertical columns in the periodic table that have similar properties are called groups or families. This is because elements within the same group or family share similar chemical properties and tend to exhibit similar behavior in reactions. The periodic table is organized in such a way that elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons, which determines their chemical reactivity. Therefore, elements in the same group or family have comparable chemical properties and can be grouped together based on their similarities.

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• 17.

### Which subatomic particle of an atom has a negative charge and is located outside the nucleus?

• A.

Nucleus

• B.

Proton

• C.

Electron

• D.

Neutron

C. Electron
Explanation
The correct answer is electron. Electrons are subatomic particles that have a negative charge and are located outside the nucleus of an atom. They orbit around the nucleus in specific energy levels or shells. Electrons play a crucial role in chemical bonding and determining the chemical properties of an element.

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• 18.
• A.

Nitrogen

• B.

Silicon

• C.

Phosphorus

• D.

Aluminum

B. Silicon
Explanation
Silicon is the correct answer because it is a chemical element that is widely used in various industries, including electronics and semiconductors. It is a key component in the production of computer chips and solar cells. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and aluminum are also chemical elements, but they do not have the same level of importance and widespread use in technology as silicon does.

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• 19.
• A.

Sulfer

• B.

Oxygen

• C.

Metalloids

• D.

Hydrogen

A. Sulfer
Explanation
Sulfur is the correct answer because it is an element that belongs to the nonmetal group on the periodic table. It is a yellow, brittle solid that is commonly found in nature as a mineral. Sulfur is known for its distinctive smell and is used in various industrial processes, such as the production of sulfuric acid. It is also an essential element for living organisms and is found in proteins and vitamins.

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• 20.

### Which state of matter is contained in the Particle Theory of Matter (which is the name of the three states -liquids, solids, gases) and has a definite shape and definite volume?

• A.

Liquid

• B.

Solid

• C.

Plasma

• D.

Gas

B. Solid
Explanation
The state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume is a solid. In the Particle Theory of Matter, solids are described as having particles that are closely packed together and vibrate in fixed positions. This arrangement gives solids their characteristic shape and volume, as the particles are unable to move freely.

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• 21.

### Which state of matter in the Particle Theory of Matter have the particles packed tightly together and the particles move by vibrating?

• A.

Gas

• B.

Liquid

• C.

Solid

• D.

Plasma

C. Solid
Explanation
In the Particle Theory of Matter, the state of matter where particles are packed tightly together and move by vibrating is a solid. In solids, the particles are closely packed and have strong attractive forces between them, which restrict their movement to vibrating in fixed positions. This explains why solids have a definite shape and volume, as the particles cannot move freely like in liquids or gases.

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• 22.

### Which is the third element in group 2? (You must know the location of periods and groups on the periodical table). (Use this question-Ignore question below) . IGNORE THIS QUESTION

• A.

Potassium (K)

• B.

Calcium (Ca)

• C.

Magnisium (Mg)

• D.

Helium (He)

B. Calcium (Ca)
Explanation
The third element in group 2 is Calcium (Ca). This is because the elements in group 2 of the periodic table are alkaline earth metals, and Calcium is the third element in this group.

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• 23.

### Identify the subatomical particle in an atom that has a neutral charge? : :

• A.

Nucleus

• B.

Proton

• C.

Neutron

• D.

Electron

C. Neutron
Explanation
The subatomic particle in an atom that has a neutral charge is the neutron. Neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom along with protons, but unlike protons, they do not have a positive or negative charge. Neutrons are electrically neutral, meaning they have no charge.

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• 24.

### Identiify how many atoms make up the compound, Ag2CO3.

• A.

5

• B.

9

• C.

6

• D.

3

C. 6
Explanation
The compound Ag2CO3 consists of two silver atoms (Ag), one carbon atom (C), and three oxygen atoms (O). Therefore, the total number of atoms in the compound is 6.

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• 25.

### In the following formula for rust, how manyatoms are in proportion to the atoms: Fe2O3

• A.

5

• B.

3

• C.

2

• D.

8

A. 5
Explanation
The formula Fe2O3 indicates that there are two iron atoms (Fe) and three oxygen atoms (O) in each molecule of rust. Therefore, the ratio of the number of atoms of iron to the number of atoms of oxygen is 2:3.

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• 26.

### Which example is a compound?

• A.

Mg

• B.

CO

• C.

Fe

• D.

C

B. CO
Explanation
CO is the correct answer because it consists of two elements, carbon (C) and oxygen (O), bonded together. This makes it a compound. Mg, Fe, and C are all single elements and not compounds.

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• 27.

• A.

Group 1

• B.

Group 2

• C.

Group 3

• D.

Group 4

C. Group 3
• 28.

### Which is the manipulated variable (independent variable) of an "vary inversely" graph when the temperature is on the "y axis" and the time is on the "x axis"?

• A.

Temperature

• B.

Time

• C.

Neither

• D.

Y axis

B. Time
Explanation
In this scenario, the manipulated variable (independent variable) is time. This is because the temperature is dependent on the time, meaning that as time changes, the temperature also changes. The graph shows an inverse relationship between temperature and time, indicating that as time increases, the temperature decreases and vice versa. Therefore, time is the variable that is manipulated or controlled in order to observe its effect on the temperature.

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• 29.

### THIS GRApH SHOWS THE CHANGES IN THE pHASES OF MATTER.

• A.

Melting

• B.

Freezing

• C.

Vaporization

• D.

Heat

C. Vaporization
Explanation
Remember the slanted lines tell the names of the states of matter and the flat lines tell how the phase changes to another.

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• 30.

### What is the total mass on the triple balance scale?

• A.

300 liters

• B.

354.6 meters

• C.

354.6 grams

• D.

354 ounces

C. 354.6 grams
Explanation
Always add the large amount and work toward the smaller number. Remeber the small lines are tenths of a whole number written as a decimal.

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• 31.

### What does the mass weigh on the triple beam balance?

• A.

70 g

• B.

17 g

• C.

170 mL

• D.

1.7 g

B. 17 g
Explanation
The mass weighs 17 g on the triple beam balance.

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• 32.

### How is heat released when dissolving sugar or salt?

• A.

Cold to warm

• B.

Warm to cold

• C.

Cold to cold

• D.

Hot to hot

B. Warm to cold
Explanation
When dissolving sugar or salt, heat is released because the process is exothermic. This means that the energy released during the formation of new bonds between the solute particles and the solvent particles is greater than the energy required to break the existing bonds within the solute particles. As a result, the surroundings, which include the solvent and the container, become warmer while the dissolving process occurs. Therefore, the correct answer is "warm to cold."

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• 33.

### What are you trying to solve or find when you have mass and volume?    ? = M          V

• A.

Mass

• B.

Density

• C.

Volume

• D.

Space

B. Density
Explanation
When you have mass and volume, you are trying to find the density. Density is a measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume. It is calculated by dividing the mass by the volume. Therefore, when you have the mass and volume of an object or substance, you can determine its density.

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• 34.

### Which scientist's model of the atom looks like a solid ball or billard ball and is known as the "Father of Atomic Theory"?

• A.

Democritus

• B.

Dalton

• C.

Daniels

• D.

Bohr

B. Dalton
Explanation
Dalton's model of the atom, also known as the "billard ball" model, is a solid sphere that represents the atom as an indivisible and indestructible particle. This model was proposed by John Dalton, who is considered the "Father of Atomic Theory." Dalton's model suggested that atoms of different elements have different masses and combine in simple, whole number ratios to form compounds. This model laid the foundation for our understanding of the atom and the development of modern atomic theory.

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• 35.

### Which subatomic particle of the atom tells how many "protons" are in each element?

• A.

Neutron

• B.

Nucleus

• C.

Proton

• D.

Electron

A. Neutron
Explanation
The neutron is not the subatomic particle that tells how many "protons" are in each element. The correct answer is the proton, as it carries a positive charge equal in magnitude to the negative charge of an electron and is responsible for the atomic number of an element. The neutron, on the other hand, has no charge and contributes to the mass of the atom.

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• 36.

### What state of matter has definite shape and definite volume?

• A.

Plasma

• B.

Liquid

• C.

Solid

• D.

Gas

C. Solid
Explanation
A solid is a state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume. Unlike liquids and gases, which can change their shape and volume, solids maintain their shape and volume regardless of their container. The particles in a solid are tightly packed together and have strong intermolecular forces, which give solids their rigidity. This is why solids can maintain their shape and volume.

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• 37.

### What has mass and takes up space?

• A.

Volume

• B.

Density

• C.

Matter

• D.

Air

C. Matter
Explanation
Matter is the correct answer because it refers to anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter can exist in various forms such as solid, liquid, or gas, and it includes everything around us, including objects, substances, and even air.

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• 38.

### Which state of matter has no definite shape and no definite volume?

• A.

Plasma

• B.

Gas

• C.

Liquid

• D.

Solid

B. Gas
Explanation
Gas is the state of matter that has no definite shape and no definite volume. Unlike solids and liquids, gas particles are not closely packed together and can move freely. This allows them to fill the entire space available to them, taking the shape of the container they are in. Additionally, gas particles have enough kinetic energy to overcome the attractive forces between them, resulting in no fixed volume. Therefore, gas is the correct answer as it exhibits both properties of having no definite shape and no definite volume.

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• 39.

### 40. Which state of matter has definite volume and no definite shape?

• A.

Liquid

• B.

Solid

• C.

Gas

• D.

Plasma

A. Liquid
Explanation
A liquid is a state of matter that has a definite volume, meaning it takes up a specific amount of space. However, it does not have a definite shape, as it can take the shape of its container. The particles in a liquid are close together, allowing them to maintain their volume, but they are not rigidly arranged like in a solid.

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• 40.

### What is the basic unit of measurement for a liquid?

• A.

Ounces

• B.

Cups

• C.

Grams

• D.

Liters

D. Liters
Explanation
The basic unit of measurement for a liquid is liters. Liters are commonly used to measure the volume of liquids, especially in the metric system. It is a larger unit compared to ounces and cups, which are more commonly used in the imperial system. Grams, on the other hand, are used to measure the weight of substances, not specifically liquids. Therefore, liters is the correct answer as it is the most appropriate unit for measuring liquids.

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• 41.

### What should a student do first when getting ready to do an experiment?

• A.

• B.

Pick up any broken glass.

• C.

• D.

Tie hair back.

Explanation
When getting ready to do an experiment, the first thing a student should do is follow their teacher's instructions and directions. This is important because the teacher will provide guidance on the proper procedure, safety precautions, and any specific materials or equipment that should be used. By following the teacher's instructions, the student can ensure that they are conducting the experiment correctly and safely.

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• Mar 21, 2023
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• Oct 11, 2008
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