Pharmacology Chapters 1 And 2

118 Questions

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Pharmacology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which information is of highest priority when obtaining a pharmacologic history from a patient?
    • A. 

      Allergies

    • B. 

      Use of over-the-counter medications

    • C. 

      Home remedy use

    • D. 

      Alcohol intake

  • 2. 
    During the implementation phase of the nursing process, which action will the nurse perform when administering medications?
    • A. 

      Switch the route of administration based on drug availability.

    • B. 

      Call the patient by name when entering the room to verify the drug is for the right person.

    • C. 

      Check the patient’s armband before administering the medication.

    • D. 

      Prepare medications for all patients first, then administer by room to manage time

  • 3. 
    For which activity is the nurse responsible during the evaluation phase of drug administration?
    • A. 

      Preparing and administering prescribed medications safely

    • B. 

      Planning measurable outcomes for the patient related to drug therapy

    • C. 

      Monitoring the patient continuously for therapeutic as well as adverse effects

    • D. 

      Gathering data in a drug and dietary history

  • 4. 
    The nurse should include which information when evaluating the outcome after a patient’s medication has been administered?
    • A. 

      Dose of medication administered

    • B. 

      Time medication administered

    • C. 

      Patient allergies to medications

    • D. 

      Therapeutic effect of patient

  • 5. 
    The nurse should check a medication how many times before administration of a medication under the “right drug” part of the Six Rights?
    • A. 

      One time

    • B. 

      Three times

    • C. 

      Five times

    • D. 

      Depends on the drug being administered

  • 6. 
    The nurse notes that a medication was scheduled to be administered at 0900. A medication error has occurred if the medication was administered at which time?
    • A. 

      0800

    • B. 

      0830

    • C. 

      0900

    • D. 

      0930

  • 7. 
    While the nurse is taking an admission history, the patient reports having a previous allergic reaction to penicillins. What will the nurse document as part of the patient’s allergic reaction response to penicillins?
    • A. 

      Hives

    • B. 

      Dry eyes

    • C. 

      Frequent urination

    • D. 

      Constipation

  • 8. 
    The nursing process is important as a well-established, research-supported framework for professional nursing practice. Which is the correct order for the steps of the nursing process?
    • A. 

      Evaluation, Planning, Diagnoses, Assessment, Implementation

    • B. 

      Planning, Assessment, Diagnoses, Implementation, Evaluation

    • C. 

      Diagnoses, Assessment, Planning, Evaluation, Implementation

    • D. 

      Assessment, Diagnoses, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation

  • 9. 
    The nurse has an order for administering a medication to the patient. Which providers have legal authority to prescribe medications for patients? (Select all that apply.)
    • A. 

      Physician

    • B. 

      Physical therapist

    • C. 

      Pharmacist

    • D. 

      Dentist

    • E. 

      Physician assistant

    • F. 

      Nurse practitioner

  • 10. 
    Which phase of the nursing process requires the nurse to establish a comprehensive baseline of data concerning a particular patient?
    • A. 

      Assessment

    • B. 

      Planning

    • C. 

      Implementation

    • D. 

      Evaluation

  • 11. 
    The nurse monitors the fulfillment of goals, and may revise them, during which phase of the nursing process?
    • A. 

      Assessment

    • B. 

      Planning

    • C. 

      Implementation

    • D. 

      Evaluation

  • 12. 
    The nurse prepares and administers prescribed medications during which phase of the nursing process?
    • A. 

      Assessment

    • B. 

      Planning

    • C. 

      Implementation

    • D. 

      Evaluation

  • 13. 
    When developing a plan of care, which nursing action ensures the goal statement is patient-centered?
    • A. 

      Considering family input

    • B. 

      Involving the patient

    • C. 

      Developing the goal first, and then sharing it with the patient

    • D. 

      Including the physician

  • 14. 
    The nurse includes which information as part of a complete medication history? (select all that apply)
    • A. 

      Use of street drugs

    • B. 

      Current laboratory work

    • C. 

      History of surgeries

    • D. 

      Use of alcohol

    • E. 

      Use of herbal products

    • F. 

      Family history

  • 15. 
    During which phase of the nursing process does the nurse prioritize the nursing diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Assessment

    • B. 

      Planning

    • C. 

      Implementation

    • D. 

      Evaluation

  • 16. 
    The nurse is administering a medication and the order reads: Give 250 mcg PO now. The tablets in the medication dispensing cabinet are in milligram strength. What is the right does of the drug in milligrams?
  • 17. 
    The nurse is preparing to administer morning doses of medications to a patient and has just checked the patient's name on the identification band. The patient has stated his name. Which is the nurse's next appropriate action?
    • A. 

      Administer the medications

    • B. 

      Ask the patient's wife to verify the patient's identity

    • C. 

      Ask the patient to verify his date of birth

    • D. 

      Check the chart for the patient's date of birth

  • 18. 
    The nurse is administering a medication and the order reads: Give 0.125 mg PO now. The tablets in pixis are in microgram strength. What is the right dose of the drug in micrograms?
  • 19. 
    Examples of enteral dosage routes (select all that apply)
    • A. 

      Sublingual

    • B. 

      Subcutaneous

    • C. 

      Buccal

    • D. 

      Time released tablets

    • E. 

      Transdermal

  • 20. 
    Examples of Parenteral dosage routes
    • A. 

      Transdermal

    • B. 

      Intradermal

    • C. 

      Tablets

    • D. 

      Inhaled

    • E. 

      Rectal

  • 21. 
    Examples of topical dosage routes
    • A. 

      Inhaled

    • B. 

      Intramuscular

    • C. 

      Sublingual

    • D. 

      Nitroglycerin ointment

    • E. 

      Elixir

  • 22. 
    Which organ is most responsible for the metabolism of drugs?
    • A. 

      Spleen

    • B. 

      Stomach

    • C. 

      Liver

    • D. 

      Kidney

  • 23. 
    What is the primary organ responsible for elimination?
    • A. 

      LIver

    • B. 

      Kidney

    • C. 

      Large Intestine

    • D. 

      Lungs

  • 24. 
    After how many half-live are most drugs considered to be effectively removed from the body?
    • A. 

      Five

    • B. 

      Three

    • C. 

      Eight

    • D. 

      Two

  • 25. 
    When considering the various routes of drug elimination, the nurse is aware that elimination occurs mainly by which routes?
    • A. 

      Renal tubules and skin

    • B. 

      Skin and lungs

    • C. 

      Bowel and renal tubules

    • D. 

      Lungs and gastrointestinal tract

  • 26. 
    The nurse is aware that excessive drug dosages, poor circulation, impaired metabolism, or inadequate excretion may result in which drug effect?
    • A. 

      Tolerance

    • B. 

      Cumulative effect

    • C. 

      Incompatibility

    • D. 

      Antagonistic effec

  • 27. 
    Drug half-life is defined as the amount of time required for 50% of a drug to:
    • A. 

      Be absorbed by the body

    • B. 

      Reach therapeutic level

    • C. 

      Exert a response

    • D. 

      Be removed by the body

  • 28. 
    The nurse recognizes that drugs given by which route will be altered by the first-pass effect?
    • A. 

      Oral

    • B. 

      Sublingual

    • C. 

      Subcutaneously

    • D. 

      Intravenous

  • 29. 
    If a drug binds with an enzyme and thereby prevents the enzyme from binding to its normal target cell, it will produce which effect?
    • A. 

      Receptor interaction

    • B. 

      Enzyme affinity

    • C. 

      Enzyme interaction

    • D. 

      Nonspecific interaction

  • 30. 
    A drug has a half life of 4 hours. If at 0800 the drug level is measure as 200 mg/L, at what time would the drug level be 50mg/L?
  • 31. 
    What factors can influence the rate of medication metabolism
    • A. 

      Age

    • B. 

      Gender

    • C. 

      First-pass effect

    • D. 

      Nutritional status

    • E. 

      Increase in certain medication-metabolizing enzymes

    • F. 

      Bowel obstuction

    • G. 

      Similar metabolic pathways

  • 32. 
    LIver and kidney function can effect half-life.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 33. 
    A client is prescribed phenobarbital sodium (Luminal) for a seizure disorder. The medication has a long half-life of 4 days. Based on this half-life, the medication will most likely be prescribed:
    • A. 

      Once a day

    • B. 

      Twice a day

    • C. 

      Three times a day

    • D. 

      Four times a day

  • 34. 
    A nurse educator is reviewing medications dosages and factors that influence medication metabolism with a group of nurses. Medication dosages may need to be decreased for which of the following reasons? (choose all that apply)
    • A. 

      Increased renal excretion

    • B. 

      Increased medication-metabolizing enzymes

    • C. 

      Liver failure

    • D. 

      Peripheral vascular disease

    • E. 

      Concurrent use of medication metabolized by the same pathway

  • 35. 
    A nurse preparing to administer eye drops to a client. Which of the following are appropriate nursing interventions related to this procedure?
    • A. 

      Using medical aseptic technique

    • B. 

      Asking the client to look up at the ceiling

    • C. 

      Having the client lie in a side-lying position

    • D. 

      Dropping medication into the center of the client's conjunctival sac

    • E. 

      Instructing the client to close the eye gently

  • 36. 
    A nurse is completing discharge teaching to a client who has a new prescription for a transdermal medication. Which of the following statements be the client indicates understanding of the teaching?
    • A. 

      "I will clean the site with an alcohol swab prior to applying the patch"

    • B. 

      "I will rotate the application sites weekly"

    • C. 

      "I will apply the patch to an area of the skin with no hair"

    • D. 

      "I will place the new patch on the site of the old patch"

  • 37. 
    A Nurse is reviewing a client's health record and notes a new prescription by the provider to verify the trough level of the client's medication. Which of the following actions should the nurses take?
    • A. 

      Have a blood specimen obtained immediately prior to the next dose of medication

    • B. 

      Verify that the client has been on the medication for 24hr before ordering a blood specimen

    • C. 

      Ask the client to provide a urine specimen after the next dose of medication

    • D. 

      Begin administering the medication, and obtain a blood specimen

  • 38. 
    Which part of the nursing process should be realistic, timed, and measurable? 
    • A. 

      Assessment

    • B. 

      Nursing diagnosis

    • C. 

      Plan (goals)

    • D. 

      Implementation

    • E. 

      Evaluation

  • 39. 
    You are transcribing an order that reads, "give ceftriaxone one milligram orally now". How would you write the amount correctly?
  • 40. 
    The order of Bill Smith's chart reads, "give demerol 75mg. now". what "right" is missing for you to give this medication safely? (just one)
  • 41. 
    The LPN is assigned to a patient who is newly diagnosed with type 1 mellitus. Which of the following best illustrates an outcome critierion for this patient?
    • A. 

      The patient will follow instructions

    • B. 

      The patient will not experience complications

    • C. 

      The patient adheres to the new insulin treatment regimen

    • D. 

      The patient demonstrates safe insulin self-administration techniques after 3 lessons

  • 42. 
    When the LPN is transcribing orders and considering when to correctly administer a medication, the following factors listed would be the most important to assess:
    • A. 

      If the patient is male or female

    • B. 

      The patients last meal

    • C. 

      The patients weight

    • D. 

      Patient's identification.

  • 43. 
    A pain medication is ordered to be given every 4 hours prn. What does prn mean?
  • 44. 
    A 77 year old has a diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection. He tells the LPN that he is allergic to Penicillin. Which of the following is the most appropriate response?
    • A. 

      "that's to be expected, lost of people are allergic to penicillin."

    • B. 

      "what type of reaction did you have when you took penicillin?"

    • C. 

      "Drug allergies don't usually occur in older individuals because they ahve built up resistance."

    • D. 

      "The doctor saw on teh chart that you said you were allergic to penicillin, but he still wants you to have it."

  • 45. 
    What is the most appropriate response to a patient who informs the nurse that he or she does not want to share information about the drugs he or she takes at home?
    • A. 

      "This information will not become part of your medical record, but we need to know so that we can monitor your responses to therapy while you are here."

    • B. 

      "The information about the drugs you take at home, including herbal products, is important for safe administration of drugs wile you are here and will be kept confidential."

    • C. 

      "It sounds like you are taking something that you don't want us to know about."

    • D. 

      "We are just asking to make sure you don't have any drug allergies."

  • 46. 
    Which of the following questions is most helpful in compiling a drug history for a patient?
    • A. 

      "Do you have a family history of heart disease?"

    • B. 

      "What medication relieves your pain?"

    • C. 

      "What childhood diseases have you had?"

    • D. 

      "What surgeries have you had?"

  • 47. 
    Which of the following must occur for a goal statement to be patient centered?
    • A. 

      Family input must be considered in developing a goal

    • B. 

      The patient must be involved in establishing the goal

    • C. 

      The nurse must develop the goal

    • D. 

      The doctor must be involved in establishing the goal

  • 48. 
    A doctor orders a medication to be given one time every day. You would write this as:
    • A. 

      QD

    • B. 

      QID

    • C. 

      Once a day

    • D. 

      Every A.M.

  • 49. 
    You prepare and administer an antibiotic injection the nurse practitioner in the clinic ordered. Which phase of the nursing process would this be?
    • A. 

      Assessment

    • B. 

      Nursing diagnosis

    • C. 

      Plan (goals)

    • D. 

      Implementation

    • E. 

      Evaluation

  • 50. 
    How many times do you check a medication before giving it?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

  • 51. 
    How many patient identifiers did the Joint Commission state a nurse needs to check before giving a medication or doing a procedure on a patient?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

  • 52. 
    If a prescriber gives a verbal order, the order on the chart should be signed by the prescriber within _______hours.
  • 53. 
    You receive an order to give Benadryl (diphenhydramine). Benadryl would be the
    • A. 

      Chemical name

    • B. 

      Generic name

    • C. 

      Trade name

  • 54. 
    An 86-year-old patient is being discharged to home on digitalis therapy and has very little information regarding the medication. Which statement best reflects a realistic outcome of patient teaching activities?
    • A. 

      The patient and patient's daughter will state the proper way to take the drug.

    • B. 

      B) The nurse will provide teaching about the drug's adverse effects. b) The nurse will provide teaching about the drug's adverse effects. The nurse will provide teaching about the drug's adverse effects

    • C. 

      The patient will state all the symptoms of digitalis toxicity

    • D. 

      The patient will call the prescriber if adverse effects occur

  • 55. 
    A patient has a new prescription for a blood pressure medication that may cause him to feel dizzy during the first few days of therapy. Which is the best nursing diagnosis for this situation?
    • A. 

      Activity intolerance

    • B. 

      Risk for injury

    • C. 

      Disturbed body image

    • D. 

      Self-care deficit

  • 56. 
    The nurse is compiling a drug history for a patient. Which question from the nurse will obtain the most information from the patient?
    • A. 

      "do you depend on sleeping pills to get to sleep?"

    • B. 

      "do you have a family history of heart disease?"

    • C. 

      "When you have pain, what do you do to relieve it?"

    • D. 

      "What childhood diseases did you have."

  • 57. 
    A patient's chart includes an order that reads as follows: "Lanoxin 250mcg once daily at 0900." Which action by the nurse is correct?
    • A. 

      The nurse give the drug via transdermal route

    • B. 

      The nurse gives the drug orally

    • C. 

      The nurse give the drug intravenously

    • D. 

      The nurse contacts the provider to specify the dosage route

  • 58. 
    The nurse is reviewing new medication orders that have been written for a newly admitted patient. The nurse will need to clarify which orders? Select all that apply
    • A. 

      Metformin (Glucophage) 1000mg PO twice a day

    • B. 

      Sitagliptin (Januvia) 50mg daily

    • C. 

      Simvastatin (Zocor) 20mg PO every evening

    • D. 

      Irbesartan (Avapro) 300 mg PO once a day

    • E. 

      Docusate (Colace) as needed for constipation

  • 59. 
    A nurse is preparing a client's medications. Which of the following are legal responsibilities of the nurse? (select all that apply)
    • A. 

      Maintaining skill competency

    • B. 

      Determining the dosage

    • C. 

      Monitoring for adverse effects

    • D. 

      Safeguarding medications

    • E. 

      Identifying the client's diagnosis

  • 60. 
    A nurse is reviewing a client's health record and nots a new prescription by the provider for lisinopril (Zestril) 10 mg PO every day. The nurse should recognize this a which of the following types of prescription?
    • A. 

      Single prescription

    • B. 

      Stat prescription

    • C. 

      Routine prescription

    • D. 

      PRN prescription

  • 61. 
    A nurse is reviewing a new prescription for for ondansetron (Zofran) 4mg PO PRN nausea and vomiting for a client who has hyperemesis gravidarum. The nurse should clarify which of the following parts of the prescription with the provider?
    • A. 

      Name

    • B. 

      Dosage

    • C. 

      Route

    • D. 

      Time

  • 62. 
    A newly hired nurse asks another nurse about how to accept a telephone prescription. Which of the following statements by the newly hired nurse indicates understanding of the discussion?
    • A. 

      "A second nurse enter the prescription into the client's health record."

    • B. 

      "Another nurse should listen to the phone call."

    • C. 

      "The provider can clarify the prescription when he signs the health record."

    • D. 

      "The ''read back' is omitted if this is a one-time prescription."

  • 63. 
    A nurse on a medical unit is collecting data from a client before administration of medications. Which of the following data should the nurse include? (select all that apply)
    • A. 

      Use of herbal teas

    • B. 

      Daily fluid intake

    • C. 

      Current health status

    • D. 

      Previous surgical history

    • E. 

      Food allergies

  • 64. 
    For  dosages less than 1, round to the nearest
    • A. 

      Hundredth

    • B. 

      Tenth

    • C. 

      Whole number

    • D. 

      Thousandth

  • 65. 
    For dosages greater than 1, round to the nearest
    • A. 

      Hundredth

    • B. 

      Tenth

    • C. 

      Whole number

    • D. 

      Thousandth

  • 66. 
    A nurse is caring for a client who is receiving cefotaxime (Claforan) 1g by intermittent IV bolus. The amount available is cefotaxime 1g in dextrose 5% in water (D5W) 100mL to infuse over 45 min. The drop factor shown on the package of IV tubing is 10gtt/mL. The nurse should make sure the manual IV infusion deliver how many gtt/min? Round to the nearest whole number
  • 67. 
    A nurse is caring for a client who is receiving clindamycin (Cleocin) 200mg by intermittent IV bolus. The amount available is clindamycin injection 200mg in 100mL 0.9% NaCL to infuse over 30 min. The nurse should make sure the IV pump delivers how many mL/hr? Round the answer to the nearest whole number.
  • 68. 
    A nurse is preparing to administer furosemide (Lasix) 80mg PO daily. The amount available is furosemide oral solution 40mg/5mL. How many mL should the nurse administer (round answer to the nearest whole number)
  • 69. 
    A nurse is preparing to administer dextrose 5% in water (D5W) 750 mL IV to infuse over 6hr. The nurse should set the IV pump to deliver how many mL/hr? (round to the nearest whole number)
  • 70. 
    A nurse is preparing to administer haloperidol (Haldol) 2mg PO every 12 hr. The amount available is haloperidol 1mg/tablet/ How many tablet should the nurse administer? (round answer to the nearest whole number)
  • 71. 
    A nurse is preparing to administer amoxicillin (Amoxil) 20mg/kg/day PO divided in equal doses every 12 hr to a preschool child who weighs 44lb. The amount available is amoxicillin suspension 250 mg/5 mL. How many mL should the nurse administer per dose?
  • 72. 
    A nurse is preparing to administer heparin 15000 units subcutaneously every 12 hr. The amount available is heparin injection 20,000 units/mL. How many mL should the nurse administer per dose? (round the answer to the nearest tenth)
  • 73. 
    A nurse is preparing to administer acetaminophen (Tylenol) 650 mg PO every 6 hr PRN for pain. The amount available is actaminophen liquid 500mg/5mL. How many mL should the nurse administer per dose? (round the answer to the nearest tenth)
  • 74. 
    IV medications should never infuse through tubing that is infusing what?
  • 75. 
    When multiple medications are infusing through the same  tubing they must be _________
  • 76. 
    When inserting an IV into an older adult client, client tkaing anticoagulants, or client who have fragile veins, you should instruct the client to hold his hand __________the level of his heart
    • A. 

      Below

    • B. 

      Above

    • C. 

      Even with

  • 77. 
    A nurse is observing a client's IV site. Which of the following findings indicate phlebitis? (select all that apply)
    • A. 

      Tingling sensation below insertion site

    • B. 

      Tachycardia

    • C. 

      Palpable, hard mass above insertion site

    • D. 

      Cool, pale skin

    • E. 

      Pain at site

  • 78. 
    A nurse manager is reviewing facility policies for IV therapy management with the members of his team. The nurse manager should inform the team members that which of the following techniques will minimize the risk of catheter embolism?
    • A. 

      Perform hand hygiene before and after IV insertion

    • B. 

      Rotate the IV sites at least every 72 hr

    • C. 

      Minimize tourniquet time

    • D. 

      Avoid reinserting the needle into an IV catheter

  • 79. 
    A nurse is preparing to initiate IV therapy for an older adult client. Which of the following actions should the nurse plan to take?
    • A. 

      Use a disposable razor to remove excess hair on the extremity

    • B. 

      Select the back of the client's hand to insert the IV catheter

    • C. 

      Distend the vein by using blood pressure cuff

    • D. 

      Direct the client to raise his arm above his heart

  • 80. 
    A nurse is caring for a client receiving D5W IV at 250 mL/hr. Which of the following finding indicate fluid overload? (select all that apply)
    • A. 

      Hypotension

    • B. 

      Bradycardia

    • C. 

      Shortness of breath

    • D. 

      Crackles heard in lungs

    • E. 

      Distended neck veins

  • 81. 
    A nurse is preparing to administer D5W 200 mL IV to infuse over 5hr. The nurse should set the IV pump to deliver how many mL/hr?
  • 82. 
    When clients take two medications that have the same adverse effect, the risk of these effects ________.
    • A. 

      Decrease

    • B. 

      Increase

    • C. 

      No change in risk

  • 83. 
    When one medication  increases the metabolism of a second medication, it causes the therapeutic effects to ___________ in the second medication.
    • A. 

      Decrease

    • B. 

      Increase

    • C. 

      Remain the same

  • 84. 
    Consuming foods that contain tyramine while taking MAOIs can lead to ___________.
    • A. 

      Liver failure

    • B. 

      Kidney failure

    • C. 

      Hypertensive crisis

    • D. 

      Toxicity

  • 85. 
    A nurse is reinforcing teaching for a client who has a new prescription for a tetracycline antibiotic to treat Lyme disease. The nurse should remind the client to eliminate which of the following from her diet for the duration of treatment?
    • A. 

      Milk products

    • B. 

      Green, leafy vegetables

    • C. 

      Grapefruit juice

    • D. 

      Processed meats

  • 86. 
    A nurse is preparing to administer an IM dose of penicillin to a client who has a new prescription. The client states she took penicillin 3 years ago and developed a rash. Which of the following is an appropriate nursing action?
    • A. 

      Administer the prescribed dose

    • B. 

      Withhold the medication

    • C. 

      Ask the provider to change the prescription to an oral form

    • D. 

      Administer an oral antihistamine at the same time.

  • 87. 
    A nurse is reinforcing discharge instructions for a client who has a new prescription for an antihypertensive medication. Which of the following is an appropriate statement by the nurse?
    • A. 

      "Be sure to limit your potassium intake while taking the medication"

    • B. 

      "You should check your blood pressure every 8 hr while taking the medication"

    • C. 

      "Your medication dosage will be increased if you develop tachycardia"

    • D. 

      "Change positions slowly when you move from sitting to standing"

  • 88. 
    A nurse is reviewing a client's health record and notes that the previous medication caused permanent extrapyramidal effects. The nurse recognizes that the medication affected the client's
    • A. 

      Cardiovascular system

    • B. 

      Immune system

    • C. 

      Central nervous system

    • D. 

      Gastrointestinal system

  • 89. 
    A nurse is caring for a client who is taking oral oxycodone (Percolone), an opioid analgesic. The client states he is also taking ibuprofen (Advil), an NSAID, in three recommended doses daily. The interaction between these two medications will cause which of the following?
    • A. 

      A decrease in serum levels of ibuprofen, possibly leading to a need for increased doses of this medication

    • B. 

      A decrease in serum levels of oxycodone, possibly leading to a need for increased doses of this medication

    • C. 

      An increase in the expected therapeutic effect of both medications

    • D. 

      An increase in expected adverse effects for both medications

  • 90. 
    An elderly woman took a prescription medicine to help her to sleep; however, she felt restless all night and did not sleep at all. The nurse recognizes that this woman has experience which type of reaction or effect?
    • A. 

      Allergic reaction

    • B. 

      Idiosyncratic reaction

    • C. 

      Mutagenic effect

    • D. 

      Synergistic effect

  • 91. 
    While caring for a patient with cirrhosis or hepatitis, the nurse knows that abnormalities in which phase of pharmacokinetics may occur?
    • A. 

      Absorption

    • B. 

      Distribution

    • C. 

      Metabolism

    • D. 

      Excretion

  • 92. 
    A patient who has advanced cancer is receiving opioid medications around the clock to "keep him comfortable" as he nears the end of his life. Which term best describes this type of therapy?
    • A. 

      Palliative therapy

    • B. 

      Maintenance therapy

    • C. 

      Supportive therapy

    • D. 

      Supplemental therapy

  • 93. 
    The nurse is giving medications to a patient in heart failure. The intravenous route is chosen instead of the intramuscular route. The nurse knows that the factor that most influences the decision about which route to use is the patient's
    • A. 

      Altered biliary function

    • B. 

      Increased glomerular filtration

    • C. 

      Reduced liver metabolism

    • D. 

      Diminished circulation

  • 94. 
    A patient has just received a prescription for an enteric-coated stool softener. When teaching the patient, the nurse should include which statement?
    • A. 

      "take the tablet with 2 to 3 ounces of orange juice

    • B. 

      "avoid taking all other medications with any enteric coated tablet"

    • C. 

      "Crush the tablet before swallowing if you have problems with swallowing."

    • D. 

      "Be sure to swallow the tablet whole without chewing it."

  • 95. 
    A drug that delivers 500 mg has a half-life of 4 hours. How many milligrams of drug will remain in the body after 1 half-life?
  • 96. 
    What is the study of the physiochemical properties of drugs and how they influence the body called?
    • A. 

      Pharmacokinetics

    • B. 

      Pharmacotherapeutics

    • C. 

      Pharmacodynamics

    • D. 

      Pharmacology

  • 97. 
    Pharmacokinetics involves the study of
    • A. 

      Physiologic interactions of drugs

    • B. 

      Distribution rates among various body compartments

    • C. 

      Interactions between various drugs

    • D. 

      Adverse reactions to medications

  • 98. 
    What is an alternate name for biotransformation of a drug?
    • A. 

      Absorption

    • B. 

      Dilution

    • C. 

      Excretion

    • D. 

      Metabolism

  • 99. 
    A drug given by which route is altered by the first-pass effect?
    • A. 

      Sublingual

    • B. 

      Subcutaneous

    • C. 

      Oral

    • D. 

      Intravenous

  • 100. 
    Drug half-life is defined as the amount of time required for 50% of a drug to
    • A. 

      Be absorbed by the body

    • B. 

      Exert a response

    • C. 

      Be eliminated by the body

    • D. 

      Reach a therapeutic level

  • 101. 
    Which action, when performed by the nurse, will increase the absorption of a medication administered intramuscularly?
    • A. 

      Applying cold packs to the injection site

    • B. 

      Lowering the extremity below the level of the heart

    • C. 

      Administering the medication via the Z-track method

    • D. 

      Massaging the site after injection

  • 102. 
    HIghly protein-bound drugs
    • A. 

      Increase the risk of drug-drug interactions

    • B. 

      Typically provide a short duration of action

    • C. 

      Must be administered with 8 ounces of water

    • D. 

      Have a decreased effect in patients with a low albumin level

  • 103. 
    To achieve the most rapid onset of action, the health care provider will prescribe the medication to be administered by which route?
    • A. 

      Subcutaneously

    • B. 

      Intravenously

    • C. 

      Intramuscularly

    • D. 

      Intrathecally

  • 104. 
    Patients with renal failure would most likely have problems with drug
    • A. 

      Excretion

    • B. 

      Absorption

    • C. 

      Metabolism

    • D. 

      Distribution

  • 105. 
    What is the ratio between a drug’s therapeutic effects and toxic effects called?
    • A. 

      Tolerance

    • B. 

      Cumulative effect

    • C. 

      Therapeutic index

    • D. 

      Affinity

  • 106. 
    When a patient asks the nurse why a lower dose of intravenous pain medication is being given than the previous oral dose, what knowledge will the nurse draw on to respond to the patient?
    • A. 

      Medications given intravenously are not affected by the first-pass effect.

    • B. 

      Medications given orally bypass the portal circulatory system

    • C. 

      A large percentage of an intravenously administered drug is metabolized into inactive metabolites in the liver.

    • D. 

      Drugs administered intravenously enter the portal system prior to systemic distribution.

  • 107. 
    The nurse understands that drugs exert their actions on the body by (Select all that apply.)
    • A. 

      Interacting with receptors

    • B. 

      Making the cell perform a new function

    • C. 

      Inhibiting the action of a specific enzyme

    • D. 

      Altering metabolic chemical processes

  • 108. 
    The nurse needs to be aware that which factors will affect the absorption of orally administered medications? (Select all that apply.)
    • A. 

      Presence of food in the stomach

    • B. 

      PH of the stomach

    • C. 

      Patient position upon intake of the medication

    • D. 

      Form of drug preparation

    • E. 

      Time of day