A&p II Test #2 - Part 1

44 Questions
AP Quizzes & Trivia

Dr. Sandel Test II - Part 1 Lymphatic, immune, respiration

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The functions of the lymphatic system include what?
    • A. 

      Lipid Absorption

    • B. 

      Receovery and return of tissue fluid to the circulatory system

    • C. 

      Immune Response

    • D. 

      Nueral communication

    • E. 

      Choices A, B and C

  • 2. 
    Examples of lymphatic organs include myeloid tissue, thymus gland, spleen, tonsils, and what else?
    • A. 

      Kidneys

    • B. 

      Mesentery

    • C. 

      Myocardium

    • D. 

      Lymph Nodes

    • E. 

      Thyroid Gland

  • 3. 
    What is the :little red schoolhouse" as far as T-cells are concerned?
    • A. 

      Spleen

    • B. 

      Lungs

    • C. 

      Kidneys

    • D. 

      Thymus gland

    • E. 

      Myeloid tissue

  • 4. 
    Lymph nodes are concentrated in the inguinal spaces, axilary regions, popliteal spaces, and where else?
    • A. 

      Wrists

    • B. 

      Ankles

    • C. 

      Frontal lobe

    • D. 

      Cervical region

    • E. 

      Nasal sinuses

  • 5. 
    Of the three principal lines of defense, which one involves the immune system and leaves the body with a "memory"?
    • A. 

      Primary line

    • B. 

      Secondary line

    • C. 

      Tertiary line

    • D. 

      Quarternary line

  • 6. 
    Of the 3 principal lines of defense, which one is non-specific and involves the skin and mucous membranes?
    • A. 

      Primary line

    • B. 

      Secondary line

    • C. 

      Tertiary line

    • D. 

      Quarterary line

    • E. 

      Choices A and B

  • 7. 
    Of the mechanisms of pathogenic destruction, which one involves, for example, the liver and spleen removing antibodies from antigen-antibody complexes on erythrocyte cell surfaces and nuetralizing them... the principal mode of removing foreign antigens from the blood stream?
    • A. 

      Inflammation

    • B. 

      Immune clearance

    • C. 

      Phagocytosis

    • D. 

      Cytolysis

    • E. 

      Choices A and C

  • 8. 
    The cardinal signs of inflammation include what?
    • A. 

      Pain

    • B. 

      Swelling

    • C. 

      Fever

    • D. 

      Redness

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D

  • 9. 
    Which of the following is a characteristic of "immune surveillance"?
    • A. 

      NK cells continually patrolling the body

    • B. 

      NK cells continually "on the lookout" or "watching" for pathogens

    • C. 

      NK cells "educating" naive T-cells

    • D. 

      NK cells functioning much like "sentries" or "cavalry" cells

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, and D

  • 10. 
    Wjat is the term describing any chemical that provides a "trail" that neutrophils and other leukocytes can "follow" to specific sites of infection...a "homing" mechanism?
    • A. 

      Immune surveillance

    • B. 

      Tissue repair

    • C. 

      Chemotaxis

    • D. 

      Swelling

    • E. 

      Phototaxis

  • 11. 
    What type of immunity involves production by one's own immunocompetent immune system?
    • A. 

      Natural active

    • B. 

      Natural passive

    • C. 

      Artificial passive

    • D. 

      Administration of antibiotics

  • 12. 
    • A. 

      Lymphocytes directly attacking and destroying foreign or diseased host cells

    • B. 

      Ridding the body of pathogens residing within cells where they are inaccessible to antibodies

    • C. 

      Acts against parasitic worms, cancer cells, and cells of transplanted tissues and organs

    • D. 

      A type of immunity facilitated by antibodies

    • E. 

      Choices A, B and C

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is (are) characteristic of antibodies?
    • A. 

      They "tag" pathogens for destruction by lymphocytes

    • B. 

      They are very specific

    • C. 

      There are 5 basic classes of antibodies, and antibodies are typicalls called immunoglobulins

    • D. 

      The titer or titre of an antibodies refers to its concentration

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D

  • 14. 
    Which of the following is (are) true of B-cells?
    • A. 

      Some of the B cells differentiate in to plasma cells

    • B. 

      The Bm (B memory cells) act as a "ready-reserve" or "standby reserve" of B cells that can execute a quick 2nd degree (2nd level) response

    • C. 

      It is the Bm cells that "give instructions" to plasma cells as to what types of antibodies to produce

    • D. 

      B cells conduct an indirect attack against foreign antigens

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D

  • 15. 
    Which of the following is (are) true of antibiotics?
    • A. 

      Are designed to kill by disrupting metabolic machinery of particular pathogens

    • B. 

      May be administered without due consideration to the type of pathogen involved in the disease process

    • C. 

      Are effective against extracellular pathogens only

    • D. 

      May be administered during a viral infection to protect the patient against a 2 degree infection

    • E. 

      Choices A, C, and D

  • 16. 
    What type of immunity involves immune memory and the production of one's own antibodies as a result of natural exposure to an antigen? An example would be contracting a particular bacterial infection.
    • A. 

      Natural active immunity

    • B. 

      Artificial active immunity

    • C. 

      Natural passive immunity

    • D. 

      Artifical passive immunity

  • 17. 
    What type of immunity does not involve memory, is temporary, and results from antibodies present in immune serum administered to a patient? Examples include snake bites, botulism, tetanus, and rabies.
    • A. 

      Natural active immunity

    • B. 

      Artificial active immunity

    • C. 

      Natural passive immunity

    • D. 

      Artifical passive immunity

  • 18. 
    Which of the "R's" of the immune response enables an immunocompetent immune system to identify a specfic foreign antigen?
    • A. 

      Recuperate

    • B. 

      Reorganize

    • C. 

      Recognize

    • D. 

      Reconcile

    • E. 

      Remunerate

  • 19. 
    Which region of an antibody molecule distinguishes it as a unique type?
    • A. 

      Constant region

    • B. 

      Variable region

    • C. 

      Laterla region

    • D. 

      Medial region

    • E. 

      Choices, A, C, and D

  • 20. 
    Of the classes of immunoglobulins, which type is the most prevalent and plays a crucial role in a 2nd degree response by an immunocompetent immune system?
    • A. 

      Gamma

    • B. 

      Alpha

    • C. 

      Mu

    • D. 

      Delta

    • E. 

      Epsilon

  • 21. 
    Which of the following is (are) characteristic of a 2nd degree immune response by an immunocompetent immune system compared to a 1st degree response by the same immunocompetent immune system?
    • A. 

      Antibody titer increases earlier

    • B. 

      Antibody titer increases more rapidly

    • C. 

      Choices A, B, D, and E

    • D. 

      Antibody titer reaches levels many times greater than the 1st degree response

    • E. 

      Antibody titer endures far longer than the 1st degree response.

  • 22. 
    What is true regarding the term "isograft"
    • A. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from 1 body site to another in the same person

    • B. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from individuals not genetically identical but belong to the same species

    • C. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from another animal species such as a baboon heart into a human being

    • D. 

      Choices A, and C

    • E. 

      Tissue graft donated to a patient from a geneticallt identical individual, such as identical twins

  • 23. 
    What is true regarding the term "Xenograph"?
    • A. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from 1 body site to another in the same person

    • B. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from individuals not genetically identical but belong to the same species

    • C. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from another animal species such as a baboon heart into a human being

    • D. 

      Choices A, and B

    • E. 

      Tissue graft donated to a patient from a geneticallt identical individual, such as identical twins

  • 24. 
    What class of T-cells is responsible for moderating cell mediated and humoral mediated immunity...matching the immune response to the threat?
    • A. 

      T-h

    • B. 

      T-m

    • C. 

      T-s

    • D. 

      T-x

    • E. 

      T-c

  • 25. 
    What are typical characteristics of a "good" vaccine?
    • A. 

      Can be administered in different forms

    • B. 

      Is economically feasible

    • C. 

      Has sufficient shelf-life

    • D. 

      Does no or minimal harm to the patient regardless of age or gender

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 26. 
    What are the common names for the trachea, pharynx, and larynx, respectively?
    • A. 

      Throat, voice box, and windpipe

    • B. 

      Windpipe, voice box, throat

    • C. 

      Throat, windpipe, voice box

    • D. 

      Voice box, windpipe, throat

    • E. 

      Windpipe, throat, voice box

  • 27. 
    What is the proper scientific term for the respiratory system component responsible for warming, moistening, and flitering inhaled air and is lined with olfactory epithelium?
    • A. 

      Larynx

    • B. 

      Pharynx

    • C. 

      Epiglottis

    • D. 

      Nasal chambers

    • E. 

      Glottis

  • 28. 
    Which principal respiratory division is responsible solely for respiratory gas exchange?
    • A. 

      Respiratory or exchange zone

    • B. 

      Conducting zone

    • C. 

      Zone of conduction

    • D. 

      Tracheal zone

    • E. 

      Bronchial zone

  • 29. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding inspiration?
    • A. 

      The thoracic cavity moves out and up, increasing thoracic volume

    • B. 

      The diaphragm drops down, again, increasing thoracic volume

    • C. 

      It is an active process requiring the expenditure of energy

    • D. 

      Pressue within the thoracic cavity decreases relative to atmospheric pressure

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D

  • 30. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding the Hering-Breuer phenomenon?
    • A. 

      It concerns safe-guards against lung over-inflation

    • B. 

      It is facilitated by "stretch receptors" with lung tissue

    • C. 

      It is one of the many inputs regulating lung function along with conscious input from the cerebral hemispheres and subconscious input from carotid and aortic artery bodies

    • D. 

      It is a reflex

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D

  • 31. 
    Which of the following is (are) true concering the respiratory chemoreceptors?
    • A. 

      They include aortic and carotid artery bodies monitoring arterial blood pH

    • B. 

      Peripheral chemoreceptors transmit nerve signals to the brain stem respiratory centers via cranial nerves IX and X

    • C. 

      They also include central chemoreceptors located within the brain stem medulla oblongota

    • D. 

      Central chemoreceptors monitor CSF pH

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D

  • 32. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding tidal volume (TV)?
    • A. 

      It is the volume of air inhaled/exhaled in one breath at rest

    • B. 

      The typical value is 0.5 liter

    • C. 

      Not all of the TV contributes to pulmonary ventilation

    • D. 

      Some of the TV contributes to dead space

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 33. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding lung measurements?
    • A. 

      Lung volumes are measured

    • B. 

      Lung volumes are measured with a spirometer

    • C. 

      Choices A, B, D, and E

    • D. 

      Lung capacities are calculated or estimated

    • E. 

      Lung capacities are calculated using volume measurements

  • 34. 
    Boyles Law predicts that as a gas volume increases, the pressue exerted by the gas does what?
    • A. 

      Remains unchanged

    • B. 

      Decreases

    • C. 

      Increases

    • D. 

      Goes to ZERO

    • E. 

      Goes to infinity

  • 35. 
    Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation (oxygen saturation) curves indicate that as the blood pH decreases (increasing acidity), the curve shifts how?
    • A. 

      To the left and down

    • B. 

      To the right and up

    • C. 

      To the left and up

    • D. 

      To the right and down

    • E. 

      Remains stationary

  • 36. 
    Infants born with insufficient lung surfactant in the aveoli typically suffer from what?
    • A. 

      Hemolytic disease of the newborn

    • B. 

      Erythroblastosis fetalis

    • C. 

      Respiratory distress syndrome

    • D. 

      Hyaline membrane disease

    • E. 

      Choices C and D

  • 37. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding respiratory acidosis?
    • A. 

      Choices B, C, D, and E

    • B. 

      Too much carbon dioxide in the blood stream (hypercapnia)

    • C. 

      Elevated respiratory rate (hyperventilation)

    • D. 

      Acidic urine characterized by the kidneys "dumping" hydrogen ion into the urine

    • E. 

      Lungs and kidneys working cooperatively to make adjustments and return blood pH back to normal

  • 38. 
    What is the definition of the term "hypocapnia"?
    • A. 

      Excess oxygen in the blood stream

    • B. 

      Excess nitrogen in the blood stream

    • C. 

      Excess carbon dioxide in the blood stream

    • D. 

      Deficiency of carbon dioxide in the blood

    • E. 

      Choices B and C

  • 39. 
    What is the definition of the term "apnea"
    • A. 

      Temporary cessation of breathing

    • B. 

      Permanent cessation of breathing

    • C. 

      Normal breathing

    • D. 

      Elevated respiration rate

    • E. 

      Choices A and B

  • 40. 
    A patient with a hole in the thoracic wall (i.e. breached thoracic wall) has what type of condition?
    • A. 

      Pneumonia

    • B. 

      Pneumothorax

    • C. 

      Pneumoccoccus infection

    • D. 

      Pneumonic plague

  • 41. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding the chloride shift phenomenon?
    • A. 

      When a bicarbonate ion departs the erythrocyte, it is replaced by a chloride ion, and this corrects ionic charge imbalance

    • B. 

      Chloride shift maximizes the quantity of carbon dioxide that the blood stream can transport back to the lungs

    • C. 

      Both A and B

  • 42. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding metabolic alkalosis?
    • A. 

      Choices B, C, D, and E

    • B. 

      Too little carbon dioxide in the blood stream (hypocapnia)

    • C. 

      Depressed respiratory rate (hyperventilation)

    • D. 

      Alkaline urine characterized by the kidneys withholding hydrogen ion from the urine

    • E. 

      Lungs and kidneys working cooperatively to make adjustments and return the blood pH back to normal

  • 43. 
    When an individual exhlaes, in which direction does the diaphragm move?
    • A. 

      To the right

    • B. 

      To the left

    • C. 

      Upward

    • D. 

      Downward

    • E. 

      Choices A and B

  • 44. 
    • A. 

      Up and then down

    • B. 

      Up and to the right

    • C. 

      Down and to the right

    • D. 

      Remains stable

    • E. 

      Up and to the left