Diabetes Symptoms And Causes! Trivia Questions Quiz

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Physiology Quizzes & Trivia

Diabetes in the old days was a disease that people thought was for people of older ages, but it is a fact that even children can get diabetes. This disease is as a result of the blood sugar levels being too high. Do you know about the symptoms and causes of diabetes are? Take up the quiz and test yourself!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Choose the statement that applies to Type I diabetes mellitus.

    • A.

      A. Onset often occurs during childhood.

    • B.

      B. Relative insufficiency of insulin or insulin resistance develops.

    • C.

      C. It can be treated by diet, weight control and exercise, or oral hypoglycemics.

    • D.

      D. Complications rarely occur.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Onset often occurs during childhood.
    Explanation
    Type I diabetes mellitus is characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to a lack of insulin production. This type of diabetes typically develops during childhood or adolescence, which is why the statement "Onset often occurs during childhood" is the correct answer. The other options are not applicable to Type I diabetes. Relative insufficiency of insulin or insulin resistance is seen in Type II diabetes, treatment for Type II diabetes includes diet, weight control, exercise, and oral hypoglycemics, and complications can occur in both Type I and Type II diabetes.

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  • 2. 

    What is the cause of diabetic ketoacidosis?

    • A.

      A. excess insulin in the body

    • B.

      B. loss of glucose in the urine

    • C.

      C. failure of the kidney to excrete sufficient acids

    • D.

      D. increased catabolism of fats and proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. D. increased catabolism of fats and proteins
    Explanation
    Diabetic ketoacidosis is caused by increased catabolism of fats and proteins. In this condition, the body is unable to use glucose for energy due to insufficient insulin, so it starts breaking down fats and proteins instead. This process produces ketones, which are acidic substances that build up in the blood and urine, leading to a state of acidosis. Excess insulin in the body (option a) would actually prevent diabetic ketoacidosis by allowing glucose to be used for energy. Loss of glucose in the urine (option b) is a symptom of uncontrolled diabetes but not the cause of diabetic ketoacidosis. Failure of the kidney to excrete sufficient acids (option c) is not related to the underlying cause of diabetic ketoacidosis.

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  • 3. 

    What is a precipitating factor for diabetic ketoacidosis?

    • A.

      A. skipping a meal

    • B.

      B. strenuous exercise

    • C.

      C. serious infection

    • D.

      D. insulin overdose

    Correct Answer
    C. C. serious infection
    Explanation
    A serious infection can be a precipitating factor for diabetic ketoacidosis because infections can cause an increase in stress hormones, which in turn can lead to an increase in blood glucose levels. This increase in blood glucose levels can then trigger the release of ketones, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following may cause insulin shock to develop?

    • A.

      A. recurrent vomiting

    • B.

      B. missing an insulin dose

    • C.

      C. eating excessively large meals

    • D.

      D. sedentary lifestyle

    Correct Answer
    A. A. recurrent vomiting
    Explanation
    Recurrent vomiting can cause insulin shock to develop because it can lead to a significant decrease in blood glucose levels. When someone vomits, they are not able to keep food down, which can result in a lack of nutrients and glucose in the body. This can cause hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, which can lead to insulin shock if not treated promptly.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following indicates hypoglycemia in a diabetic?

    • A.

      A. deep, rapid respirations

    • B.

      B. flushed dry skin and mucosa

    • C.

      C. thirst and oliguria

    • D.

      D. staggering gait, disorientation, and confusion

    Correct Answer
    D. D. staggering gait, disorientation, and confusion
    Explanation
    Staggering gait, disorientation, and confusion are indicative of hypoglycemia in a diabetic. Hypoglycemia occurs when blood sugar levels drop too low, leading to neurological symptoms such as difficulty walking, confusion, and disorientation. This can happen if a diabetic takes too much insulin or other diabetes medications, skips a meal, or engages in excessive physical activity without adjusting their insulin dosage. It is important for diabetics to recognize these symptoms and take immediate action to raise their blood sugar levels, such as consuming glucose tablets or drinking fruit juice.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following are signs of diabetic ketoacidosis in an unconscious person?

    • A.

      A. pale moist skin

    • B.

      B. thirst and poor skin turgor

    • C.

      C. deep rapid respirations and fruity breath odor

    • D.

      D. tremors and strong rapid pulse

    Correct Answer
    C. C. deep rapid respirations and fruity breath odor
    Explanation
    Deep rapid respirations and fruity breath odor are signs of diabetic ketoacidosis in an unconscious person. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones, which are acidic chemicals. The deep rapid respirations, also known as Kussmaul breathing, occur in an attempt to blow off excess carbon dioxide and acid from the body. The fruity breath odor is caused by the presence of acetone, one of the ketones, in the breath. These signs indicate that the person's body is in a state of metabolic acidosis, which requires immediate medical attention.

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  • 7. 

    What causes loss of consciousness in a person with diabetic ketoacidosis?

    • A.

      A. toxic effects of excessive insulin

    • B.

      B. excessive glucose in the blood

    • C.

      C. acidosis and hypovolemia

    • D.

      D. lack of glucose in brain cells

    Correct Answer
    C. C. acidosis and hypovolemia
    Explanation
    Acidosis and hypovolemia can cause loss of consciousness in a person with diabetic ketoacidosis. Acidosis refers to the buildup of acid in the body, which can disrupt normal brain function and lead to unconsciousness. Hypovolemia, or low blood volume, can result from dehydration caused by the excessive urination and fluid loss associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. When there is not enough fluid in the body, blood flow to the brain can be compromised, leading to loss of consciousness.

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  • 8. 

    Visual impairment may develop in diabetics, primarily because of:

    • A.

      A. abnormal metabolism in the lens

    • B.

      B. macroangiopathy

    • C.

      C. neuropathy affecting cranial nerves

    • D.

      D. development of exophthalmos

    Correct Answer
    A. A. abnormal metabolism in the lens
    Explanation
    Visual impairment may develop in diabetics due to abnormal metabolism in the lens. Diabetes can lead to changes in the lens of the eye, causing it to become less flexible and affecting its ability to focus properly. This can result in blurred vision or difficulty seeing clearly. These changes in the lens are a result of the abnormal metabolism of glucose in the body, which can lead to the accumulation of certain substances in the lens and affect its function.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following applies to diabetic macro-angiography? 1. It affects the small arteries and arterioles. 2. It is related to elevated serum lipids. 3. It leads to increased risk of myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease. 4. It frequently causes damage to the kidneys.

    • A.

      A. 1, 3

    • B.

      B. 1, 4

    • C.

      C. 2, 3

    • D.

      D. 2, 4

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 2, 3
    Explanation
    Diabetic macro-angiography is related to elevated serum lipids, as indicated by option 2. It also leads to an increased risk of myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease, as indicated by option 3. Therefore, the correct answer is c. 2, 3.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes Addison’s disease?

    • A.

      A. increased glucocorticoids

    • B.

      B. decreased glucocorticoids

    • C.

      C. deficit of ADH

    • D.

      D. deficit of T3 and T4

    Correct Answer
    B. B. decreased glucocorticoids
    Explanation
    Addison's disease is caused by a hormonal imbalance characterized by decreased levels of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are hormones produced by the adrenal glands that help regulate metabolism and the immune response. When there is a deficiency of glucocorticoids, as seen in Addison's disease, it can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and darkening of the skin. Therefore, option b, decreased glucocorticoids, is the correct answer.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes myxedema?

    • A.

      A. increased glucocorticoids

    • B.

      B. decreased glucocorticoids

    • C.

      C. deficit of ADH

    • D.

      D. deficit of T3 and T4

    Correct Answer
    D. D. deficit of T3 and T4
    Explanation
    Myxedema is caused by a hormonal imbalance involving a deficit of T3 and T4 hormones. T3 and T4 are thyroid hormones that are responsible for regulating metabolism in the body. When there is a deficiency of these hormones, it can lead to symptoms such as swelling, thickening of the skin, and a slowed metabolism, which are characteristic of myxedema. Increased or decreased glucocorticoids, as well as a deficit of ADH, do not directly cause myxedema.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes diabetes insipidus?

    • A.

      A. increased insulin

    • B.

      B. decreased glucocorticoids

    • C.

      C. deficit of ADH

    • D.

      D. deficit of T3 and T4

    Correct Answer
    C. C. deficit of ADH
    Explanation
    Diabetes insipidus is caused by a deficit of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin. ADH is responsible for regulating the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. When there is a deficit of ADH, the kidneys are unable to properly reabsorb water, leading to excessive urination and thirst, which are characteristic symptoms of diabetes insipidus. Increased insulin, decreased glucocorticoids, and a deficit of T3 and T4 are not associated with diabetes insipidus.

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  • 13. 

    What is caused by hyperparathyroidism?

    • A.

      A. hypocalcemia

    • B.

      B. tetany

    • C.

      C. bone demineralization

    • D.

      D. deficit of vitamin D

    Correct Answer
    C. C. bone demineralization
    Explanation
    Hyperparathyroidism is a condition where the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone, leading to an imbalance in calcium levels in the body. This hormone regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood. When there is an excess of parathyroid hormone, it causes the bones to release more calcium into the bloodstream, leading to bone demineralization. This can result in weakened bones, increased risk of fractures, and osteoporosis. Hypocalcemia refers to low levels of calcium in the blood, tetany is a condition characterized by muscle spasms due to low levels of calcium, and a deficit of vitamin D is not directly caused by hyperparathyroidism.

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  • 14. 

    What is caused by hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism? 1. skeletal muscle twitching or spasm 2. weak cardiac contraction 3. increased secretion of PTH 4. decreased serum phosphate level

    • A.

      A. 1, 2

    • B.

      B. 1, 3

    • C.

      C. 2, 3

    • D.

      D. 3, 4

    Correct Answer
    A. A. 1, 2
    Explanation
    Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism leads to a decrease in calcium levels in the blood. This decrease in calcium can cause skeletal muscle twitching or spasm, as well as weak cardiac contractions. Therefore, options 1 and 2 are both caused by hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following may cause goiter? 1. hyperthyroidism 2. hypothyroidism 3. lack of iodine in the diet 4. pheochromocytoma

    • A.

      A. 1, 4

    • B.

      B. 2, 3

    • C.

      C. 1, 2, 3

    • D.

      D. 1, 2, 3, 4

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 1, 2, 3
    Explanation
    Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and lack of iodine in the diet can all cause goiter. Hyperthyroidism is the overproduction of thyroid hormones, which can lead to an enlarged thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is the underproduction of thyroid hormones, which can also cause goiter. Additionally, goiter can be caused by a lack of iodine in the diet, as iodine is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones. Pheochromocytoma, on the other hand, is a tumor of the adrenal glands and is not known to cause goiter. Therefore, the correct answer is c. 1, 2, 3.

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  • 16. 

    Which signs are typical of Graves’ disease?

    • A.

      A. facial puffiness, bradycardia, and lethargy

    • B.

      B. exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness

    • C.

      C. delayed physical and intellectual development

    Correct Answer
    B. B. exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness
    Explanation
    Exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness are typical signs of Graves' disease. Exophthalmos refers to the protrusion of the eyeballs, which is a common characteristic of this condition. Heat intolerance is another symptom, as individuals with Graves' disease may have difficulty tolerating heat and may experience excessive sweating. Restlessness is also a common sign, as the overactive thyroid gland in Graves' disease can lead to increased energy levels and difficulty sitting still. These three symptoms together are indicative of Graves' disease.

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  • 17. 

    Characteristics of Cushing’s syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      A. heavy body and round face

    • B.

      B. atrophied skeletal muscle in the limbs

    • C.

      C. staring eyes with infrequent blinking

    • D.

      D. atrophy of the lymph nodes

    Correct Answer
    C. C. staring eyes with infrequent blinking
    Explanation
    The characteristics of Cushing's syndrome include a heavy body and round face, atrophied skeletal muscle in the limbs, and atrophy of the lymph nodes. However, staring eyes with infrequent blinking is not a characteristic of Cushing's syndrome.

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  • 18. 

    Why does diabetes insipidus cause polyuria?

    • A.

      A. There is increased osmotic pressure of the filtrate.

    • B.

      B. Damaged tubules cannot reabsorb sufficient fluid.

    • C.

      C. Excessive ADH secretion is present.

    • D.

      D. There is a deficit of ADH.

    • E.

      E. Excessive aldosterone is secreted.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. There is a deficit of ADH.
    Explanation
    Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin. ADH is responsible for regulating the reabsorption of water in the kidneys. When there is a deficit of ADH, the kidneys are unable to reabsorb sufficient fluid, leading to the production of large volumes of dilute urine, a condition known as polyuria. This is why diabetes insipidus causes polyuria.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is an effect of long-term glucocorticoid therapy?

    • A.

      A. decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland

    • B.

      B. an increased inflammatory response to irritants

    • C.

      C. hypotension and poor circulation

    • D.

      D. increased number of hypersensitivity reactions

    Correct Answer
    A. A. decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland
    Explanation
    Long-term glucocorticoid therapy can lead to a negative feedback loop in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This means that the exogenous glucocorticoids suppress the production of endogenous glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex gland. As a result, the adrenal cortex gland secretes less cortisol, leading to decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is an effect of Addison’s disease?

    • A.

      A. elevated blood glucose levels

    • B.

      B. high blood pressure

    • C.

      C. low serum potassium levels

    • D.

      D. poor stress response

    Correct Answer
    D. D. poor stress response
    Explanation
    Addison's disease is a condition characterized by the insufficient production of hormones by the adrenal glands. One of the hormones affected is cortisol, which is responsible for helping the body respond to stress. Therefore, a poor stress response is an effect of Addison's disease.

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  • 21. 

    Why does glucosuria occur in diabetics?

    • A.

      A. Excess ketoacids displace glucose into the filtrate.

    • B.

      B. Excess water in the filtrate draws more glucose into the urine.

    • C.

      C. The amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit.

    • D.

      D. Sufficient insulin is not available for glucose reabsorption.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. The amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit.
    Explanation
    Glucosuria occurs in diabetics because the amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit. In normal individuals, all of the filtered glucose is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream by the renal tubules. However, in diabetics, due to insulin deficiency or resistance, the glucose transporters in the renal tubules are unable to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose. As a result, excess glucose remains in the filtrate and is excreted in the urine, leading to glucosuria.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following are common early signs of a pituitary adenoma? 1. persistent headaches 2. hemianopia 3. hypertension 4. papilledema

    • A.

      A. 1, 4

    • B.

      B. 2, 3

    • C.

      C. 1, 2

    • D.

      D. 1, 3, 4

    Correct Answer
    C. C. 1, 2
    Explanation
    Persistent headaches and hemianopia are common early signs of a pituitary adenoma.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following does NOT apply to inappropriate ADH syndrome?

    • A.

      A. The cause is excess ADH secretion.

    • B.

      B. Severe hyponatremia results.

    • C.

      C. Excessive sodium is retained.

    • D.

      D. Fluid retention increases.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Excessive sodium is retained.
    Explanation
    Inappropriate ADH syndrome is a condition characterized by excess secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to water retention and dilutional hyponatremia. This means that the concentration of sodium in the blood decreases due to the excessive retention of water. Therefore, excessive sodium is not retained in this syndrome, making option c the correct answer.

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