Earth Layers And Plate Tectonics Quiz

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Earth Layers And Plate Tectonics Quiz - Quiz

See what you already know about the plate tectonics and earth layers by taking this earth science quiz!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A break in the Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other is called a

    • A.

      Plate.

    • B.

      Layer.

    • C.

      Boundary.

    • D.

      Fault.

    Correct Answer
    D. Fault.
    Explanation
    A break in the Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other is called a fault. This occurs when there is movement along a fracture or crack in the Earth's crust, resulting in displacement of the rocks on either side of the fault. Faults can range in size from small fractures to large-scale tectonic boundaries.

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  • 2. 

    Subduction is

    • A.

      The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath trenches.

    • B.

      The direct transfer of heat through solid materials.

    • C.

      The process that continually adds ocean floor.

    • D.

      A device that bounces sound waves off underwater objects.

    Correct Answer
    A. The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath trenches.
    Explanation
    Subduction is the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath trenches. This occurs at convergent plate boundaries where one tectonic plate is forced beneath another. As the denser oceanic crust descends into the mantle, it creates deep ocean trenches. This process is responsible for the recycling of oceanic crust and the formation of volcanic arcs and mountain ranges.

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  • 3. 

    Earth's lithosphere is broken into separate sections called

    • A.

      Plates.

    • B.

      Faults.

    • C.

      Trenches.

    • D.

      Rifts.

    Correct Answer
    A. Plates.
    Explanation
    The Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and upper part of the mantle, is divided into separate sections known as plates. These plates are rigid and float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere beneath them. The movement of these plates, either towards or away from each other, causes various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges. Faults, trenches, and rifts are all related to plate tectonics, but they are not the correct terms for the separate sections into which the lithosphere is broken.

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  • 4. 

    Scientists who study the forces that make and shape the planet Earth are called

    • A.

      Biologists.

    • B.

      Geologists.

    • C.

      Chemists.

    • D.

      Physicists.

    Correct Answer
    B. Geologists.
    Explanation
    Geologists are scientists who study the forces that make and shape the planet Earth. They analyze rocks, minerals, and the Earth's structure to understand processes such as plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and erosion. By studying these forces, geologists can provide insights into natural hazards, Earth's history, and the formation of valuable resources like oil and minerals. Biologists study living organisms, chemists study the composition and properties of matter, and physicists study the fundamental laws of nature. However, it is geologists who specifically focus on the Earth's forces and processes.

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  • 5. 

    In the convection current of a pan of soup, the cooler, denser fluid

    • A.

      Rises to the top.

    • B.

      Sinks to the bottom.

    • C.

      Stays where it is.

    • D.

      Stays on top.

    Correct Answer
    B. Sinks to the bottom.
    Explanation
    In the convection current of a pan of soup, the cooler, denser fluid sinks to the bottom. This is because when a fluid is heated, it becomes less dense and rises, creating a current. As the fluid cools down, it becomes denser and sinks back down. This process of rising and sinking creates a convection current, with the cooler, denser fluid sinking to the bottom of the pan.

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  • 6. 

    The transfer of energy through space is called

    • A.

      Subduction.

    • B.

      Convection.

    • C.

      Radiation.

    • D.

      Conduction.

    Correct Answer
    C. Radiation.
    Explanation
    Radiation is the transfer of energy through space in the form of electromagnetic waves. Unlike convection and conduction, which require a medium such as a fluid or solid, radiation can occur in a vacuum. Subduction, on the other hand, refers to the process in plate tectonics where one tectonic plate moves beneath another. Therefore, radiation is the correct answer as it specifically describes the transfer of energy through space.

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  • 7. 

    Who first proposed the theory of continental drift?

    • A.

      Harry Hess

    • B.

      Alfred Wegener

    • C.

      Pangea

    • D.

      J. Tuzo Wilson

    Correct Answer
    B. Alfred Wegener
    Explanation
    Alfred Wegener is the correct answer because he was the first scientist to propose the theory of continental drift in the early 20th century. He suggested that the continents were once joined together in a supercontinent called Pangea and gradually drifted apart over millions of years. Wegener's theory was based on evidence such as the fit of the continents, matching fossils and rock formations, and the distribution of ancient climate zones. Although his theory was initially met with skepticism, it laid the foundation for our understanding of plate tectonics and the dynamic nature of Earth's crust.

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  • 8. 

    What erupts through the valley of the mid-ocean ridge?

    • A.

      Molten material

    • B.

      The lithosphere

    • C.

      Deep-ocean trenches

    • D.

      Continental drift

    Correct Answer
    A. Molten material
    Explanation
    The correct answer is molten material. The mid-ocean ridge is a volcanic mountain range that runs along the floor of the ocean. It is formed by the movement of tectonic plates, which causes the Earth's mantle to melt and create molten material. This molten material, known as magma, erupts through the valley of the mid-ocean ridge, creating new crust and pushing the existing crust apart. This process is responsible for the formation of new oceanic crust and plays a significant role in plate tectonics and the movement of continents.

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  • 9. 

    Heat transfer by the movement of a heated fluid is called _______________.

    Correct Answer
    convection
    Explanation
    Convection is the correct answer because it refers to the heat transfer that occurs when a heated fluid, such as air or water, moves and carries heat with it. This process involves the transfer of heat through the bulk movement of the fluid, either through natural convection (caused by density differences) or forced convection (caused by external forces like fans or pumps). Convection is an important mechanism for heat transfer in many everyday situations, such as the circulation of warm air in a room or the boiling of water in a pot.

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  • 10. 

    What type of boundary is found where two plates slip past each other?

    Correct Answer
    transform; transform boundary; transform boundry
    Explanation
    A transform boundary is found where two tectonic plates slide horizontally past each other. This type of boundary is characterized by intense friction and pressure, causing the plates to lock together and store energy. Eventually, the energy is released in the form of earthquakes. Transform boundaries are common along the San Andreas Fault in California, where the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate are sliding past each other.

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  • 11. 

    The part of the mantle that can be bent like plastic is called _______________.

    Correct Answer
    Explanation
    The part of the mantle that can be bent like plastic is called the asthenosphere. The asthenosphere is a semi-fluid layer of the Earth's mantle that lies beneath the lithosphere. It is composed of partially molten rock and is capable of flowing and deforming over long periods of time. This plasticity allows for the movement of tectonic plates and is responsible for processes such as plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and earthquakes.

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  • 12. 

    The process that continually adds new material to the ocean floor is called  ________________.

    Correct Answer
    sea-floor spreading; sea floor spreading
    Explanation
    Sea-floor spreading is the correct answer to the question. It refers to the process in which new material is constantly added to the ocean floor. This process occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where tectonic plates move apart and magma rises to the surface, creating new crust. As the new crust forms, older crust is pushed away from the ridge, spreading the sea floor. This process is a key component of plate tectonics and helps shape the Earth's surface.

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  • 13. 

    Fossils of tropical plants found on an island in the Arctic Ocean are evidence for the theory of                       .

    Correct Answer
    continental drift; plate tectonics
    Explanation
    The fossils of tropical plants found on an island in the Arctic Ocean provide evidence for the theory of continental drift and plate tectonics. This is because the presence of these tropical plants in the Arctic suggests that the island was once located in a tropical region, and has since drifted to its current location in the Arctic. This supports the idea that the Earth's continents were once connected and have since moved apart, forming the continents as we know them today. The theory of plate tectonics explains this movement of the Earth's crust and provides a framework for understanding the distribution of landmasses and the geological features of the planet.

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  • 14. 

    A rift in the valley forms along a convergent boundary on land.

    Correct Answer
    divergent
    Explanation
    If the statement is true, write true. If it is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true.

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  • 15. 

    The supercontinent that began to break apart about 225 million years ago is called Antarctica.

    Correct Answer
    Pangea; Pangia
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Pangea. Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, approximately 335 to 175 million years ago. It began to break apart around 225 million years ago, leading to the formation of the continents we know today. Pangia is not a recognized term or alternative name for the supercontinent.

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  • 16. 

    As oceanic crust moves away from the mid-ocean ridge, it cools and becomes more dense.

    Correct Answer
    Explanation
    As oceanic crust moves away from the mid-ocean ridge, it cools because it is no longer in contact with the hot magma beneath the ridge. As it cools, the minerals in the crust solidify and become more tightly packed, increasing its density. This process is known as thermal contraction. The cooling and densification of the oceanic crust is a key factor in the formation of new crust at mid-ocean ridges and the movement of tectonic plates.

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  • 17. 

    The lithosphere includes all of the core and _______ part of the mantle.

    Correct Answer
    crust; Crust
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "crust; Crust." The lithosphere refers to the outermost layer of the Earth, which includes the crust and a portion of the upper mantle. The crust is the thinnest and outermost layer of the Earth's lithosphere. It is composed of solid rocks and is divided into two types: continental crust and oceanic crust. Therefore, the statement "The lithosphere includes all of the core and part of the mantle" is incorrect as it only includes the crust and a portion of the mantle.

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  • 18. 

    Classify each of the plate boundaries shown on the figure and identify the type of boundary shown.

  • 19. 

    If the boundary shown at A occured on land instead of the ocean floor, what would be the long-term result?

  • 20. 

    Compare and contrast the three different types of convergent boundaries.

  • 21. 

    Describe the process of sea floor spreading.

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  • Current Version
  • Jan 12, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 13, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Chellmacaroni
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