In a freshwater environment.
In a marine environment.
That are internal parasites.
That are hypoosmotic to their environment.
That are isoosmotic to their environment.
Pump salt out through salt glands in its gills.
Produce large amounts of dilute urine.
Diffuse urea out across its gills.
Have scales to reduce water loss.
All of the above.
Water, salt, and electrolytes
Collecting duct --> ureter --> bladder --> urethra
Renal vein --> renal ureter --> bladder --> urethra
Nephron --> urethra --> bladder --> ureter
Cortex --> medulla --> bladder --> ureter
Renal pelvis --> medulla --> bladder --> urethra
Invasion by pathogens
All of the above are conditions that the body attempts to keep constant.
Countercurrent exchange between blood vessels in the extremities
Fur or feathers
Vasodilation of surface vessels
Vasoconstriction of surface vessels
Can sustain vigorous activity
High metabolic rate and retained metabolic heat
Efficient circulatory and gas exchange systems
Energetically efficient and relatively inexpensive, in terms of food requirements
Ability to deal with terrestrial temperature fluctuations
Detoxification of drugs and toxins
Synthesis of plasma proteins
Synthesis of urine
Synthesis of bile
Interconversion of glucose and glycogen