Spinoza, Leibniz, Orson Pratt

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Spinoza, Leibniz, Orson Pratt

Assignment 6


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Why does Spinoza say that there is no free will for mankind as we normally think of it?
    • A. 

      Because everything which happens in the world is a consequence of the divine will of God, who is everything.

    • B. 

      Because man is a cog in the mechanistic universe, set in motion by a detached creator.

    • C. 

      Because man is controlled by the influence of reason and reason is the same in all people and must be followed by all people.

    • D. 

      Because God created man to fulfill His purpose, and Man's only purpose is to perform the tasks set for Him by God.

  • 2. 
    Orson Pratt compares a human soul to a bar of iron in what way?
    • A. 

      Souls are like iron bars because they experience attractions to good and to evil, with one pole being refined spirit and the other the natural man.

    • B. 

      Souls are like iron bars because they are made up of innumerable pieces which all act together when they are combined and yet if not organized in that pattern do not behave identically.

    • C. 

      Souls are like iron bars because they are made up of innumerable pieces which act in unison because they are in close association with each other and have the same make-up.

    • D. 

      Souls are like iron bars because they are uniform and yet made up of separable parts.

  • 3. 
    According to Leibniz, God, when choosing to actualize a world, would choose the “best” one, which would be the universe that combines _____________ with _____________.
    • A. 

      The greatest amount of matter; the greatest simplicity of elements

    • B. 

      The least amount of monads; the greatest complexity of elements

    • C. 

      The most potentiality; the greatest complexity of laws

    • D. 

      The most actuality; the greatest simplicity of laws

  • 4. 
    According to Elder Pratt what are thoughts?
    • A. 

      Spiritual matter.

    • B. 

      A state or affection of a single individual substance.

    • C. 

      A result of a collection of matter.

    • D. 

      A result from the brain.

  • 5. 
    Which of the following is NOT a belief about freedom postulated by Spinoza?
    • A. 

      Freedom is merely the power to act from one’s own nature

    • B. 

      God/nature is the only completely free being

    • C. 

      There is no free will in the ordinary sense because everything that happens is a necessary expression of the immutable divine nature

    • D. 

      In order for a person to truly be free he/she must adopt the ideas and views of God

  • 6. 
    According to Leibniz, how would a change in one monad affect the other monads?
    • A. 

      A change in one monad would necessitate a change in all of the others.

    • B. 

      A change in one monad has no effect on the other monads.

    • C. 

      A change in one monad only affects the monads to which it is related.

    • D. 

      Multiple changes in a monad are required to create a change in another monad.

  • 7. 
    What did Leibniz believe about the world we live in?
    • A. 

      That it was not real, simply a projection of how we perceived existence.

    • B. 

      That it was morally defunct and a breeding ground of corruption.

    • C. 

      That it was the best of all possible worlds.

    • D. 

      That actuality propelled it towards perfection.

  • 8. 
    How did Spinoza solve Descartes’ mind-body problem?
    • A. 

      A. He denies that the human body is a union of two substances; mind and body are two different expressions of one and the same thing: the person.

    • B. 

      B. He states that since there is but one substance, the mind and the body are one and the same.

    • C. 

      C. He states that for every human body, there is an idea; and for every idea, there is a mind.

    • D. 

      D. He states that God is in all of us because we are all one substance and therefore mind and body are one.

  • 9. 
    According to Leibniz the nature of monads entails that the sum total of all the substances that are possible along with a given monad--mirrored in it--constitute a possible world.  Thus, he concludes (in opposition to Spinoza), that:
    • A. 

      The actual universe does not exist of necessity because there are many possible worlds associated with the many families of possible monads.

    • B. 

      The universe is an essentially random in origin and nature despite mechanistic laws that operate within it.

    • C. 

      The basic substance of the universe is intrinsically complicated.

    • D. 

      Complete knowledge of the basic substance of the universe (to Leibniz, the monad) would reveal little about the actual universe.

  • 10. 
    Leibniz poses that there are many states of matter, or worlds. Why does Leibniz believe we live in the best of all possible worlds?
    • A. 

      This is the world we live in, so it is by definition the best, all others are irrelevant to us.

    • B. 

      God chose this one to exist, because it is the best possible one.

    • C. 

      Matter has a natural tendency toward order, so with or without God, this world is naturally best.

    • D. 

      Leibniz did not believe this is the best possible world

  • 11. 
    Pratt stated that every conceivable part of substance possesses the same property as the whole. The unity of substance, therefore, must consist of all of the following characteristics except:
    • A. 

      The parts may have distinct, individual properties so long as the others are aware and sympathetic to those properties

    • B. 

      The parts must be closely connected and related to each other

    • C. 

      The parts must be immediately notified of whatever state or affection one may happen to be in

    • D. 

      The parts must be conscious of all the others, regardless of whether it is affected with pain or pleasure

  • 12. 
    Spinoza states that all human beings are in “bondage” since we are so controlled by our emotions. The way we free ourselves is by
    • A. 

      Freeing ourselves from the ideas of the world

    • B. 

      Learning about our true nature as human beings

    • C. 

      Coming to see the necessities of the world as God sees them

    • D. 

      Having a government authority overseeing the population

  • 13. 
    What is Orson Pratt’s view of the interaction of the Godhead and man on Earth?
    • A. 

      The Father can do all things but allows the Son and Holy Ghost the opportunity to progress

    • B. 

      The Father and Son acts through the Holy Ghost, an omnipresent substance, to be at all places on earth at the same time

    • C. 

      God the Father is an omnipresent person and has power to do all things and be in all places

    • D. 

      God is actually a council of three beings and requires the combination of all three to constitute a fullness of power and glory.

  • 14. 
    Leibniz postulated that something was substance if it possessed which of the following characteristics.
    • A. 

      Being qualitative and quantitative.

    • B. 

      Being dynamic.

    • C. 

      Being capable of being acted upon.

    • D. 

      Being capable of action.

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