Research Methods In Psychology Quiz

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Research Methods In Psychology Quiz - Quiz

Do you know what psychological research methods are? Try this quiz on psychological research methods to see how much you know. This revision quiz is mainly for Scottish higher psychology. This quiz will not only test your knowledge but enhance it, too, with a lot of new facts and terms. All the best for a perfect score on this quiz. Do share the quiz or quiz results with others interested in psychology.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The I.V. is the variable that is being measured by the experimenter.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the independent variable (I.V.) is not the variable being measured by the experimenter. The I.V. is the variable that is manipulated or changed by the experimenter to observe its effect on the dependent variable (D.V.), which is the variable being measured. The D.V. is the variable that is affected or influenced by the changes in the I.V.

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  • 2. 

    The D.V. is the variable that is being manipulated by the experimenter.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the D.V. (dependent variable) is the variable that is being measured or observed in an experiment, not manipulated. The independent variable (I.V.) is the variable that is manipulated or changed by the experimenter.

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  • 3. 

    List the steps for the complete research process.

    • A.

      Theory

    • B.

      Hypothesis

    • C.

      Method

    • D.

      Sample

    • E.

      Practice

    • F.

      Interpretation of results

    • G.

      Conclusion

    • H.

      Revise theory if necessary

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Theory
    B. Hypothesis
    C. Method
    D. Sample
    F. Interpretation of results
    G. Conclusion
    H. Revise theory if necessary
    Explanation
    The correct answer lists the steps for the complete research process in the correct order. It starts with developing a theory, then forming a hypothesis, followed by selecting a research method and a sample. After collecting and analyzing data, the results are interpreted, leading to a conclusion. If necessary, the theory is revised based on the findings.

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  • 4. 

    One tailed/directional hypothesis predicts an effect on the DV but does not say in which direction.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    One tailed/directional hypothesis predicts the direction of DV. Eg. Being bullied at school will decrease exam performance.

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  • 5. 

    Two tailed/non-directional hypothesis predicts an effect on the DV but doesn’t say in which direction. eg. Being bullied at school will affect exam performance.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A two-tailed/non-directional hypothesis predicts that there will be an effect on the dependent variable (exam performance) as a result of being bullied at school, but it does not specify the direction of the effect. This means that the hypothesis does not state whether being bullied will positively or negatively impact exam performance. Instead, it simply suggests that there will be some kind of effect. Therefore, the statement "Being bullied at school will affect exam performance" is consistent with a two-tailed/non-directional hypothesis.

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  • 6. 

    An experiment is where the experimenter manipulates the IV to see if it has an effect on the DV. It is the method of choice in psychology.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true because an experiment is indeed a method in psychology where the experimenter intentionally manipulates the independent variable (IV) to observe and determine if it has any impact on the dependent variable (DV). This allows researchers to establish cause-and-effect relationships and draw conclusions about the variables being studied.

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  • 7. 

    Operationalisation: the attempt to define a variable in order to measure it effectively, defining what is meant by the variable.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Operationalisation refers to the process of defining a variable in a way that allows it to be effectively measured. This involves specifying what is meant by the variable and how it will be observed or quantified. By operationalising a variable, researchers can ensure that their measurements are reliable and valid, allowing for accurate analysis and interpretation of data. Therefore, the statement that operationalisation involves defining what is meant by the variable is true.

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  • 8. 

    The experimental hypothesis predicts what the IV will be.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Predicts an effect on the DV.

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  • 9. 

    Replication means an experiment must be set down in easy-to-follow steps so anyone can repeat the experiment with the same results.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Replication in scientific experiments refers to the ability to repeat the experiment using the same procedures and obtain consistent results. This is important for ensuring the validity and reliability of scientific findings. By providing clear and detailed instructions, other researchers can replicate the experiment and verify the results, adding credibility to the original study. Therefore, the statement that replication requires easy-to-follow steps for consistent results is true.

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  • 10. 

    The Null hypothesis predicts no observable effect on the DV. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The null hypothesis is a statement that assumes there is no relationship or effect between the variables being studied. In this case, the statement suggests that the null hypothesis predicts no observable effect on the dependent variable (DV). Therefore, the correct answer is true, as the null hypothesis assumes no effect on the DV.

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  • 11. 

    Validity means that the results of an experiment match your hypothesis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Validity: you must be measuring what you think you’re measuring. eg. Is there anything else causing behaviour of DV?

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  • 12. 

    The experimental group is the group carrying out the experiment in which the IV is present, e.g., smoking.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The experimental group is the group that carries out the experiment with the independent variable (IV) present. This means that they are exposed to the factor being tested, such as smoking in this case. Therefore, the statement "The experimental group is the group carrying out the experiment in which the IV is present, e.g., smoking" is true.

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  • 13. 

    Generalization is

    • A.

      Being sure that views can be applied to the whole population e.g. results from 10 people cannot be applied to whole population.

    • B.

      Making a general summary of an experiment.

    • C.

      Summing up the views of most psychologists.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Being sure that views can be applied to the whole population e.g. results from 10 people cannot be applied to whole population.
    Explanation
    Generalization is the act of drawing conclusions or making statements that can be applied to a larger population based on a smaller sample or set of observations. It involves inferring or extrapolating information from a limited number of cases to a larger group. In this context, generalization refers to the understanding that the views, results, or findings obtained from a small sample size, such as 10 people, cannot be reliably applied to the entire population. It recognizes the need for larger and more representative samples to ensure the validity and applicability of research findings.

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  • 14. 

    The experimenter effect is when characteristics of an experimenter affect the behavior of participants e.g., race, age, sex, general behavior, etc.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The experimenter effect refers to the influence that the characteristics and behavior of the experimenter can have on the participants' behavior in an experiment. This means that factors such as the experimenter's race, age, sex, and general behavior can impact how participants respond or behave during the study. Therefore, the given statement is true, as it accurately describes the concept of the experimenter effect.

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  • 15. 

    Types of extraneous variables

    • A.

      Participant

    • B.

      Audio

    • C.

      Visual

    • D.

      Situational/environmental

    • E.

      Investigator

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Participant
    D. Situational/environmental
    E. Investigator
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes three types of extraneous variables: participant, situational/environmental, and investigator. Participant variables refer to individual characteristics or traits that may influence the outcome of the study. Situational/environmental variables involve the context or setting in which the study takes place, which can impact the results. Investigator variables pertain to the actions or biases of the researcher that may introduce error or influence the findings. These three types of extraneous variables need to be controlled or accounted for in order to ensure the validity and reliability of the study.

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  • 16. 

    The three conditions of an experiment are:

    • A.

      Generalisation, replication, validity

    • B.

      Ethical adherence, controlled conditions, replication

    • C.

      Replication, accurate reporting, controlled conditions

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Generalisation, replication, validity
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Generalisation, replication, validity". These three conditions are essential for a valid experiment. Generalisation refers to the ability to apply the findings of the experiment to a larger population or real-world situations. Replication means that the experiment can be repeated by other researchers to ensure the reliability of the results. Validity ensures that the experiment measures what it intends to measure and that the results are accurate and meaningful. Therefore, these three conditions are crucial for ensuring the credibility and usefulness of an experiment.

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  • 17. 

    The Hawthorne effect refers to when participants feel ________ because they are participating in the experiment, and this ________ their behavior makes them try hard. George Elton Mayo, Western Electric Company, Illinois.

    Correct Answer
    special
    alters
    Explanation
    The Hawthorne effect refers to when participants feel special because they are participating in the experiment, and this alters their behavior makes them try hard. This effect was discovered by George Elton Mayo at the Western Electric Company in Illinois.

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  • 18. 

    Experimenter bias is when an experimenter is biased in his/her choice of participants.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Experimenter’s expectations affect the participants actions and performance.

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  • 19. 

    A Confounding variable is an extraneous variable that affects one or more conditions of the experiment but not all. As such, it DEFINITELY affects IV. Extraneous variables may not cause an effect.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A confounding variable is an extraneous variable that affects one or more conditions of the experiment but not all. This means that it definitely affects the independent variable (IV) in some way. However, it does not necessarily cause an effect on the dependent variable (DV) or the outcome of the experiment. Therefore, the statement "True" accurately reflects this explanation.

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  • 20. 

    Random sampling refers to when all people in a target population have an equal chance of being selected for an experiment. Researcher may put all names in a hat, for example, or use a computer program to randomly select a certain number of names.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Random sampling refers to the process of selecting individuals from a population in a way that gives everyone an equal chance of being chosen. This method is commonly used in research studies to ensure that the sample is representative of the larger population. By randomly selecting participants, researchers can minimize bias and increase the generalizability of their findings. Therefore, the statement that random sampling refers to when all people in a target population have an equal chance of being selected for an experiment is true.

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  • 21. 

    Stratified random sampling is when the population is organized into groups based on social classification.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Designed to make sample truly representative of population. Breaks whole population down into sub-groups and makes sure that sub groups in sample are in proportion with population e.g. 10% red heads in population:1 in 10 red heads in group.

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  • 22. 

    Quota sampling is similar to Stratified Random Sampling, but the researcher will then pick participants from within each pre-identified sub-group.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Quota sampling is indeed similar to stratified random sampling, as both methods involve dividing the population into sub-groups. However, in quota sampling, the researcher selects participants from within each sub-group based on certain pre-determined criteria or quotas. This allows for a more targeted and representative sample, as the researcher ensures that each sub-group is adequately represented in the sample. Therefore, the statement "Quota sampling is similar to Stratified Random Sampling, but the researcher will then pick participants from within each pre-identified sub-group" is true.

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  • 23. 

    Demand characteristics refer to when searching for cues in an experimental environment to work out how to behave. They then behave in a ________ way because they think the experiment ________ this.

    Correct Answer
    artificial
    demands
    Explanation
    Demand characteristics refer to the cues or hints that participants in an experiment pick up on in order to understand how they should behave. In this case, the cues or cues in the experimental environment make the participants believe that the experiment is not a natural or real-life situation, but rather an artificial or contrived situation. As a result, they adjust their behavior to meet the demands or expectations of the experiment, which may not reflect their true behavior in a natural setting.

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  • 24. 

    Researcher has the whole population and then chooses a systematic method to select participants e.g., every tenth person on the list.

    • A.

      Random sampling

    • B.

      Stratified random sampling

    • C.

      Quota sampling

    • D.

      Systematic sampling

    • E.

      Opportunity sampling

    • F.

      Self-selected/volunteer sampling

    Correct Answer
    D. Systematic sampling
    Explanation
    Systematic sampling is the correct answer because it involves selecting participants from a population using a systematic method, such as choosing every tenth person on a list. This method ensures that the sample is representative of the population and reduces the chances of bias. It is a more structured approach compared to other sampling methods like random sampling, stratified random sampling, quota sampling, opportunity sampling, and self-selected/volunteer sampling.

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  • 25. 

    Quickest, cheapest, easiest. The researcher simply selects those that are willing and available e.g., stopping people in the street. This may result in the researcher being influenced by personality, looks, etc.

    • A.

      Random sampling

    • B.

      Self-selected/volunteer sampling

    • C.

      Stratified random sampling

    • D.

      Quota sampling

    • E.

      Systematic sampling

    • F.

      Opportunity sampling

    Correct Answer
    F. Opportunity sampling
    Explanation
    Opportunity sampling refers to a non-probability sampling technique where the researcher selects individuals who are readily available and willing to participate in the study. In this method, the researcher takes advantage of the opportunity to include individuals who are easily accessible, such as stopping people in the street. However, this sampling method may introduce bias as the researcher's choice may be influenced by factors like personality or looks. Therefore, the correct answer is opportunity sampling.

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  • 26. 

    A laboratory experiment takes place only in a science building.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Happens indoors in controlled laboratory conditions. Low ecological validity but allows experimenter to control situational and participant variables as much as possible.

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  • 27. 

    Laboratory experiment advantages

    • A.

      Shows clear cause and effect

    • B.

      Helps experiment seem more authentic to participants

    • C.

      Easy to control extraneous variables

    • D.

      Objective nature ensures validity

    • E.

      Ensures participant compliance

    • F.

      More ethical

    • G.

      Allows easy replication

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Shows clear cause and effect
    C. Easy to control extraneous variables
    D. Objective nature ensures validity
    G. Allows easy replication
    Explanation
    Laboratory experiments have several advantages. Firstly, they show clear cause and effect relationships between variables, making it easier to establish a direct link between the independent and dependent variables. Secondly, the controlled environment of a laboratory helps the experiment appear more authentic to participants, increasing their engagement and reducing demand characteristics. Thirdly, it is easier to control extraneous variables in a laboratory setting, ensuring that they do not influence the results. Additionally, the objective nature of laboratory experiments enhances their validity, as they are less prone to bias. Lastly, laboratory experiments allow for easy replication, enabling other researchers to validate the findings and build upon them.

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  • 28. 

    Laboratory experiment disadvantages

    • A.

      Low ecological validity

    • B.

      Hard to attract participants

    • C.

      Control of all random variables is impossible

    • D.

      Risk of demand characteristics / Hawthorne effect

    • E.

      Hard to find suitable place for experiment

    • F.

      Possible sampling bias

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Low ecological validity
    C. Control of all random variables is impossible
    D. Risk of demand characteristics / Hawthorne effect
    F. Possible sampling bias
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a combination of the disadvantages mentioned in the question. Low ecological validity refers to the lack of real-world applicability of the findings from a laboratory experiment. Control of all random variables is impossible, meaning that it is difficult to eliminate all potential confounding factors that could influence the results. The risk of demand characteristics or the Hawthorne effect refers to participants altering their behavior due to being aware that they are being observed. Possible sampling bias means that the sample used in the experiment may not be representative of the larger population. These factors collectively contribute to the limitations and drawbacks of laboratory experiments.

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  • 29. 

    Field experiment: takes place indoors or out but ALWAYS in a real-life situation e.g., playground, office, shop, etc.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A field experiment is a type of research study that is conducted in a real-life setting, such as a playground, office, or shop. It can take place both indoors and outdoors, but the key characteristic is that it always occurs in a real-life situation. This distinguishes field experiments from other types of experiments that may be conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. Therefore, the statement that a field experiment always takes place in a real-life situation is true.

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  • 30. 

    Field experiment advantages

    • A.

      Takes place in fields

    • B.

      Greater ecological validity

    • C.

      Demand characteristics minimised

    • D.

      Easier to attract participants

    • E.

      Avoids sampling bias – more representative sampling

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Greater ecological validity
    C. Demand characteristics minimised
    E. Avoids sampling bias – more representative sampling
    Explanation
    The advantages of conducting a field experiment include greater ecological validity, as the experiment takes place in real-world settings, allowing for more realistic results. Additionally, demand characteristics are minimized, meaning that participants are less likely to alter their behavior due to the experimental setting. Furthermore, field experiments help avoid sampling bias by allowing for more representative sampling, as participants are more likely to be diverse and representative of the population of interest.

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  • 31. 

    Participants are those who have responded to advertisements or requests for volunteers. The problem is that participants will usually have a reason for wanting to apply and thus are not truly representative.

    • A.

      Random sampling

    • B.

      Self-selected/volunteer sampling

    • C.

      Opportunity sampling

    • D.

      Stratified random sampling

    • E.

      Quota sampling

    • F.

      Systematic sampling

    Correct Answer
    B. Self-selected/volunteer sampling
    Explanation
    Self-selected/volunteer sampling is the correct answer because it refers to a sampling method where individuals choose to participate in a study or survey. In this case, the participants responded to advertisements or requests for volunteers. However, this sampling method can lead to biased results because those who choose to participate may have different characteristics or motivations compared to the general population. Therefore, the sample may not be truly representative of the population, which can limit the generalizability of the findings.

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  • 32. 

    Field experiment disadvantages

    • A.

      Hard to keep order with participants

    • B.

      Less control of extraneous variables

    • C.

      Difficult to replicate

    • D.

      Harder to document

    • E.

      Possible ethical concerns over consent, privacy etc

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Less control of extraneous variables
    C. Difficult to replicate
    E. Possible ethical concerns over consent, privacy etc
    Explanation
    The answer is correct because field experiments often take place in real-world settings, making it challenging to control or eliminate external factors that may influence the results. This lack of control over extraneous variables reduces the internal validity of the study. Additionally, field experiments can be difficult to replicate due to the unique conditions and contexts in which they are conducted. Finally, ethical concerns may arise in field experiments regarding obtaining informed consent from participants and ensuring their privacy and confidentiality.

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  • 33. 

    This experiment type takes place in an entirely natural setting and contains no I.V.

    • A.

      Field experiment

    • B.

      Quasi / natural experiment

    • C.

      Laboratory experiment

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Quasi / natural experiment
    Explanation
    A quasi/natural experiment is the correct answer because it is an experiment type that takes place in a natural setting and does not involve an independent variable (I.V.). In this type of experiment, the researcher observes and measures the effects of naturally occurring factors or events on the dependent variable (D.V.). Unlike a laboratory experiment, there is no manipulation of variables or control over the experimental conditions. Therefore, a quasi/natural experiment is the most suitable explanation for this scenario.

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  • 34. 

    Independent measure design is when.

    • A.

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • B.

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • C.

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is participants undergo only one condition of the experiment and are randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. This design is good when there are only two groups and does not take participant variables into account. This is referring to an independent measure design, where participants are only exposed to one condition and are randomly assigned to groups. This design is useful when there are only two groups and helps to control for participant variables.

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  • 35. 

    Repeated measure design is when.

    • A.

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • B.

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.

    • C.

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into the same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. This design, known as a within-subjects design or repeated measures design, allows each participant to serve as their own control, eliminating participant variables. It is good for studying the effects of different conditions on the same group of participants. Counterbalancing is required to control for order effects. This design provides greater accuracy than independent measures design as it removes order effects and allows for direct comparison within participants.

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  • 36. 

    Matched pair design is when.

    • A.

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.

    • B.

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • C.

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.
    Explanation
    Matched pair design is a research design where participants are matched with someone who has a similar score on a pre-decided test or displays a similar personality trait. This matching process helps to eliminate participant variables and ensures that the groups are as similar as possible. Identical twins are considered the ultimate matched pairs. After the matching process, the participants are split between two conditions in an experiment, which helps to remove order effects and provides greater accuracy compared to independent measure design.

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  • 37. 

    Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect. What is this?

    • A.

      Boredom factor

    • B.

      Counterbalancing

    • C.

      Experimenter effect

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Counterbalancing
    Explanation
    Counterbalancing is the correct answer because it refers to a method used in repeated measure design experiments where participants are split into groups and perform the conditions of the experiment in alternating order. This helps to combat order effects such as boredom and practice effects, ensuring that the results are not influenced by the order in which the conditions are presented.

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  • 38. 

    The Boredom effect

    • A.

      Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect.

    • B.

      Participant performs better in subsequent conditions of same experiment.

    • C.

      Participant’s behaviour is affected by the fact that they have already been through one or more condition of the same experiment. Meaning they may be more or less likely to behave in a certain way.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Participant’s behaviour is affected by the fact that they have already been through one or more condition of the same experiment. Meaning they may be more or less likely to behave in a certain way.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the participant's behavior is affected by the fact that they have already been through one or more conditions of the same experiment, meaning they may be more or less likely to behave in a certain way. This explanation aligns with the concept of the boredom effect, where participants may become bored or fatigued after performing the same task multiple times, leading to a change in their behavior. By using a repeated measure design and alternating the order of conditions, researchers aim to combat order effects such as the boredom effect and practice effect.

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  • 39. 

    Practice effect

    • A.

      Participant performs better in subsequent conditions of same experiment.

    • B.

      Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect.

    • C.

      Participant’s behaviour is affected by the fact that they have already been through one or more condition of the same experiment. Meaning they may be more or less likely to behave in a certain way.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Participant performs better in subsequent conditions of same experiment.
    Explanation
    The practice effect refers to the phenomenon where participants perform better in subsequent conditions of the same experiment. This effect is observed when using a repeated measure design, where participants are split into groups and perform the conditions of the experiment in alternating order. By doing so, it helps to combat order effects such as boredom and practice effects. The participant's behavior is influenced by the fact that they have already experienced one or more conditions of the experiment, making them more or less likely to behave in a certain way. Therefore, all of the above statements accurately describe the practice effect.

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  • 40. 

    Independent measure design advantages

    • A.

      Cheap, quick, easy

    • B.

      Rules out individual differences

    • C.

      No order effects

    • D.

      Good for experiments where participants are misled or surprised

    • E.

      Slower for participants

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cheap, quick, easy
    C. No order effects
    D. Good for experiments where participants are misled or surprised
    Explanation
    The independent measure design has several advantages. Firstly, it is cheap, quick, and easy to implement. Secondly, it rules out individual differences, ensuring that any observed effects are due to the independent variable rather than participant characteristics. Additionally, this design eliminates order effects, which can occur when the order of conditions affects participants' responses. Lastly, the independent measure design is particularly useful for experiments where participants may be misled or surprised, as it allows for a more controlled manipulation of the independent variable. However, one drawback is that it can be slower for participants as they need to complete multiple conditions.

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  • 41. 

    Independent measure design disadvantages

    • A.

      Less control over participant variables

    • B.

      A lot of participants needed to make up groups

    • C.

      Participant differences can effect data

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The independent measure design has several disadvantages. Firstly, it provides less control over participant variables, meaning that there is a higher chance of individual differences influencing the results. Secondly, this design requires a large number of participants to create different groups, which can be time-consuming and costly. Lastly, participant differences can indeed affect the data, leading to potential confounding variables. Therefore, all of the mentioned options are valid disadvantages of the independent measure design.

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  • 42. 

    Repeated measure design advantages

    • A.

      Eliminates individual differences of participants

    • B.

      Quickest design

    • C.

      More fun for participants

    • D.

      More data with small sample

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Eliminates individual differences of participants
    D. More data with small sample
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Eliminates individual differences of participants" and "More data with small sample". In a repeated measure design, the same group of participants is tested under different conditions or at different time points. This design helps eliminate the individual differences among participants as each participant serves as their own control. Additionally, because the same participants are tested multiple times, more data can be collected with a smaller sample size, leading to more statistical power and efficiency in the study.

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  • 43. 

    No manipulation of IV, takes place entirely in natural setting.

    • A.

      Field experiment

    • B.

      Quasi / natural experiment

    • C.

      Laboratory experiment

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Quasi / natural experiment
    Explanation
    A quasi/natural experiment is the most appropriate explanation because it involves conducting an experiment in a natural setting without manipulating the independent variable. This means that the researchers are observing and studying a phenomenon that occurs naturally, without any interference or control over the variables. In this type of experiment, the researchers take advantage of existing conditions or events to gather data and draw conclusions about cause and effect relationships. It is different from a field experiment, which involves manipulating the independent variable, and a laboratory experiment, which is conducted in a controlled environment.

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  • 44. 

    Independent measure design

    • A.

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • B.

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • C.

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.
    Explanation
    This answer correctly identifies the independent measure design as the option that involves participants undergoing only one condition of the experiment and being randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. It also mentions that this design is suitable when there are only two groups. Additionally, it acknowledges that this design does not take into account participant variables in each group.

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  • 45. 

    Repeated measure design disadvantages

    • A.

      Cannot be used when participants HAVE to be different e.g. men and women

    • B.

      Hard to measure

    • C.

      Problem of order effects means a need for counterbalancing

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cannot be used when participants HAVE to be different e.g. men and women
    C. Problem of order effects means a need for counterbalancing
    Explanation
    A repeated measure design involves using the same participants for multiple conditions or treatments. One disadvantage of this design is that it cannot be used when participants have to be different, such as when studying the effects of gender. In such cases, it would be necessary to use a between-subjects design instead. Additionally, repeated measure designs can be difficult to measure accurately, as they require multiple measurements from the same participants. Furthermore, there is a problem of order effects, where the order in which the conditions are presented can influence the results. To address this issue, counterbalancing is needed to ensure that each condition is equally distributed across participants. Therefore, the correct answer is that all of these are disadvantages of a repeated measure design.

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  • 46. 

    Repeated measure design

    • A.

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • B.

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.

    • C.

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into the same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. This design is known as a repeated measure design and is good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required to ensure that the order in which the conditions are presented does not affect the results. This design allows for each participant to serve as their own control, increasing the accuracy of the results.

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  • 47. 

    Matched pair design advantages

    • A.

      Good for misleading experiments

    • B.

      Minimal problems with individual differences

    • C.

      No order effects

    • D.

      All of above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of above
    Explanation
    The matched pair design is advantageous because it reduces the impact of individual differences between participants, which can lead to more accurate results. Additionally, it helps to eliminate order effects, which occur when the order in which participants experience different conditions affects their responses. Lastly, the matched pair design is also useful for conducting misleading experiments, where participants are intentionally misled to study their reactions and behaviors. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above" as it encompasses all the advantages mentioned.

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  • 48. 

    Matched pair design

    • A.

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.

    • B.

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • C.

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.
    Explanation
    The matched pair design involves matching participants based on similar scores or specific personality traits and then splitting them into different conditions of an experiment. This design helps eliminate participant variables and order effects, leading to greater accuracy compared to independent measure design. Identical twins are considered the ultimate matched pairs.

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  • 49. 

    Matched pair design disadvantages

    • A.

      Can never be sure that participants are perfectly matched

    • B.

      Almost impossible to find twins

    • C.

      A lot of participants needed to make up two groups

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Can never be sure that participants are perfectly matched
    C. A lot of participants needed to make up two groups
    Explanation
    The matched pair design has the disadvantage of never being able to ensure that participants are perfectly matched. This is because it is almost impossible to find twins or individuals who are exactly alike in all relevant characteristics. Additionally, a large number of participants are needed to create two groups for comparison in this design. These factors make the matched pair design less practical and reliable compared to other research designs.

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  • 50. 

    Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect.

    • A.

      Boredom factor

    • B.

      Counterbalancing

    • C.

      Experimenter effect

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Counterbalancing
    Explanation
    Counterbalancing is the correct answer because it refers to a technique used in repeated measure design experiments where participants are split into groups and perform the conditions in alternating order. This helps to combat order effects such as boredom effect and practice effect. By counterbalancing the order of conditions, researchers can ensure that any effects observed are not due to the order in which the conditions were presented.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jan 27, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 07, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Tobee1
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