Pharmacy (PTCB) Certification Practice Exam

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PTCB Quizzes & Trivia

This is a quiz to help prepare you for the PTCB pharmacy certification exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which route of administration is not an enteral route?

    • A.

      Rectal

    • B.

      Inhalation

    • C.

      Buccal

    • D.

      Sublingual

    Correct Answer
    B. Inhalation
    Explanation
    Inhalation is not an enteral route of administration because it involves the direct delivery of substances into the respiratory system through the inhalation of gases, vapors, or aerosols. Enteral routes, on the other hand, involve the administration of substances through the gastrointestinal tract, such as oral (through the mouth), rectal (through the rectum), buccal (through the cheek), or sublingual (under the tongue) routes.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following routes is least likely to give a systemic effect?

    • A.

      Oral

    • B.

      Sublingual

    • C.

      Rectal

    • D.

      Inradermal

    Correct Answer
    D. Inradermal
    Explanation
    The intradermal route is least likely to give a systemic effect because it involves injecting the medication into the dermis layer of the skin, which is not highly vascularized. This means that the medication is absorbed slowly and does not enter the bloodstream in significant amounts. In contrast, oral, sublingual, and rectal routes involve absorption through highly vascularized tissues (such as the gastrointestinal tract) or mucous membranes, allowing for greater systemic absorption of the medication.

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  • 3. 

    Within the alimentary tract, pHs of 5-7 are typically found in the

    • A.

      Stomach

    • B.

      Large intestine

    • C.

      Small intestine

    • D.

      Mouth

    Correct Answer
    C. Small intestine
    Explanation
    The small intestine is the correct answer because it is the part of the alimentary tract where pH levels of 5-7 are typically found. The small intestine is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food, and it has a slightly alkaline environment to facilitate these processes. The stomach, on the other hand, has a highly acidic environment with a pH of around 1-3, while the large intestine has a slightly acidic to neutral pH. The mouth also has a neutral pH, but it is not typically associated with pH levels of 5-7.

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  • 4. 

    A dissolution step would not be necessary for drug absorption from a/an

    • A.

      Capsule

    • B.

      Intramuscular suspension

    • C.

      Intravenous solution

    • D.

      Suppository

    Correct Answer
    C. Intravenous solution
    Explanation
    A dissolution step would not be necessary for drug absorption from an intravenous solution because the drug is already in a liquid form and directly injected into the bloodstream. Unlike other dosage forms like capsules, intramuscular suspensions, and suppositories, which require dissolution or melting before the drug can be absorbed into the body, an intravenous solution bypasses the need for this step as it delivers the drug directly into the bloodstream for immediate absorption.

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  • 5. 

    The max amount that should be administered for intravenous injections is what?

    • A.

      2 mLs

    • B.

      No max amount

    • C.

      5 mLs

    • D.

      0.1 mLs

    Correct Answer
    B. No max amount
    Explanation
    Intravenous injections refer to the administration of medication or fluids directly into the bloodstream. Unlike other routes of administration, such as oral or intramuscular, intravenous injections allow for rapid and complete absorption of the medication. Therefore, there is no specific maximum amount that should be administered for intravenous injections. The dosage and volume of medication administered intravenously are determined by various factors, including the patient's condition, weight, and medical history, as well as the specific medication being administered. The healthcare provider will carefully assess these factors and determine the appropriate dosage for each individual patient.

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  • 6. 

    The max amount that should be administered for subcutaneous injections is what?

    • A.

      No max amount

    • B.

      5 mLs

    • C.

      0.1 mLs

    • D.

      2 mLs

    Correct Answer
    D. 2 mLs
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 2 mLs. This is because subcutaneous injections are administered into the fatty tissue layer beneath the skin, and there is a limit to the amount of fluid that can be effectively absorbed in this area. Administering more than 2 mLs can lead to discomfort, pain, and potential complications such as tissue damage or infection. Therefore, it is important to adhere to the recommended maximum amount of 2 mLs for subcutaneous injections.

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  • 7. 

    The max amount the should be administered for intramuscular injections is what?

    • A.

      0.1 mLs

    • B.

      2 mLs

    • C.

      5 mLs

    • D.

      No max amount

    Correct Answer
    C. 5 mLs
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 5 mLs because intramuscular injections can generally accommodate larger volumes of medication compared to other routes of administration. However, it is important to consider the specific medication being administered and the individual patient's condition to determine the appropriate dosage and volume. While there is no specific maximum amount for intramuscular injections, healthcare professionals must always follow safe administration practices and consider factors such as the site of injection, patient's age and weight, and the medication's concentration and recommended dosage.

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  • 8. 

    The max amount that should be administered for intradermal injections is what?

    • A.

      0.1 mLs

    • B.

      5 mLs

    • C.

      2 mLs

    • D.

      No max amount

    Correct Answer
    A. 0.1 mLs
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 0.1 mLs. Intradermal injections are administered into the dermis layer of the skin, which has a limited capacity to hold fluids. Injecting more than 0.1 mLs can cause discomfort and may lead to the medication being absorbed too quickly or not being absorbed at all. Therefore, it is important to administer only the recommended maximum amount for intradermal injections to ensure proper absorption and minimize any potential adverse effects.

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  • 9. 

    Modified release tablets might be called

    • A.

      Extended release

    • B.

      Prolonged action

    • C.

      Long acting

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because modified release tablets can be referred to as extended release, prolonged action, or long acting tablets. These terms are used interchangeably to describe medications that are designed to release the active ingredient slowly and continuously over an extended period of time, providing a longer duration of action compared to immediate release tablets.

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  • 10. 

    Nonaqueous solutions often contain glycerin, alcohol, and

    • A.

      Polyethylene glycol

    • B.

      Polyvinyl alcohol

    • C.

      Propylene glycol

    • D.

      Chloroform

    Correct Answer
    C. Propylene glycol
    Explanation
    Nonaqueous solutions are solutions that do not contain water as the solvent. They often contain substances like glycerin, alcohol, and polyethylene glycol. Propylene glycol is another common substance found in nonaqueous solutions. It is a clear, colorless liquid that is miscible with water and many organic solvents. It is commonly used as a solvent, preservative, and humectant in various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. Therefore, propylene glycol is a suitable choice for a nonaqueous solution.

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  • 11. 

    A gel

    • A.

      Is two non-mixable components and an emulsifier

    • B.

      Is a network of interlacing particles

    • C.

      Has undissolved drug in a solvent

    • D.

      Is a saturated solution of sucrose

    Correct Answer
    B. Is a network of interlacing particles
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "is a network of interlacing particles." This answer accurately describes an emulsifier as a substance that forms a network or structure of interlacing particles. This network helps to stabilize and mix two non-mixable components, such as oil and water, by preventing them from separating.

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  • 12. 

    The best known example of a drug given by sublingual administration is

    • A.

      Nifedipine

    • B.

      Nitroglycerin

    • C.

      Digoxin

    • D.

      Diltiazem

    Correct Answer
    B. Nitroglycerin
    Explanation
    Nitroglycerin is the best known example of a drug given by sublingual administration. Sublingual administration involves placing the medication under the tongue, where it quickly dissolves and enters the bloodstream. Nitroglycerin is commonly used to treat angina, a condition characterized by chest pain or discomfort due to reduced blood flow to the heart. Sublingual administration allows for rapid absorption and onset of action, making it an effective route of administration for nitroglycerin in emergency situations.

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  • 13. 

    Which parenteral route of administration would typically use the longest needle with the smallest gauge?

    • A.

      Intravenous

    • B.

      Intramuscular

    • C.

      Subcutaneous

    • D.

      Intradermal

    Correct Answer
    A. Intravenous
    Explanation
    Intravenous administration typically uses the longest needle with the smallest gauge because it requires direct access to the vein, which is deeper in the body compared to other routes of administration. The longer needle ensures that the medication reaches the vein, while the smaller gauge minimizes discomfort and damage to the surrounding tissues.

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  • 14. 

    Which intravenous dosage form requires the technician to consider syringeability and injectibility?

    • A.

      Emulsions

    • B.

      Gels

    • C.

      Solutions

    • D.

      Suspensions

    Correct Answer
    D. Suspensions
    Explanation
    Suspensions require the technician to consider syringeability and injectibility. Suspensions are heterogeneous mixtures of solid particles dispersed in a liquid medium. Due to the presence of solid particles, suspensions may have issues with syringeability, which refers to the ability to be drawn into a syringe, and injectibility, which refers to the ability to be easily injected through a needle. Therefore, when preparing or administering suspensions, the technician needs to ensure that the suspension is suitable for syringeability and injectibility.

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  • 15. 

    Which will not be caused by particulate material in an intravenous injection?

    • A.

      Air emboli

    • B.

      Thrombus

    • C.

      Phlebitis

    • D.

      Blood clots

    Correct Answer
    A. Air emboli
    Explanation
    Air emboli are not caused by particulate material in an intravenous injection. Air emboli occur when air bubbles enter the bloodstream and can cause blockages in blood vessels. Particulate material, such as thrombus (blood clot), phlebitis (inflammation of a vein), or blood clots, can potentially cause blockages in blood vessels. However, air emboli are caused by the presence of air bubbles in the bloodstream, not particulate material.

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  • 16. 

    Which is not used to administer a drug by parenteral route?

    • A.

      Syringe

    • B.

      Elastomeric pump

    • C.

      Infusion pump

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    All the options mentioned (syringe, elastomeric pump, infusion pump) are used to administer a drug by the parenteral route. Therefore, the correct answer is "none of the above".

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  • 17. 

    A raised blister-like area on the skin caused from an intradermal injection is called a

    • A.

      Thrombus

    • B.

      Pachyderma

    • C.

      Wheal

    • D.

      Phlebitis

    Correct Answer
    C. Wheal
    Explanation
    A raised blister-like area on the skin caused from an intradermal injection is called a wheal. This is a common reaction to injections where a small amount of fluid is injected just below the skin's surface. The body's immune response to the injection causes localized swelling and redness, resulting in the formation of a wheal. This reaction is typically temporary and subsides on its own.

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  • 18. 

    _________ injections are administered into the top layer of the skin at a slight angle using short needles.

    Correct Answer
    intradermal
    Explanation
    Intradermal injections are administered into the top layer of the skin at a slight angle using short needles. This type of injection is commonly used for skin testing, such as tuberculosis or allergy tests, as it allows for a small amount of medication to be injected just below the surface of the skin. The angle and the use of short needles ensure that the medication is delivered accurately and minimizes the risk of injury or discomfort to the patient.

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  • 19. 

    Which layer of skin contains the stratum corneum?

    • A.

      Dermis

    • B.

      Muscle

    • C.

      Epidermis

    • D.

      Subcutaneous

    Correct Answer
    C. Epidermis
    Explanation
    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the epidermis. It is composed of dead skin cells that have undergone a process called keratinization, which results in the formation of a tough, protective barrier on the surface of the skin. The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis, while the muscle and subcutaneous layers are located deeper within the body. Therefore, the correct answer is epidermis.

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  • 20. 

    Which dermal formulation is a base with drug incorporated into it?

    • A.

      Ointment

    • B.

      Cream

    • C.

      Gel

    • D.

      Lotion

    Correct Answer
    A. Ointment
    Explanation
    An ointment is a dermal formulation that serves as a base for incorporating drugs into it. It is a semi-solid, greasy substance that provides a protective, occlusive layer on the skin. Ointments have a higher concentration of oil compared to other dermal formulations, which allows for better drug absorption and retention on the skin. Therefore, ointments are an effective way to deliver drugs topically and provide localized treatment for various skin conditions. Creams, gels, and lotions may also contain drugs, but ointments are specifically designed as a base for drug incorporation.

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  • 21. 

    Plasters are generally used with what route of administration?

    • A.

      Dermal

    • B.

      Rectal

    • C.

      Intranasal

    • D.

      Vaginal

    Correct Answer
    A. Dermal
    Explanation
    Plasters are generally used with the dermal route of administration. This means that they are applied directly onto the skin to deliver medication locally. Plasters are commonly used for transdermal drug delivery, where the medication is absorbed through the skin and enters the bloodstream. This route of administration is convenient and non-invasive, allowing for controlled release of medication over a period of time.

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  • 22. 

    The primary reason to use a vaginal applicator is to

    • A.

      Prevent a "mess" during application

    • B.

      Prevent patients from using oral tablets by the route

    • C.

      Place the formulation high in the vaginal tract

    • D.

      Enable patients to retrieve the formulation if needed

    Correct Answer
    C. Place the formulation high in the vaginal tract
    Explanation
    The primary reason to use a vaginal applicator is to place the formulation high in the vaginal tract. This is because certain medications or treatments need to be applied directly to the upper part of the vagina for optimal effectiveness. Using a vaginal applicator allows for precise placement of the formulation in the desired area, ensuring that it reaches its intended target and provides the desired therapeutic effect.

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  • 23. 

    Which parenteral solution is not required to be sterile?

    • A.

      Subcutaneous injection

    • B.

      Vaginal

    • C.

      Intranasal

    • D.

      Inhalation

    Correct Answer
    B. Vaginal
    Explanation
    Vaginal administration does not require parenteral solutions to be sterile because the vagina has its own natural defense mechanisms that protect against infection. The vaginal flora, including lactobacilli, helps maintain a healthy pH and prevent the growth of harmful bacteria. Therefore, the introduction of non-sterile solutions into the vagina does not pose a significant risk of infection.

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  • 24. 

    Pyrogens

    • A.

      Grow in parenteral solutions

    • B.

      Are not water soluble

    • C.

      Produce fever

    • D.

      Can be removed by filtration

    Correct Answer
    C. Produce fever
    Explanation
    Pyrogens are substances that can cause fever when introduced into the body. They are not water soluble, meaning they do not dissolve in water. Pyrogens can also grow in parenteral solutions, which are solutions administered outside of the digestive system, such as through injections. However, they can be removed by filtration, a process that separates particles from a liquid by passing it through a filter.

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  • 25. 

    The purpose of USF/NF <797> is to prevent harmful and fatality to patients that can result from

    • A.

      Nonsterile formulations

    • B.

      Excessive bacterial endotoxins

    • C.

      Large errors in the strength of correct ingredients

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The purpose of USP/NF is to ensure patient safety by preventing harmful and fatal outcomes that can arise from nonsterile formulations, excessive bacterial endotoxins, and large errors in the strength of correct ingredients. This standard sets guidelines for compounding sterile preparations to minimize the risk of contamination and errors, ultimately protecting patients from potential harm.

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  • 26. 

    Multidose vials

    • A.

      Can be reused within 48 hrs if refrigerated

    • B.

      Can be reused within 24 hrs if refrigerated

    • C.

      Do not contain preservatives

    • D.

      Contain preservatives

    Correct Answer
    D. Contain preservatives
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that multidose vials contain preservatives. Preservatives are added to multidose vials to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms, ensuring the safety and efficacy of the medication. This allows the vials to be reused multiple times without the risk of contamination.

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  • 27. 

    Irrigation solutions are administered

    • A.

      Through a filter needle

    • B.

      Through a special administration set

    • C.

      Orally

    • D.

      By pouring them out of the bottle

    Correct Answer
    D. By pouring them out of the bottle
    Explanation
    Irrigation solutions are administered by pouring them out of the bottle. This means that the solutions are simply poured out of the bottle and applied to the desired area. This method does not involve the use of a filter needle or a special administration set. Additionally, it is not administered orally, as it is not meant to be ingested.

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  • 28. 

    In horizontal laminar flow hoods, air blows

    • A.

      Down toward the work area

    • B.

      Away from the operator

    • C.

      Toward the operator

    • D.

      Up toward the HEPA filter

    Correct Answer
    C. Toward the operator
    Explanation
    In horizontal laminar flow hoods, air blows toward the operator. This is because the purpose of these hoods is to create a clean and sterile work area for the operator. The airflow is designed to push any contaminants away from the operator and towards the HEPA filter, ensuring that the operator is protected from any potential hazards or contaminants during their work.

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  • 29. 

    With laminar flow, the air moves in_____ direction(s).

    • A.

      Four

    • B.

      Three

    • C.

      Two

    • D.

      One

    Correct Answer
    D. One
    Explanation
    Laminar flow refers to the smooth and orderly movement of air or any fluid in a single direction, without any turbulence or mixing. In this case, the correct answer is "one" because with laminar flow, the air moves in only one direction.

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  • 30. 

    If a laminar flow hood is turned off between aseptic processing sessions, how long should it run before it is used again?

    • A.

      Does not matter

    • B.

      At least 15 minutes

    • C.

      At least 30 minutes

    • D.

      It should never be turned off

    Correct Answer
    C. At least 30 minutes
    Explanation
    When a laminar flow hood is turned off, it allows time for any particles or contaminants in the air to settle. By running the hood for at least 30 minutes before it is used again, it ensures that the air inside the hood is clean and free from any potential contaminants. This helps to maintain the sterility of the environment and minimize the risk of contamination during aseptic processing sessions.

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  • 31. 

    Which is not a correct statement reguarding clean rooms?

    • A.

      Must be a designated area of pharmacy

    • B.

      Must have restricted air flow

    • C.

      Must accomodate most of the equipment for aseptic compounding

    • D.

      Must have proper storage of supplies

    Correct Answer
    B. Must have restricted air flow
    Explanation
    A clean room in a pharmacy must have restricted air flow. This is because air flow can introduce contaminants into the room, compromising the sterility of the compounding process. Therefore, it is important to have controlled air flow in a clean room to maintain a sterile environment. The other statements are correct, as a clean room must be a designated area of the pharmacy, accommodate equipment for aseptic compounding, and have proper storage of supplies.

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  • 32. 

    When using the laminar flow hood, a technician should work inside the hood at least

    • A.

      Two inches

    • B.

      Four inches

    • C.

      Six inches

    • D.

      Eight inches

    Correct Answer
    C. Six inches
    Explanation
    When using a laminar flow hood, it is important for a technician to work inside the hood at least six inches away from the opening. This distance ensures that the technician does not disrupt the laminar airflow, which is necessary to maintain a sterile environment. Working too close to the opening could introduce contaminants into the hood and compromise the integrity of the work being done. Therefore, maintaining a distance of six inches helps to minimize the risk of contamination and ensures the effectiveness of the laminar flow hood.

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  • 33. 

    Which part of an administration set is used to set the flow rate

    • A.

      Spike

    • B.

      Volume control chamber

    • C.

      Flashball

    • D.

      Needle adapter

    Correct Answer
    B. Volume control chamber
    Explanation
    The volume control chamber in an administration set is used to set the flow rate. It allows the user to adjust the amount of fluid that flows through the set per unit of time. By increasing or decreasing the volume of the chamber, the flow rate can be controlled accordingly. This is important in medical settings where precise control of fluid administration is necessary for patient safety and effective treatment. The spike, flashball, and needle adapter are not directly involved in setting the flow rate.

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  • 34. 

    Necrosis is an increase in cell death

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Necrosis is a form of cell death that occurs due to injury, infection, or disease. It is characterized by the premature death of cells in a living organism. During necrosis, cells swell and burst, releasing their contents into the surrounding tissue, which can lead to inflammation and damage. Therefore, it can be concluded that necrosis is indeed an increase in cell death, making the answer "True" correct.

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