Intro To Philosophy Quiz Part- IV

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Philosophy Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    While considering the Soul Theory of personal identity over time, Rachels says that:

    • A.

      Souls do not exist, because they cannot be observed with the senses.

    • B.

      It's not clear whether souls have a location, since they cannot be observed with the senses.

    • C.

      It's not clear how we would ever know if the same soul was present at different times, since souls cannot be observed with senses.

    • D.

      It's not clear how you can exist in the afterlife with a soul, since souls cannot be observed with the senses.

    Correct Answer
    C. It's not clear how we would ever know if the same soul was present at different times, since souls cannot be observed with senses.
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that according to Rachels, the main issue with the Soul Theory of personal identity over time is that it is not clear how we would be able to determine if the same soul exists at different points in time. This is because souls cannot be observed with the senses. Rachels argues that since we cannot directly perceive or observe souls, it becomes difficult to establish continuity of personal identity based on the existence of a soul.

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  • 2. 

    The results of the experiments done on split-brain patients indicate to Derek Parfit that the number of selves in a person is:

    • A.

      None

    • B.

      One

    • C.

      Two

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. None
    Explanation
    The experiments done on split-brain patients involve severing the connection between the left and right hemispheres of the brain. This results in the two hemispheres functioning independently, leading to the observation that each hemisphere can have its own separate consciousness. However, Derek Parfit argues that these observations do not imply the existence of multiple selves. Instead, he suggests that the concept of a unified self is an illusion and that there is ultimately no fixed number of selves in a person. Therefore, the correct answer is "None."

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  • 3. 

    Rachels discusses the riddle of the Ship of Theseus because he thinks it undermines:

    • A.

      The Bundle Theory

    • B.

      The Soul Theory

    • C.

      The Same-Body Theory

    • D.

      The Same-Memory Theory

    Correct Answer
    C. The Same-Body Theory
    Explanation
    Rachels discusses the riddle of the Ship of Theseus because he believes it challenges the idea of the Same-Body Theory. The Ship of Theseus is a thought experiment that questions whether an object remains the same when all its parts are replaced over time. This challenges the Same-Body Theory, which suggests that an object's identity is determined by its physical body. If the Ship of Theseus can still be considered the same ship after all its parts have been replaced, then the Same-Body Theory is undermined.

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  • 4. 

    Identical twins are numerically identical with each other.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Identical twins are not numerically identical with each other. While they may share the same DNA and physical characteristics, they are still two separate individuals with their own unique identities. The term "identical" refers to their genetic makeup, not their numerical identity. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 5. 

    According to Rachels, the Bundle Theory asserts that you have a simple and indivisible self that is present throughout your life.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Rachels, the Bundle Theory actually denies the existence of a simple and indivisible self that persists throughout one's life. Instead, it suggests that a person is simply a collection or bundle of experiences, thoughts, and sensations. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 6. 

    Hume rejects the Soul Theory for the following reason:

    • A.

      You can't know if you have the same soul at different times.

    • B.

      When patients' brain hemispheres are split, there are two streams of consciousness.

    • C.

      You never observe souls.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. You never observe souls.
    Explanation
    Hume rejects the Soul Theory because he argues that we never observe souls. According to him, all our knowledge comes from our senses and impressions, and since we cannot directly perceive or observe the existence of souls, we have no reason to believe in them. Hume emphasizes the importance of empirical evidence and rejects any claims that cannot be verified through observation or experience. Therefore, the idea of having the same soul at different times is dismissed by Hume due to the lack of observable evidence.

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  • 7. 

    According to Rachels, the Same-Body Theory is threatened by the claim that the new Ship of Theseus is not numerically identical to the old Ship of Theseus.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Rachels argues that the Same-Body Theory, which states that an object remains the same as long as it retains the same physical body, is challenged by the claim that the new Ship of Theseus is not numerically identical to the old Ship of Theseus. This means that according to Rachels, the new ship cannot be considered the same as the old ship, contradicting the Same-Body Theory. Therefore, the statement "True" accurately reflects Rachels' position on this matter.

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  • 8. 

    The reply we make in the Lecture to Rachels' cell-regeneration objection to the Same-Body Theory is this:

    • A.

      Most of our brain cells do not get replaced with new brain cells.

    • B.

      Most of the cells in our bodies do not get replaced with new cells.

    • C.

      Not all the cells in our bodies get replaced with new cells in 9 years.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
  • 9. 

    The point of Locke's Prince and Cobbler story is to show:

    • A.

      That there is a problem with the Soul Theory

    • B.

      That there is a problem with the Same-Body Theory

    • C.

      That there is a problem with the Bundle Theory

    • D.

      That there is a problem with the Memory Theory

    Correct Answer
    B. That there is a problem with the Same-Body Theory
    Explanation
    Locke's Prince and Cobbler story is used to illustrate a problem with the Same-Body Theory. This theory suggests that personal identity is based on the continuity of the same physical body over time. However, Locke argues that even if the memories and consciousness of the Prince were transferred into the body of the Cobbler, the Prince's personal identity would not transfer with it. This challenges the Same-Body Theory and suggests that personal identity is not solely dependent on the physical body, but also on the continuity of consciousness and memories.

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  • 10. 

    According to the Lecture, if the Same-Soul Theory is true, and your soul becomes attached to the body of a pig when you die, but you lose your personality and instead have the personality of a pig, you still have survived the death of your body.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    If the Same-Soul Theory is true and your soul becomes attached to the body of a pig after death, it means that your consciousness or essence continues to exist in a different form. Even though you lose your human personality and acquire the personality of a pig, the fact that your soul survives and transitions into another body implies that you have indeed survived the death of your original body.

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  • 11. 

    According to Rachels, if you don't remember anything about certain actions in the past, then you're not responsible for those past actions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Rachels, if you don't remember anything about certain actions in the past, then you're not responsible for those past actions. This suggests that memory plays a crucial role in determining responsibility for past actions. If there is no recollection or awareness of the actions, it is difficult to hold someone accountable for them. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 12. 

    In the Lecture, OUR reply to Rachels' Ship of Theseus  objection to the Same Body Theory is that the new ship is the same as the old one

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that in the lecture, the speaker provided a response to Rachels' objection to the Same Body Theory by stating that the new ship is considered the same as the old one. This implies that despite the replacement of parts or components, the ship retains its identity and continuity. Therefore, the answer is true.

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  • 13. 

    According to Rachels, you are always responsible for what you've done.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Rachels, you are not always responsible for what you've done. He argues that there are situations where a person's actions may not be considered morally blameworthy, such as when they are coerced or acting under duress. Therefore, the statement that you are always responsible for what you've done is false according to Rachels.

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  • 14. 

    Rachels raises the following objection to the Same-Brain Theory.  Suppose a healthy person drowns over a 10-minute period.  After those 10 minutes, the person no longer exists, but their brain is still there.  So the same brain isn't the same person. TRUE OR FALSE: Our reply in the Lecture to this objection is that the Same-Brain Theory is meant to exclude brains that are non-functioning because of death.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The correct answer is True. In the lecture, the reply to Rachels' objection is that the Same-Brain Theory is specifically referring to functioning brains. When a person drowns and their brain is still intact but non-functioning due to death, it is not considered the same person according to the Same-Brain Theory. Therefore, the Same-Brain Theory does not contradict Rachels' objection.

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  • 15. 

    Thomas Reid gives the following objection to the Memory Theory:

    • A.

      The general is identical with the brave officer, but the Memory Theory has to deny this.

    • B.

      The brave officer is identical with the boy who stole the flag, but the Memory Theory has to deny this.

    • C.

      The general is not identical with the boy who stole the flag, but the Memory Theory has to deny this.

    • D.

      The general is identical with the boy who stole the flag, but the Memory Theory has to deny this.

    Correct Answer
    D. The general is identical with the boy who stole the flag, but the Memory Theory has to deny this.
    Explanation
    Thomas Reid's objection to the Memory Theory is that it denies the identity between the general and the boy who stole the flag. According to the Memory Theory, personal identity is determined by memory continuity. However, in this case, the general and the boy who stole the flag are considered to be the same person, even though they have no memory continuity. Therefore, the Memory Theory cannot account for this identity, which is why Reid objects to it.

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  • 16. 

    According to Rachels, responsibility doesn't always go with identity for the following reason:

    • A.

      You could be responsible for crimes that you didn't commit.

    • B.

      You should only be held responsible for crimes that you committed.

    • C.

      You could have committed a crime, but still not be responsible for it.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. You could have committed a crime, but still not be responsible for it.
    Explanation
    According to Rachels, responsibility doesn't always go with identity because it is possible for someone to have committed a crime but not be responsible for it. This can occur in situations where the person committed the crime under duress or coercion, or if they were not mentally capable of understanding the consequences of their actions. In such cases, although the person may have physically carried out the crime, they cannot be held morally responsible for their actions.

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  • 17. 

    Suppose the Memory Theory is true. Then the following is true.

    • A.

      You can only survive the death of your body if there is some future body that has your memories.

    • B.

      You can only survive the death of your body if some future body has your soul.

    • C.

      You cannot survive the death of your body because no future body could have your memories.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. You can only survive the death of your body if there is some future body that has your memories.
    Explanation
    The given answer states that according to the Memory Theory, one can only survive the death of their body if there exists a future body that possesses their memories. This suggests that memories are crucial for the continuation of one's existence beyond physical death. Without the presence of memories in a future body, survival is not possible. This explanation aligns with the concept of the Memory Theory and provides a logical understanding of the statement.

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  • 18. 

    According to Rachels, the Memory-Links Theory works well for real memories and for apparent memories.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Rachels, the Memory-Links Theory does not work well for real memories and for apparent memories.

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  • 19. 

    According to Rachels, memory doesn't always go along with responsibility for this reason:

    • A.

      You should be held responsible for certain acts even if you don't remember doing them.

    • B.

      You could accurately remember committing a crime but not be responsible for it.

    • C.

      You shouldn't be held responsible for any act that you don't remember doing.

    Correct Answer
    B. You could accurately remember committing a crime but not be responsible for it.
    Explanation
    According to Rachels, memory doesn't always go along with responsibility because it is possible to accurately remember committing a crime but not be responsible for it. This suggests that memory alone is not sufficient to determine responsibility for an act. Other factors such as intention, knowledge, and control over one's actions must also be considered. Therefore, a person may have committed a crime but not be morally or legally responsible for it if they were coerced, manipulated, or lacked the capacity to understand the consequences of their actions.

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  • 20. 

    According to Rachels, most philosophers today agree that the correct view of personal identity at a time is the Bundle Theory.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Rachels, most philosophers today agree that the correct view of personal identity at a time is the Bundle Theory. Therefore, the statement "True" is the correct answer. The Bundle Theory suggests that personal identity is not defined by a single substance or essence, but rather by a collection or bundle of different experiences, memories, and characteristics that make up an individual at a specific point in time. This theory rejects the notion of a fixed and unchanging self, emphasizing the dynamic and ever-changing nature of personal identity.

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