Principles Of Biology I - Exam II - Chapters 6, 7, 8

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Biology Quizzes & Trivia

Pittsburg State UniversityPrinciples of Biology IFall, 2010 - Exam II - Chapters 6, 7, 8Dr. Wu


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      20 nm

    • B. 

      20 mm

    • C. 

      20 µm

    • D. 

      200 nm

    • E. 

      200 µm

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      Transmission Electron Microscope

    • B. 

      Scanning Electron Microscope

    • C. 

      Light Microscope

    • D. 

      Fischer Price Microscope

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 3. 
    • A. 

      Transmission Electron Microscope

    • B. 

      Scanning Electron Microscope

    • C. 

      Light Microscope

    • D. 

      Fischer Price Microscope

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      Bacteria, fungi, protists

    • B. 

      Bacteria and archaea

    • C. 

      Archaea and fungi

    • D. 

      Protists, fungi, animals and plants

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 5. 
    • A. 

      Bacteria, fungi, protists

    • B. 

      Bacteria and archaea

    • C. 

      Archaea and fungi

    • D. 

      Protists, fungi, animals and plants

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 6. 
    Prokaryotic cells:
    • A. 

      Do not have a nucleus

    • B. 

      Lack membrane-bound organelles

    • C. 

      Contain DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope

    • D. 

      Have membrane-bound organelles

    • E. 

      Contain DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid

  • 7. 
    • A. 

      Contain DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope

    • B. 

      Contain DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid

    • C. 

      Lack membrane-bound organelles

    • D. 

      Have membrane-bound organelles

    • E. 

      Do not have a nucleus

  • 8. 
    A phospholipid has a hydrophobic head and hydrophilic tails.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    • A. 

      Lysosomes

    • B. 

      Nucleus

    • C. 

      Mitochondrion

    • D. 

      Cytoskeleton

    • E. 

      Golgi apparatus

    • F. 

      Flagella

    • G. 

      Plasmodesmata

    • H. 

      Centrioles

  • 10. 
    What types of cellular organelles are present in plant cells but not animal cells?
    • A. 

      Chloroplasts

    • B. 

      Golgi apparatus

    • C. 

      Plasmodesmata

    • D. 

      Mitochondrion

    • E. 

      Centrioles

    • F. 

      Central vacuole and tonoplast

    • G. 

      Cell wall

  • 11. 
    • A. 

      The Cytoskeleton

    • B. 

      Mitochondria & Chloroplasts

    • C. 

      The Endomembrane System

    • D. 

      Ribosomes

    • E. 

      Nucleus

  • 12. 
    • A. 

      Lysosomes

    • B. 

      The Golgi Apparatus

    • C. 

      Vacuoles

    • D. 

      Ribosomes

    • E. 

      Mitochondria & Chloroplasts

  • 13. 
    What cellular organelle consists of microtubules, actin and intermediate filaments?
    • A. 

      The Cytoskeleton

    • B. 

      Mitochondria

    • C. 

      The Endomembrane System

    • D. 

      Ribosomes

    • E. 

      Extracellular structures

  • 14. 
    • A. 

      Lysosomes

    • B. 

      Vacuoles

    • C. 

      Endoplasmic Reticulum

    • D. 

      The Golgi Apparatus

    • E. 

      Actin

  • 15. 
    The nuclear envelope consists of what two membranes?
    • A. 

      Lamina

    • B. 

      Chromosomes

    • C. 

      Chromatin

    • D. 

      Pores

    • E. 

      Nucleoli

  • 16. 
    Chromatin condenses to form discrete _______________?
  • 17. 
    • A. 

      Enclose the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm

    • B. 

      Chromosome secretion

    • C. 

      Genetic material formation

    • D. 

      Ribosome synthesis

  • 18. 
    Where can ribosomes be found in the cell?
    • A. 

      Mitochondria

    • B. 

      Cytosol (free)

    • C. 

      The Golgi Apparatus

    • D. 

      Outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope (bound)

  • 19. 
    What are some characteristics and functions of smooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum)?
    • A. 

      Synthesize lipids

    • B. 

      Membrane factory for the cell

    • C. 

      Metabolize carbohydrates

    • D. 

      Distributes transport vesicles

    • E. 

      Stores calcium

    • F. 

      Detoxifies poison

    • G. 

      Has bound ribosomes, studding its surface

    • H. 

      Lacks ribosomes

  • 20. 
    What are characteristics and functions of rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum)?
    • A. 

      Synthesize lipids

    • B. 

      Membrane factory for the cell

    • C. 

      Metabolize carbohydrates

    • D. 

      Distributes transport vesicles

    • E. 

      Stores Calcium

    • F. 

      Detoxifies poison

    • G. 

      Has bound ribosomes, studding its surface

    • H. 

      Lacks ribosomes

  • 21. 
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accounts for what percentage of the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells?
    • A. 

      >20%

    • B. 

      >30%

    • C. 

      >40%

    • D. 

      >50%

    • E. 

      >60%

  • 22. 
    Smooth ER and Rough ER are the two distinct regions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    • A. 

      Metabolizes carbohydrates

    • B. 

      Stores calcium

    • C. 

      Modifies products of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

    • D. 

      Synthesizes the production of proteins

    • E. 

      Manufactures certain macromolecules

    • F. 

      Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles

  • 24. 
    The trans face is the "receiving" side of the Golgi apparatus and the cis face is the "shipping" side of the Golgi apparatus.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    Sacs of flattened membranous sacs are called ______________?
  • 26. 
    Lysosomes are the digestive compartments of the cell.
    • A. 

      False

    • B. 

      True

  • 27. 
    A lysosome is a membranous sac of hydrolitic enzymes that can digest what?
    • A. 

      Food, by hydrolyzing proteins, fats, polysaccharides & nucleic acids (phagocytosis)

    • B. 

      Damaged organelles and macromolecules (autophagy)

    • C. 

      Ribosomes

    • D. 

      Chromatin

  • 28. 
    A food vacuole:
    • A. 

      Is formed by phagocytosis

    • B. 

      Is found in many freshwater protists and pumps excess water out of cells

    • C. 

      Is found in many mature plant cells and holds organic compounds and water

  • 29. 
    A contractile vacuole:
    • A. 

      Is formed by phagocytosis

    • B. 

      Is found in many freshwater protists and pumps excess water out of cells

    • C. 

      Is found in many mature plant cells and holds organic compounds and water

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 30. 
    A central vacuole:
    • A. 

      Is formed by phagocytosis

    • B. 

      Is found in many freshwater protists and pumps excess water out of cells

    • C. 

      Is found in many mature plant cells and holds organic compounds and water

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 31. 
    What are the characteristics and functions of mitochondria?
    • A. 

      Present in almost all eukaryotic cells

    • B. 

      Have a smooth outer membrane and an inner membrane folded into cristae

    • C. 

      Present in almost all prokaryotic cells

    • D. 

      Inner membrane consists of of two compartments: intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix

    • E. 

      Cristae present a large surface area for enzymes that synthesize ATP

    • F. 

      Capture light energy

    • G. 

      Used for energy conversion

  • 32. 
    What are the primary components of chloroplasts?
    • A. 

      Chromatin, cytosol

    • B. 

      Thylakoids (stacked to form grana), stroma

    • C. 

      Cisternae, chromatin

    • D. 

      Thylakoids (stacked to form grana), cisternae

    • E. 

      Stroma, chromatin

  • 33. 
    ___________ are used to capture light energy.
  • 34. 
    The ________________ is known as the cellular highway system, consisting of a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm.
  • 35. 
    • A. 

      Protein synthesis

    • B. 

      Cellular support

    • C. 

      Digestion

    • D. 

      Motility - highway system

    • E. 

      Light energy capture

    • F. 

      Regulation of biochemical activities

  • 36. 
    What are the three components of the cytoskeleton?
    • A. 

      Chromatin, microtubules and actin filaments

    • B. 

      Microtubules, actin filaments and cisternae

    • C. 

      Vacuoles, intermediate filaments and actin filaments

    • D. 

      Microtubules, actin filaments and intermediate filaments

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 37. 
    • A. 

      False

    • B. 

      True

  • 38. 
    Actin filaments consist of two solid intertwined strands of actin, each a polymer of actin subunits approximately 7 nm in size and are responsible for cell shape, muscle contraction, cell mobility and cell division.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 39. 
    Plant cells have centrosomes but no centrioles.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 40. 
    The __________________ is the microtubule-organizing center.
  • 41. 
    Plasmodesmata are channels between adjacent plant cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 42. 
    What are the functions of the ECM (extracellular matrix) of animal cells?
    • A. 

      Waste disposal

    • B. 

      Support

    • C. 

      Cellular shape

    • D. 

      Adhesion

    • E. 

      Movement

    • F. 

      Motility

    • G. 

      Regulation

  • 43. 
    Animal cells lack cell walls but are covered by an elaborate ECM (extracellular matrix).
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 44. 
    What are the functions of tight junctions in animal cells?
    • A. 

      Membranes of neighbouring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid

    • B. 

      Fasten cells together into strong sheets

    • C. 

      Provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 45. 
    What are the functions of Desmosomes in animal cells?
    • A. 

      Membranes of neighbouring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid

    • B. 

      Fasten cells together into strong sheets

    • C. 

      Provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 46. 
    What are the functions of gap junctions in animal cells?
    • A. 

      Membranes of neighbouring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid

    • B. 

      Fasten cells together into strong sheets

    • C. 

      Provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 47. 
    The general structure of a biological membrane is a single layer of phospholipids.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 48. 
    How often do phospholipids in the plasma membrane move in a lateral direction?
    • A. 

      ~ once per month

    • B. 

      ~ once per day

    • C. 

      ~ 10E7 times/second

    • D. 

      ~ 10E4 times/second

    • E. 

      Never

  • 49. 
    How often do phospholipids in the plasma membrane flip-flop?
    • A. 

      Never

    • B. 

      ~ 10E7 times/second

    • C. 

      ~ 10E4 times/second

    • D. 

      ~ once per day

    • E. 

      ~ once per month

  • 50. 
    What are the six major functions of membrane proteins?
    • A. 

      Ribosome secretion

    • B. 

      Transport

    • C. 

      Waste recycling

    • D. 

      Enzymatic Activity

    • E. 

      Signal Transduction

    • F. 

      Motility

    • G. 

      Cell-cell recognition

    • H. 

      Intercellular joining

    • I. 

      Attachment to the Cytoskeleton & ECM

    • J. 

      Chromatin production

  • 51. 
    Water is a ______ solvent.
    • A. 

      Polar

    • B. 

      Non-polar

    • C. 

      Liquid

    • D. 

      Flammable

    • E. 

      Covalent

  • 52. 
    Water can dissolve compounds made of nonionic polar molecules and large polar molecules such as proteins (if they have ionic and polar regions)
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 53. 
    __________ proteins allow passage of __________ substances across the membrane and is specific for the substance it moves.
    • A. 

      Enzymatic, hydrophobic

    • B. 

      Transport, hydrophobic

    • C. 

      Transport, hydrophilic

    • D. 

      Enzymatic, hydrophilic

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 54. 
    __________ proteins have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel.  __________ proteins bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane.
    • A. 

      Carrier, Enzymatic

    • B. 

      Channel, Enzymatic

    • C. 

      Carrier, Channel

    • D. 

      Channel, carrier

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 55. 
    The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane is passive transport because it requires __________ energy from the cell to occur.
    • A. 

      Some

    • B. 

      Great amounts of

    • C. 

      Little

    • D. 

      Zero

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 56. 
    The tendency for molecules to spread out evenly into the available space based on concentration without additional work is known as:
    • A. 

      Diffusion

    • B. 

      Osmosis

    • C. 

      Motility

    • D. 

      Transport

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 57. 
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentration to the region of higher solute concentration is known as:
    • A. 

      Diffusion

    • B. 

      Osmosis

    • C. 

      Motility

    • D. 

      Transport

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 58. 
    A hypertonic solution is one in which the solute concentration is __________ that inside the cell, causing the cell to __________ water.
    • A. 

      Less than, lose

    • B. 

      Greater than, lose

    • C. 

      Less than, gain

    • D. 

      Greater than, gain

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 59. 
    A hypotonic solution is one in which the solute concentration is __________ that inside the cell, causing the cell to __________ water.
    • A. 

      Less than, lose

    • B. 

      Greater than, lose

    • C. 

      Less than, gain

    • D. 

      Greater than, gain

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 60. 
    An isotonic solution is one whose concentration is __________ that inside the cell, causing the cell to __________ water.
    • A. 

      Equal to, gain

    • B. 

      Equal to, lose

    • C. 

      Greater than, lose

    • D. 

      Less than, gain

    • E. 

      Equal to, neither gain nor lose

  • 61. 
    In plasmolysis, the membrane pulls away from the cell wall when in a __________ environment.
    • A. 

      Hypertonic

    • B. 

      Hypotonic

    • C. 

      Isotonic

    • D. 

      None of the above.

  • 62. 
    A plant cell swells until the wall opposes uptake and is now turgid.  This cell is most likely in a __________ solution.
    • A. 

      Hypertonic

    • B. 

      Hypotonic

    • C. 

      Isotonic

    • D. 

      None of the above.

  • 63. 
    If an animal cell and its surroundings are isotonic, there is no net movement of water into the cell; the cell becomes flaccid (limp), and may wilt.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 64. 
    The process by which transport is aided by transport proteins which speed movement of molecules across the plasma membrane is known as?
    • A. 

      Diffusion

    • B. 

      Facilitated diffusion

    • C. 

      Osmosis

    • D. 

      Facilitated osmosis

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 65. 
    __________ proteins provide corridors that allow a specific molecule or ion to cross the membrane.  __________ proteins alternate between two conformations, undergoing a subtle change in shape that translocates the solute-binding site across the membrane.
    • A. 

      Carrier, transport

    • B. 

      Transport, channel

    • C. 

      Carrier, channel

    • D. 

      Channel, carrier

    • E. 

      Channel, Transport

  • 66. 
    __________ transport uses energy (usually in the form of ATP) to move solutes ___________ their concentration gradient, thus allowing cells to maintain concentration gradients that differ from their surroundings.
    • A. 

      Active, down

    • B. 

      Passive, down

    • C. 

      Active, against

    • D. 

      Passive, against

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 67. 
    Diffusion is spontaneous and allows hydrophilic molecules to permeate a phospholipid membrane.  Facilitated diffusion has a greatly increased rate and allows hydrophobic substances to permeate a phospholipid membrane.
    • A. 

      False

    • B. 

      True

  • 68. 
    What are the three types of endocytosis (the reverse of exocytosis)?
    • A. 

      Receptor-mediated

    • B. 

      Transport

    • C. 

      Phagocytosis

    • D. 

      Pinocytosis

    • E. 

      Motorcytosis

  • 69. 
    __________ is "cellular eating". __________ is "cellular drinking".
    • A. 

      Pinocytosis, Phagocytosis

    • B. 

      Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis

    • C. 

      Exocytosis, Endocytosis

    • D. 

      Endocytosis, Exocytosis

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 70. 
    The binding of ligands to receptors triggers vesicle formation. This is known as receptor-mediated endocytosis.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 71. 
    At ___________ temperatures, such as 37ºC, cholesterol restrains movement of phospholipids.At ___________ temperatures, cholesterol maintains fluidity by preventing tight packing.
    • A. 

      Warm, cool

    • B. 

      Hot, cold

    • C. 

      Cold, hot

    • D. 

      Cool, warm

  • 72. 
    A __________ substance has an affinity for water  (ionic or polar) and cannot move through lipids.A __________ substance does not have an affinity for water (nonionic and non-polar), and can move through lipids.
    • A. 

      Hydrophobic, hydrophilic

    • B. 

      Hydrophilic, hydrophobic

    • C. 

      Hydrophobic, hygroscopic

    • D. 

      Hygroscopic, hydrophilic

    • E. 

      None of the above.