Psychology Research Methods

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Psychology Research Method Quizzes & Trivia

Quiz on psychological research methods. Revision for Scottish higher psychology.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The I.V. is the variable which is being measured by the experimenter.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    Any effect will be down to 
  • 3. 
    AThe D.V. is the variable which is being manipulated by the experimenter.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 4. 
    List the steps for the complete research process.
    • A. 

      Theory

    • B. 

      Hypothesis

    • C. 

      Method

    • D. 

      Sample

    • E. 

      Practice

    • F. 

      Interpretation of results

    • G. 

      Conclusion

    • H. 

      Revise theory if necessary

  • 5. 
    One tailed/directional hypothesis predicts an affect on the DV but does not say in which direction.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    Two tailed/non-directional hypothesis predicts an effect on the DV but doesn’t say in which direction. eg. Being bullied at school will affect exam performance.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    An experiment is where the experimenter manipulates the IV to see if it has an effect on the DV. It is the method of choice in psychology.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    Operationalisation: the attempt to define a variable in order to measure it effectively, defining what is meant by the variable.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    The three conditions of an experiment are:
    • A. 

      Generalisation, replication, validity

    • B. 

      Ethical adherence, controlled conditions, replication

    • C. 

      Replication, accurate reporting, controlled conditions

  • 10. 
    The experimental hypothesis predicts what the IV will be.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    Replication means an experiment must be set down in easy to follow steps so anyone can repeat experiment with same results.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    The Null hypothesis predicts no observable effect on the DV. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    Any effect will be down to 
  • 14. 
    Validity means that the results of an experiment match your hypothesis.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    The experimental group is the group carrying out the experiment in which the IV is present eg. smoking.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    One tailed/directional hypothesis predicts an affect on the DV but does not say in which direction.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Generalisation is
    • A. 

      Being sure that views can be applied to the whole population e.g. results from 10 people cannot be applied to whole population.

    • B. 

      Making a general summary of an experiment.

    • C. 

      Summing up the views of most psychologists.

  • 18. 
    Two tailed/non-directional hypothesis predicts an effect on the DV but doesn’t say in which direction. eg. Being bullied at school will affect exam performance.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    The experimenter effect is when characteristics of an experimenter affect the behaviour of participants e.g. race, age, sex, general behaviour etc.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    An experiment is where the experimenter manipulates the IV to see if it has an effect on the DV. It is the method of choice in psychology.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    Types of extraneous variables
    • A. 

      Participant

    • B. 

      Audio

    • C. 

      Visual

    • D. 

      Situational/environmental

    • E. 

      Investigator

  • 22. 
    The three conditions of an experiment are:
    • A. 

      Generalisation, replication, validity

    • B. 

      Ethical adherence, controlled conditions, replication

    • C. 

      Replication, accurate reporting, controlled conditions

  • 23. 
    Replication means an experiment must be set down in easy to follow steps so anyone can repeat experiment with same results.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Demand characteristics refers to when search for cues in experimental environment to work out how to behave. They then behave in an  way because they think the experiment     this.
  • 25. 
    Validity means that the results of an experiment match your hypothesis.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 26. 
    The Hawthorne effect refers to when participants feel         because they are participating in the experiment and this        their behaviour-makes them try hard. George Elton Mayo, Western Electric Company, Illinois.
  • 27. 
    The experimental group is the group carrying out the experiment in which the IV is present eg. smoking.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 28. 
    Experimenter bias is when an experimenter is biased in his/her choice of participants.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    Generalisation is
    • A. 

      Being sure that views can be applied to the whole population e.g. results from 10 people cannot be applied to whole population.

    • B. 

      Making a general summary of an experiment.

    • C. 

      Summing up the views of most psychologists.

  • 30. 
    A Confounding variable is an extraneous variable that affects one or more conditions of the experiment but not all, as such it DEFINITELY affects IV. Extraneous variable may not cause an effect.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 31. 
    Random sampling refers to when all people in a target population have an equal chance of being selected for an experiment. Researcher may put all names in a hat, for example or use computer program to randomly select certain number of names.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 32. 
    The experimenter effect is when characteristics of an experimenter affect the behaviour of participants e.g. race, age, sex, general behaviour etc.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 33. 
    Stratified random sampling is when the population is organised into groups based on social classification.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 34. 
    Types of extraneous variables
    • A. 

      Participant

    • B. 

      Audio

    • C. 

      Visual

    • D. 

      Situational/environmental

    • E. 

      Investigator

  • 35. 
    Quota sampling is similar to Stratified Random Sampling but researcher will then pick participants from within each pre-identified sub-group.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
    Demand characteristics refers to when search for cues in experimental environment to work out how to behave. They then behave in an  way because they think the experiment     this.
  • 37. 
    Researcher has whole population and then chooses a systematic method to select participants e.g. every tenth person on list.
    • A. 

      Random sampling

    • B. 

      Stratified random sampling

    • C. 

      Quota sampling

    • D. 

      Systematic sampling

    • E. 

      Opportunity sampling

    • F. 

      Self-selected/volunteer sampling

  • 38. 
    The Hawthorne effect refers to when participants feel         because they are participating in the experiment and this        their behaviour-makes them try hard. George Elton Mayo, Western Electric Company, Illinois.
  • 39. 
    Experimenter bias is when an experimenter is biased in his/her choice of participants.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 40. 
    Quickest, cheapest, easiest. Researcher simply selects those that are willing and available e.g. stopping people in the street. This may result in researcher being influenced by personality, looks etc.
    • A. 

      Random sampling

    • B. 

      Self-selected/volunteer sampling

    • C. 

      Stratified random sampling

    • D. 

      Quota sampling

    • E. 

      Systematic sampling

    • F. 

      Opportunity sampling

  • 41. 
    A Confounding variable is an extraneous variable that affects one or more conditions of the experiment but not all, as such it DEFINITELY affects IV. Extraneous variable may not cause an effect.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 42. 
    Participants are those who have responded to advertisements or requests for volunteers. Problem is that participants will usually have a reason for wanting to apply and thus are not truly representative.
    • A. 

      Random sampling

    • B. 

      Self-selected/volunteer sampling

    • C. 

      Opportunity sampling

    • D. 

      Stratified random sampling

    • E. 

      Quota sampling

    • F. 

      Systematic sampling

  • 43. 
    Random sampling refers to when all people in a target population have an equal chance of being selected for an experiment. Researcher may put all names in a hat, for example or use computer program to randomly select certain number of names.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 44. 
    A laboratory experiment takes place only in a science building.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 45. 
    Stratified random sampling is when the population is organised into groups based on social classification.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 46. 
    Quota sampling is similar to Stratified Random Sampling but researcher will then pick participants from within each pre-identified sub-group.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 47. 
    Laboratory experiment advantages
    • A. 

      Shows clear cause and effect

    • B. 

      Helps experiment seem more authentic to participants

    • C. 

      Easy to control extraneous variables

    • D. 

      Objective nature ensures validity

    • E. 

      Ensures participant compliance

    • F. 

      More ethical

    • G. 

      Allows easy replication

  • 48. 
    Researcher has whole population and then chooses a systematic method to select participants e.g. every tenth person on list.
    • A. 

      Random sampling

    • B. 

      Stratified random sampling

    • C. 

      Quota sampling

    • D. 

      Systematic sampling

    • E. 

      Opportunity sampling

    • F. 

      Self-selected/volunteer sampling

  • 49. 
    Laboratory experiment disadvantages
    • A. 

      Low ecological validity

    • B. 

      Hard to attract participants

    • C. 

      Control of all random variables is impossible

    • D. 

      Risk of demand characteristics / Hawthorne effect

    • E. 

      Hard to find suitable place for experiment

    • F. 

      Possible sampling bias

  • 50. 
    Field experiment: takes place indoors or out but ALWAYS in a real life situation e.g. playground, office, shop etc.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 51. 
    Quickest, cheapest, easiest. Researcher simply selects those that are willing and available e.g. stopping people in the street. This may result in researcher being influenced by personality, looks etc.
    • A. 

      Random sampling

    • B. 

      Self-selected/volunteer sampling

    • C. 

      Stratified random sampling

    • D. 

      Quota sampling

    • E. 

      Systematic sampling

    • F. 

      Opportunity sampling

  • 52. 
    Field experiment advantages
    • A. 

      Takes place in fields

    • B. 

      Greater ecological validity

    • C. 

      Demand characteristics minimised

    • D. 

      Easier to attract participants

    • E. 

      Avoids sampling bias – more representative sampling

  • 53. 
    Participants are those who have responded to advertisements or requests for volunteers. Problem is that participants will usually have a reason for wanting to apply and thus are not truly representative.
    • A. 

      Random sampling

    • B. 

      Self-selected/volunteer sampling

    • C. 

      Opportunity sampling

    • D. 

      Stratified random sampling

    • E. 

      Quota sampling

    • F. 

      Systematic sampling

  • 54. 
    Field experiment disadvantages
    • A. 

      Hard to keep order with participants

    • B. 

      Less control of extraneous variables

    • C. 

      Difficult to replicate

    • D. 

      Harder to document

    • E. 

      Possible ethical concerns over consent, privacy etc

  • 55. 
    A laboratory experiment takes place only in a science building.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 56. 
    This experiment type takes place in an entirely natural setting and contains no I.V.
    • A. 

      Field experiment

    • B. 

      Quasi / natural experiment

    • C. 

      Laboratory experiment

  • 57. 
    Laboratory experiment advantages
    • A. 

      Shows clear cause and effect

    • B. 

      Helps experiment seem more authentic to participants

    • C. 

      Easy to control extraneous variables

    • D. 

      Objective nature ensures validity

    • E. 

      Ensures participant compliance

    • F. 

      More ethical

    • G. 

      Allows easy replication

  • 58. 
    Independent measure design is when...
    • A. 

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • B. 

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • C. 

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables.

  • 59. 
    Repeated measure design is when...
    • A. 

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • B. 

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.

    • C. 

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

  • 60. 
    Laboratory experiment disadvantages
    • A. 

      Low ecological validity

    • B. 

      Hard to attract participants

    • C. 

      Control of all random variables is impossible

    • D. 

      Risk of demand characteristics / Hawthorne effect

    • E. 

      Hard to find suitable place for experiment

    • F. 

      Possible sampling bias

  • 61. 
    Matched pair design is when...
    • A. 

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.

    • B. 

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • C. 

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

  • 62. 
    Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect. What is this?
    • A. 

      Boredom factor

    • B. 

      Counterbalancing

    • C. 

      Experimenter effect

  • 63. 
    Field experiment: takes place indoors or out but ALWAYS in a real life situation e.g. playground, office, shop etc.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 64. 
    The Boredom effect...
    • A. 

      Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect.

    • B. 

      Participant performs better in subsequent conditions of same experiment.

    • C. 

      Participant’s behaviour is affected by the fact that they have already been through one or more condition of the same experiment. Meaning they may be more or less likely to behave in a certain way.

  • 65. 
    Practice effect
    • A. 

      Participant performs better in subsequent conditions of same experiment.

    • B. 

      Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect.

    • C. 

      Participant’s behaviour is affected by the fact that they have already been through one or more condition of the same experiment. Meaning they may be more or less likely to behave in a certain way.

  • 66. 
    Field experiment advantages
    • A. 

      Takes place in fields

    • B. 

      Greater ecological validity

    • C. 

      Demand characteristics minimised

    • D. 

      Easier to attract participants

    • E. 

      Avoids sampling bias – more representative sampling

  • 67. 
    Independent measure design advantages
    • A. 

      Cheap, quick, easy

    • B. 

      Rules out individual differences

    • C. 

      No order effects

    • D. 

      Good for experiments where participants are misled or surprised

    • E. 

      Slower for participants

  • 68. 
    Independent measure design disadvantages
    • A. 

      Less control over participant variables

    • B. 

      A lot of participants needed to make up groups

    • C. 

      Participant differences can effect data

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 69. 
    Field experiment disadvantages
    • A. 

      Hard to keep order with participants

    • B. 

      Less control of extraneous variables

    • C. 

      Difficult to replicate

    • D. 

      Harder to document

    • E. 

      Possible ethical concerns over consent, privacy etc

  • 70. 
    Repeated measure design advantages
    • A. 

      Eliminates individual differences of participants

    • B. 

      Quickest design

    • C. 

      More fun for participants

    • D. 

      More data with small sample

  • 71. 
    No manipulation of IV, takes place entirely in natural setting.
    • A. 

      Field experiment

    • B. 

      Quasi / natural experiment

    • C. 

      Laboratory experiment

  • 72. 
    Independent measure design
    • A. 

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • B. 

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • C. 

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables.

  • 73. 
    Repeated measure design disadvantages
    • A. 

      Cannot be used when participants HAVE to be different e.g. men and women

    • B. 

      Hard to measure

    • C. 

      Problem of order effects means a need for counterbalancing

  • 74. 
    Repeated measure design
    • A. 

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

    • B. 

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.

    • C. 

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

  • 75. 
    Matched pair design advantages
    • A. 

      Good for misleading experiments

    • B. 

      Minimal problems with individual differences

    • C. 

      No order effects

    • D. 

      All of above

  • 76. 
    Matched pair design
    • A. 

      Participants experience all conditions of an experiment one after the other, they are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment. They are therefore tested against themselves. Good for eliminating participant variables. Counterbalancing is required.

    • B. 

      Participants are matched with someone with the same/similar score in a pre-decided test for example. Or someone who displays a similar particular personality trait. Identical twins are ultimate matched pairs. They are then split between two conditions in an experiment. This removes order effects and gives greater accuracy than independent measure design.

    • C. 

      Participants undergo only one condition of the experiment. Randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Good when there are only two groups. Doesn’t take participant variables in each group into account.

  • 77. 
    Matched pair design disadvantages
    • A. 

      Can never be sure that participants are perfectly matched

    • B. 

      Almost impossible to find twins

    • C. 

      A lot of participants needed to make up two groups

  • 78. 
    Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect.
    • A. 

      Boredom factor

    • B. 

      Counterbalancing

    • C. 

      Experimenter effect

  • 79. 
    Quantatitve data often provides           data. Can be easily represented with charts, graphs, etc.
  • 80. 
    Boredom effect
    • A. 

      Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect.

    • B. 

      Participant performs better in subsequent conditions of same experiment.

    • C. 

      Participant’s behaviour is affected by the fact that they have already been through one or more condition of the same experiment. Meaning they may be more or less likely to behave in a certain way.

  • 81. 
    Highly detailed, emotional data, usually gathered from in-deapth interviews etc.
    • A. 

      Quantative data

    • B. 

      Qualitative data

    • C. 

      Closed questions

  • 82. 
    Practice effect
    • A. 

      Participant performs better in subsequent conditions of same experiment.

    • B. 

      Must be used with REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN EXPERIMENTS. Participants are split into same number of groups as there are conditions in the experiment and they then perform these in alternating order e.g. Group A, condition 4; Group B condition 2; Group C, condition 1; Group D, condition 3 etc. The groups then swap round. This aims to combat order effects e.g. boredom effect and practice effect.

    • C. 

      Participant’s behaviour is affected by the fact that they have already been through one or more condition of the same experiment. Meaning they may be more or less likely to behave in a certain way.

  • 83. 
    The Likert scale
    • A. 

      Indicates the strength of a response e.g. scale of 1 to 10

    • B. 

      A musical scale to measure agreement

    • C. 

      John Likert's scale model of a brain

  • 84. 
    Independent measure design advantages
    • A. 

      Cheap, quick, easy

    • B. 

      Rules out individual differences

    • C. 

      No order effects

    • D. 

      Good for experiments where participants are misled or surprised

    • E. 

      Slower for participants

  • 85. 
    An initial study carried out to see whether a subsequent more detailed study is worthwhile is called a            .
  • 86. 
    Giving socially desirable answers to questions in surveys, interviews etc.
    • A. 

      Experimenter effect

    • B. 

      Boredom effect

    • C. 

      Aquiescence effect

  • 87. 
    Independent measure design disadvantages
    • A. 

      Less control over participant variables

    • B. 

      A lot of participants needed to make up groups

    • C. 

      Participant differences can effect data

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 88. 
    Interview schedule
    • A. 

      A list of questions to be asked. It standardises research.

    • B. 

      A timetable for interviewing participants

    • C. 

      A time limit for each interview

  • 89. 
    Repeated measure design advantages
    • A. 

      Eliminates individual differences of participants

    • B. 

      Quickest design

    • C. 

      More fun for participants

    • D. 

      More data with small sample

  • 90. 
    Sticking to a schedule with particular questions, responses outside these questions will not be recorded.
    • A. 

      Structured interview

    • B. 

      Unstructured interview

    • C. 

      Questionairre

  • 91. 
    Free-ranging questions, these do not need to be adhered to and participant can lead interview to some extent.
    • A. 

      Structured interview

    • B. 

      Unstructured interview

    • C. 

      Questionairre

  • 92. 
    Repeated measure design disadvantages
    • A. 

      Cannot be used when participants HAVE to be different e.g. men and women

    • B. 

      Hard to measure

    • C. 

      Problem of order effects means a need for counterbalancing

  • 93. 
    Interviews can create problem with                          . 
  • 94. 
    Matched pair design advantages
    • A. 

      Good for misleading experiments

    • B. 

      Minimal problems with individual differences

    • C. 

      No order effects

    • D. 

      All of above

  • 95. 
    Matched pair design disadvantages
    • A. 

      Can never be sure that participants are perfectly matched

    • B. 

      Almost impossible to find twins

    • C. 

      A lot of participants needed to make up two groups