Principles And Concepts Quiz

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Principles And Concepts Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What is operant conditioning?
    • A. 

      Pairing stimuli 

    • B. 

      Any behaviour whose future frequency is determined by consequences

    • C. 

      Witholding reinforcement for a behaviour 

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 2. 
    What is an Operant?
    • A. 

      A behaviour that operates on the environment through obtaining consequences

    • B. 

      A stimulus that has been paired with a conditioned stimulus 

    • C. 

      An unconditioned stimulus that is paired with a neutral stimulus 

    • D. 

      A behaviour determined by an antecedent event 

  • 3. 
    What is phylogeny?
    • A. 

      Evolution of behaviour through natural selection

    • B. 

      Selection of behaviour through consequences

    • C. 

      A type of verbal behaviour 

    • D. 

      Respondent conditioning 

  • 4. 
    What is ontongeny? 
    • A. 

      The evolutionary history of a species 

    • B. 

      The development of an organism during its lifetime 

    • C. 

      Another term for operant conditioning 

    • D. 

      A form of extinction 

  • 5. 
    What is positive reinforcement 
    • A. 

      The addition of a stimulus, after a behaviour, resulting in a change in behaviour 

    • B. 

      The addition of a stimulus, at the same time as the behaviour, resulting in an increase in behaviour 

    • C. 

      The addition of a stimulus, after a behaviour, resulting in an increase of behaviour 

    • D. 

       The addition of a stimulus, after a behaviour, resulting in a decrease in behaviour 

  • 6. 
    When can it be said that positive reinforcement has occurred?
    • A. 

      When a response produces a stimulus 

    • B. 

      The response occurs more often 

    • C. 

      The response occurs more often because of the response-consequence relationship 

    • D. 

      All of the above 

    • E. 

      None of the above 

  • 7. 
    What is the law of threshold?
    • A. 

      Very weak intensities of a stimulus elicit a response, but as intensity increases there is a point at which the response is elicited 

    • B. 

      As the intensity of a US increases, so does the magnitude of the elicited UR

    • C. 

      As the intensity of the US increases, the latency of the appearance of the elicited UR decreases

    • D. 

      None of the above 

  • 8. 
    What is the law of intensity?
    • A. 

      Very weak intensities of a stimulus elicit a response, but as intensity increases there is a point at which the response is elicited 

    • B. 

      As the intensity of the US decreases, so does the magnitude of the elicited UR

    • C. 

      As the intensity of the US increases, the latency of the appearance of the elicited UR decreases

    • D. 

      None of the above 

  • 9. 
    What is the law of latency?
    • A. 

      Very weak intensities of a stimulus elicit a response, but as intensity increases there is a point at which the response is elicited 

    • B. 

      As intensity of the US increases so does the magnitude of the elicited UR 

    • C. 

      As the intensity of the US increases, the latency of the appearance of the elicited UR decreases

    • D. 

      None of the above 

  • 10. 
    What is the process of respondent conditioning?
    • A. 

      An NS is repeatedly paired with a US 

    • B. 

      The new stimulus comes to produce the response when presented on its own

    • C. 

      The new stimulus then becomes a CS

    • D. 

      All of the above 

    • E. 

      None of the above 

  • 11. 
    What is higher order conditioning?
    • A. 

      A neutral stimulus is paired with a well established CS and the effect is similar to if the stimulus had been paired with a US

    • B. 

      Pairing two neutral stimuli with a well established CS

    • C. 

      Pairing two neutral stimuli with a US

    • D. 

      None of the above 

  • 12. 
    What is negative reinforcement?
    • A. 

      The removal of a stimulus, after behaviour, results in an increase in behaviour 

    • B. 

      The removal of a stimulus, before a behaviour, results in an increase in behaviour 

    • C. 

      The removal of a stimulus, whilst behaviour is occuring, results in an increase in behaviour 

    • D. 

      The removal of a stimulus, after a behaviour, results in a decrease in behaviour 

  • 13. 
    Escape and avoidance are both forms of negative reinforcement, but what is the difference between them?
    • A. 

      In an escape contingency, the behaviour terminates a stimulus that is present whereas in an avoidance contingency, a behaviour prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus 

    • B. 

      In an escape contingency, the behaviour avoids presentation of a stimulus, whereas in an avoidance contingency, the behaviour terminates the stimulus that is present 

    • C. 

      In an escape contingency, an EO is not present prior to the occurence of a behaviour, whereas an EO is present before behaviour in an avoidance contingency 

    • D. 

      In an escape contingency, an EO is present prior to behaviour, whereas in an avoidance contingency an EO is not present 

    • E. 

      Answers 1 and 3 

    • F. 

      Answers 2 and 4 

  • 14. 
    When does extinction occur?
    • A. 

      When a behaviour that has been reinforced no longer results in reinforcing consequences and therefore the behaviour stops occuring 

    • B. 

      When a behaviour that has been reinforced momentarily results in reinforcing consequence and therefore stops occuring in the future 

    • C. 

      When a behaviour that has been reinforced continues to result in the reinforcing consequence and therefore the behaviour stops occuring in the future

    • D. 

      None of the above 

  • 15. 
    What is an extinction burst?
    • A. 

      The increased intensity, frequency and variability of a behaviour at the beginning of extinction 

    • B. 

      The decreased intensity, frequency and variability of a behaviour at the beginning of extinction 

    • C. 

      The decreased intensity, frequency and variability of a behaviour at the end of extinction 

    • D. 

      The increased intensity, frequency and variability of a behaviour at the end of extinction 

  • 16. 
    What is spontaneous recovery? 
    • A. 

      The rate at the beginning of the next extinction session is usually higher than it was at the end of the last one 

    • B. 

      The rate at the beginning of the next extinction session is usually lower than it was at the end of the last session 

    • C. 

      A new behaviour starts to appear 

    • D. 

      An old extinguished behaviour reappears 

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is a procedural variation of extinction?
    • A. 

      The positive reinforcer is no longer delivered after the behaviour 

    • B. 

      The aversive stimulus is no longer removed after the behaviour

    • C. 

      Neither 

    • D. 

      Both 

  • 18. 
    Which of the following variables effect extinction?
    • A. 

      Schedule 

    • B. 

      Baseline length 

    • C. 

      Delay to reinforcement 

    • D. 

      Magnitude of reinforcement 

    • E. 

      All of the above 

  • 19. 
    Which of the following statements are false about extinction?
    • A. 

      Extinction and forgetting are the same 

    • B. 

      Extinction and noncontingent reinforcement are the same 

    • C. 

      Response blocking and sensory extinction are the same 

    • D. 

      All of the above 

    • E. 

      None of the above 

  • 20. 
    Which of the following are schedule effects of a fixed ratio schedule?
    • A. 

      Typical pattern of responding 

    • B. 

      Post reinforcement pause follows reinforcement 

    • C. 

      High rates of responding 

    • D. 

      All of the above 

    • E. 

      None of the above 

  • 21. 
    Which of the following are schedule effects of a variable ratio schedule?
    • A. 

      Consistent steady rates of behaviour 

    • B. 

      No post reinforcement pauses 

    • C. 

      Quick rate of response 

    • D. 

      All of the above 

    • E. 

      None of the above 

  • 22. 
    Which of the following are effects of a fixed interval schedule?
    • A. 

      Post reinforcement pauses 

    • B. 

      Scallop effect caused by an accelerating response rate at the end of intervals 

    • C. 

      Constant, stable rate of responding 

    • D. 

      Few hesitations between responses 

    • E. 

      Options 1 and 2 

    • F. 

      Options 3 and 4 

    • G. 

      None of the above 

  • 23. 
    Which of the following are effects of a variable interval schedule?
    • A. 

      Constant stable rates of responding 

    • B. 

      Few hesitations between responses 

    • C. 

      Scallop effect caused by accelerating rate of response towards the end of the interval 

    • D. 

      Post reinforcement pauses 

    • E. 

      Options 1 and 2

    • F. 

      Options 3 and 4 

  • 24. 
    What is the difference in the response rate between fixed ratio and variable ratio schedules?
    • A. 

      Fixed ratio produce high rates whereas variable ratio produce quick response rates 

    • B. 

      Fixed ratio produce quick rates of response whereas variable ratio produce high rates 

    • C. 

      There is no difference 

    • D. 

      Both produce high rates of behaviour 

  • 25. 
    What is the difference in response rate between fixed interval and variable interval schedules? 
    • A. 

      Fixed interval produce slow moderate response rates whereas variable interval produce low to moderate response rates 

    • B. 

      Fixed interval produce low to moderate rates whereas variable interval produce slow moderate response rates 

    • C. 

      There is no difference

    • D. 

      Both produce high rates of behaviour 

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