A&p 2 Chapter 17 Quiz - Lonestar

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AP Quizzes & Trivia

Chapter 17 - Blood


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are the the 3 branches of the cardiovascular system?

    • A.

      Heart, Blood, Blood Vessels

    • B.

      Heart Blood, Capillaries

    • C.

      Plasma, Venules, Arteries

    • D.

      Formed elements, Arterioles, Venules

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Heart, Blood, Blood Vessels
    Explanation
    The cardiovascular system consists of three main components: the heart, blood, and blood vessels. The heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body, while blood carries oxygen, nutrients, and waste products. Blood vessels include arteries, veins, and capillaries, which transport blood to and from different parts of the body. Therefore, the answer "Heart, Blood, Blood Vessels" accurately represents the three branches of the cardiovascular system.

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  • 2. 

    Dilute, watery fluids found in and out of cells

    • A.

      Body Fluids

    • B.

      Blood

    • C.

      Interstitial Fluid

    • D.

      ISF

    • E.

      Nutrients

    Correct Answer
    A. Body Fluids
    Explanation
    Body fluids refer to the dilute, watery fluids found both inside and outside of cells in the body. These fluids include blood, interstitial fluid (the fluid that surrounds and bathes the cells), and other fluids that carry nutrients and other substances throughout the body.

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  • 3. 

    Blood is filled with

    • A.

      Interstitial fluid

    • B.

      Wastes

    • C.

      Carbon Dioxide

    • D.

      Plasma and Formed elements

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Plasma and Formed elements
    Explanation
    Plasma and formed elements are present in the blood. Plasma is the liquid component of blood that carries various substances such as nutrients, hormones, and waste products. Formed elements include red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, which are responsible for various functions such as oxygen transport, immune response, and blood clotting. Therefore, the correct answer is plasma and formed elements.

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  • 4. 

    Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from the blood capillaries into the ESF and then into Muscle cells

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Nutrients and oxygen actually diffuse from the blood capillaries into the interstitial fluid (ISF) and then into muscle cells. The interstitial fluid surrounds and bathes the cells, allowing for the exchange of substances between the blood capillaries and the cells. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 5. 

    Wastes (Carbon Dioxide) move in the reverse direction:Tissue Cells --> ISF --> Blood Capillaries

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the given statement, it is stated that wastes, specifically carbon dioxide, move in the reverse direction from tissue cells to the ISF (Interstitial Fluid) and then to the blood capillaries. This is true because during cellular respiration, carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product in tissue cells. It diffuses from the cells into the ISF, which is the fluid surrounding the cells. From there, it enters the blood capillaries, where it is transported to the lungs for elimination from the body. Therefore, the statement is correct.

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  • 6. 

    Plasma makes up what percentage of blood

    • A.

      45%

    • B.

      55%

    • C.

      60%

    • D.

      65%

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. 55%
    Explanation
    Plasma is the liquid component of blood that carries various substances such as nutrients, hormones, and waste products. It constitutes about 55% of the blood volume, making it the correct answer. The other options are incorrect as they do not represent the accurate percentage of plasma in blood.

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  • 7. 

    What are NOT the functions of the blood?

    • A.

      Distribution

    • B.

      Regulation

    • C.

      Protection

    • D.

      Eliminating wastes

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Eliminating wastes
    Explanation
    The blood performs several important functions in the body, including distribution of oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to different organs and tissues, regulation of body temperature and pH levels, and protection against infections and diseases through the immune system. However, eliminating wastes is not one of the functions of the blood. This task is primarily carried out by the kidneys, which filter waste products from the blood and excrete them in the form of urine.

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  • 8. 

    Describe the distribution of blood through gases.

    • A.

      Oxygen from heart --> cells & Carbon Dioxide from cells --> heart

    • B.

      Carbon Dioxide from cells --> heart & Oxygen from heart --> cells

    • C.

      Oxygen from lungs --> cells & Carbon Dioxide from cells --> lungs

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygen from lungs --> cells & Carbon Dioxide from cells --> lungs
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Oxygen from lungs --> cells & Carbon Dioxide from cells --> lungs." This is because oxygen is transported from the lungs to the cells through the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide produced by the cells is transported back to the lungs to be exhaled. This process is known as respiration and is essential for the exchange of gases in the body.

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  • 9. 

    Metabolic wastes from the blood go from ___________ to __________ . 

    Correct Answer
    Cells to Lungs & Kidneys
    Explanation
    Metabolic wastes are produced by cells as a result of their normal functioning. These wastes include substances like carbon dioxide and urea. The blood transports these wastes away from the cells to be eliminated from the body. The lungs play a crucial role in removing carbon dioxide, as it is exhaled during respiration. Meanwhile, the kidneys filter the blood and remove other metabolic waste products, such as urea, through urine formation. Therefore, the correct answer is that metabolic wastes from the blood go from cells to the lungs and kidneys for elimination.

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  • 10. 

    What helps blood regulate pH?

    • A.

      Enzymes

    • B.

      Nutrients

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Carbon Dioxide

    • E.

      Buffer System

    Correct Answer
    E. Buffer System
    Explanation
    The buffer system helps blood regulate pH by maintaining a stable pH level. It consists of a weak acid and its conjugate base, which can donate or accept hydrogen ions to prevent drastic changes in pH. When the blood becomes too acidic, the buffer system releases hydrogen ions to lower the pH, and when the blood becomes too alkaline, it accepts hydrogen ions to raise the pH. This system plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's overall pH balance, which is essential for proper functioning of various physiological processes.

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  • 11. 

    Blood helps regulate fluid volume of the cells

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Blood helps regulate fluid volume of the cells by maintaining a balance between the amount of fluid inside and outside the cells. It does this through various mechanisms such as osmosis and active transport. Blood contains electrolytes and proteins that help regulate the movement of water and other substances in and out of the cells. Additionally, blood carries hormones and enzymes that play a role in fluid balance. Overall, blood plays a crucial role in maintaining the proper fluid volume within the cells, ensuring their proper functioning.

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  • 12. 

    Allows excessive blood loss through blood clotting

    • A.

      False

    • B.

      True

    Correct Answer
    A. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is "Allows excessive blood loss through blood clotting." The correct answer is False. This means that blood clotting does not allow excessive blood loss. In fact, blood clotting is a natural process that helps to stop bleeding and prevent excessive blood loss. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets in the blood form a plug at the site of injury, and then a clot is formed to seal the wound. This clotting process is essential for maintaining the body's blood volume and preventing excessive bleeding.

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  • 13. 

    Blood prevents infection (through WBCs, Antibodies, Inteferons, and Complements)

    • A.

      False

    • B.

      True

    Correct Answer
    B. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because blood contains various components that help prevent infection. White blood cells (WBCs) are a crucial part of the immune system and help fight off pathogens. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that can neutralize or destroy harmful substances. Interferons are proteins that interfere with viral replication, while complements are a group of proteins that enhance the immune response. All of these components work together to protect the body from infection, making the statement true.

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  • 14. 

    Blood is ____________ degrees

    Correct Answer
    100.4
    Explanation
    The given answer, 100.4 degrees, suggests that blood temperature is measured in degrees Fahrenheit. This is a normal body temperature for humans, indicating that blood temperature is the same as the overall body temperature.

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  • 15. 

    Blood is thick and not stick (5X more viscous) than water and flows slower than water

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Blood is actually thicker and more viscous than water, which means it flows more slowly. The given statement is incorrect.

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  • 16. 

    Physical Characteristics of blood are

    • A.

      Salty

    • B.

      Metallic

    • C.

      Opaque

    • D.

      Scarlet/Dark Red

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The physical characteristics of blood include being salty, metallic, opaque, and scarlet/dark red. Salty refers to the presence of electrolytes in the blood, which help maintain the balance of fluids in the body. Metallic describes the taste of blood due to the iron content. Opaque means that blood cannot be seen through, as it is not transparent. Scarlet/dark red describes the color of oxygenated blood. Therefore, all of the given options accurately describe the physical characteristics of blood.

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  • 17. 

    What is the blood pH of blood? *Hint: Give a range

    Correct Answer
    7.35 - 7.45
    Explanation
    The blood pH of blood is maintained within a narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45. This range is considered slightly alkaline or basic. It is crucial for the body to maintain this pH range as even slight deviations can have detrimental effects on various physiological processes. The body regulates blood pH through the actions of buffers, respiratory system, and kidneys to ensure proper functioning of cells and organs.

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  • 18. 

    Give the range of the blood volume of an average male.

    Correct Answer
    5 to 6 Liters (1.5) gallons
    Explanation
    The range of blood volume in an average male is 5 to 6 liters, which is equivalent to 1.5 gallons. This means that the average male's body contains approximately 5 to 6 liters of blood.

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  • 19. 

    Give the range of the blood volume of the average female.

    Correct Answer
    4 to 5 Liters (1.2) gallons
    Explanation
    The range of blood volume in the average female is 4 to 5 liters, which is equivalent to 1.2 gallons. This means that the average female has a total blood volume within this range.

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  • 20. 

    Sample taken from the the vein with a hypodermic needle & syringe.

    • A.

      Venipuncture

    • B.

      Finger or heel stick

    • C.

      Both A&B

    • D.

      Only B

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Venipuncture
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Venipuncture. Venipuncture refers to the process of collecting a blood sample from a vein using a hypodermic needle and syringe. This method is commonly used in medical settings for various diagnostic tests and procedures. Finger or heel stick, on the other hand, involves collecting a blood sample by pricking the finger or heel with a lancet, which is not mentioned in the given sample. Therefore, the correct answer is Venipuncture.

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  • 21. 

    Why do you not stick a hypodermic needle/syringe in an artery?

    • A.

      More pressure in veins

    • B.

      Less pressure in veins

    • C.

      Veins are not closer to the surface

    • D.

      Veins are closer to the surface

    • E.

      Both B&D

    Correct Answer
    E. Both B&D
    Explanation
    Both B and D are correct explanations for why you do not stick a hypodermic needle/syringe in an artery. The statement "Less pressure in veins" explains that veins have lower blood pressure compared to arteries, making it safer to insert a needle or syringe into a vein. The statement "Veins are closer to the surface" explains that veins are more easily accessible and visible on the surface of the skin, making them a more suitable target for needle insertion.

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  • 22. 

    Common technique for diabetics to monitor daily blood sugar

    • A.

      Finger stick

    • B.

      Heel stick

    • C.

      Venipuncture

    • D.

      Both A&B

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A&B
    Explanation
    Both finger stick and heel stick are common techniques for diabetics to monitor their daily blood sugar levels. Finger stick involves pricking the fingertip with a lancet to obtain a small drop of blood, while heel stick involves pricking the heel of a newborn baby to collect a blood sample. These methods are commonly used because they are relatively quick, convenient, and provide accurate results for glucose monitoring. Therefore, the correct answer is Both A&B.

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  • 23. 

    Where do you withdraw blood from?

    Correct Answer
    Median Cubital Vein
    Explanation
    The median cubital vein is commonly used for blood withdrawal because it is large, easily accessible, and close to the surface of the skin. It is located in the antecubital fossa, which is the area on the inner side of the elbow. This vein is often chosen for blood draws, as it is less likely to be damaged during the procedure and allows for a smoother and more efficient blood collection process.

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  • 24. 

    Centrifuge is a process where blood is spun until there is a separation between plasmas and erythrocytes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is incorrect. Centrifuge is a process where blood is spun to separate its components based on density. It does not specifically separate plasma and erythrocytes, but rather separates the different components of blood including plasma, erythrocytes, platelets, and other cellular elements. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 25. 

    Blood plasmas is created by 

    • A.

      Hepatocytes

    • B.

      Erythrocytes

    • C.

      Leukocytes

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Hepatocytes
    Explanation
    Hepatocytes are responsible for creating blood plasma. They are liver cells that produce and secrete many substances, including plasma proteins, into the bloodstream. Plasma is the liquid component of blood that carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) and leukocytes (white blood cells) do not create blood plasma.

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  • 26. 

    What is NOT a blood plasma protein?

    • A.

      Albumin

    • B.

      Globulins

    • C.

      Fibrinogen

    • D.

      Immunoglobulins

    • E.

      All are blood plasma proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. Immunoglobulins
    Explanation
    Immunoglobulins are not a blood plasma protein. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances in the body. They play a crucial role in the immune response by targeting and neutralizing pathogens. While albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen are all blood plasma proteins, immunoglobulins are not classified as such.

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  • 27. 

    Albumin maintains blood osmotic pressure

    • A.

      False

    • B.

      True

    Correct Answer
    B. True
    Explanation
    Albumin is a protein found in the blood that plays a crucial role in maintaining blood osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure is the force that keeps fluids balanced between the blood vessels and tissues. Albumin helps to regulate this pressure by attracting and retaining water in the bloodstream. This is important for maintaining proper hydration, preventing fluid buildup in tissues, and ensuring that nutrients and waste products are transported efficiently throughout the body. Therefore, the statement "Albumin maintains blood osmotic pressure" is true.

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  • 28. 

    Which blood plasma proteins have antibodies bind to foreign substances called antigen forming antigen-antibody complex

    • A.

      Albumin

    • B.

      Globulins

    • C.

      Fibrinogen

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Globulins
    Explanation
    Globulins are a group of blood plasma proteins that have the ability to bind to foreign substances called antigens, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This complex plays a crucial role in the immune response by helping to neutralize and eliminate the foreign substances from the body. Albumin and fibrinogen, on the other hand, do not have this specific function of binding to antigens. Therefore, the correct answer is globulins.

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  • 29. 

    Which blood plasma is the soluble precursor of fibrin for blood clotting?

    • A.

      Albumin

    • B.

      Globulins

    • C.

      Immunoglobulins

    • D.

      Fibrinogen

    • E.

      Fibrin

    Correct Answer
    D. Fibrinogen
    Explanation
    Fibrinogen is the soluble precursor of fibrin for blood clotting. When there is an injury or damage to a blood vessel, fibrinogen is converted into fibrin by the enzyme thrombin. Fibrin then forms a mesh-like structure that helps to trap platelets and other blood cells, forming a blood clot to stop bleeding. Fibrinogen is an essential component of the coagulation cascade and plays a crucial role in hemostasis.

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  • 30. 

    Which is NOT a solute in blood plasma?

    • A.

      Nutrients

    • B.

      Nitrogenous waste

    • C.

      Dissolved gases

    • D.

      Electrolytes

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above." This means that all of the options listed - nutrients, nitrogenous waste, dissolved gases, and electrolytes - are solutes in blood plasma. Solute refers to any substance that is dissolved in a solvent, and in this case, all of these substances can be found dissolved in blood plasma.

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  • 31. 

    Hemopoeis is the production of

    • A.

      Platelets

    • B.

      Red Blood Cells

    • C.

      White Blood Cells

    • D.

      Granulocytes

    • E.

      Agranulocytes

    Correct Answer
    B. Red Blood Cells
    Explanation
    Hemopoiesis is the process of producing red blood cells, also known as erythropoiesis. Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to different parts of the body and removing carbon dioxide. They are formed in the bone marrow through a complex process involving the differentiation of stem cells into erythrocyte precursors. This process is tightly regulated by various factors such as erythropoietin, a hormone produced by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels. The production of platelets, white blood cells, granulocytes, and agranulocytes is not specifically referred to as hemopoiesis.

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  • 32. 

    B lymphocytes mature in what type of bone marrow?

    Correct Answer
    Red bone marrow
    Explanation
    B lymphocytes, also known as B cells, are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune response. They are responsible for producing antibodies that recognize and neutralize pathogens. These B cells mature in the red bone marrow, which is found in the spongy bone tissue of certain bones, such as the sternum, ribs, and pelvis. The red bone marrow contains stem cells that differentiate into B cells, allowing them to mature and become fully functional in their role of immune defense.

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  • 33. 

    Hematocrit is 

    • A.

      % of blood occupied by erythrocytes

    • B.

      % of blood occupied leukocytes

    • C.

      % of blood plasma

    • D.

      % of blood occupied by formed elements

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. % of blood occupied by formed elements
    Explanation
    Hematocrit is the percentage of blood occupied by formed elements, which includes erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets. It represents the volume of these cells in relation to the total volume of blood. The hematocrit level is used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as anemia and polycythemia.

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  • 34. 

    What is the hematocrit range for female?*HINT - Give a range, not an average

    Correct Answer
    38 - 46%
    Explanation
    The hematocrit range for females is 38-46%. Hematocrit refers to the percentage of red blood cells in the total blood volume. This range indicates the normal level of red blood cells in the blood for females.

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  • 35. 

    What is the hematocrit range for male?

    Correct Answer
    40% - 54%
    Explanation
    The hematocrit range for males is 40% - 54%. Hematocrit is a measure of the proportion of red blood cells in the blood. This range is considered normal for adult males and indicates the percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells. A hematocrit level below 40% may suggest anemia or blood loss, while a level above 54% may indicate dehydration or certain medical conditions. Regular monitoring of hematocrit levels is important for maintaining overall health and detecting any abnormalities.

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  • 36. 

    Estrogen stimulates RBCs formation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Estrogen does not stimulate the formation of red blood cells (RBCs). The primary hormone responsible for RBC production is erythropoietin, which is produced by the kidneys. Estrogen, on the other hand, is a female sex hormone that plays a role in the development of secondary sexual characteristics and regulating the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the statement that estrogen stimulates RBC formation is false.

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  • 37. 

    What disease does a patient have if there is low oxygen with the blood cells?

    • A.

      Hypoxia

    • B.

      Anemia

    • C.

      Sickle Cell Anemia

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypoxia
    Explanation
    Hypoxia is the correct answer because it refers to a condition where there is a deficiency of oxygen in the body's tissues. This can be caused by various factors, including low oxygen levels in the blood cells. Anemia, on the other hand, is a condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells or a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, which can also lead to low oxygen levels. Sickle Cell Anemia is a specific type of anemia caused by abnormal hemoglobin, which can further contribute to low oxygen levels. Therefore, all of the above conditions can result in low oxygen with the blood cells.

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  • 38. 

    What is blood doping?

    • A.

      Injecting previously stored WBC's before an athletic event

    • B.

      Drinking previously stored RBC's before an athletic event

    • C.

      Injecting previous stored RBC's before an athletic event

    • D.

      Only A&B

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Injecting previous stored RBC's before an athletic event
    Explanation
    Blood doping refers to the practice of injecting previously stored red blood cells (RBCs) before an athletic event. This is done to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, which can enhance an athlete's performance. By injecting additional RBCs, the blood's ability to deliver oxygen to the muscles is improved, leading to increased endurance and stamina. This method is considered unethical and illegal in most sports, as it provides an unfair advantage to athletes.

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  • 39. 

    Blood doping is dangerous because it increases blood viscosity and forces heart to work harder

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Blood doping is the process of artificially increasing the number of red blood cells in the body. This is done to enhance athletic performance by increasing oxygen delivery to the muscles. However, it is dangerous because it increases blood viscosity, meaning the blood becomes thicker and more resistant to flow. This forces the heart to work harder to pump the thicker blood throughout the body, which can lead to cardiovascular problems and potentially life-threatening conditions such as heart attacks or strokes. Therefore, the statement "Blood doping is dangerous because it increases blood viscosity and forces the heart to work harder" is true.

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  • 40. 

    Blood cell formation is also known as

    • A.

      Hemopoiesis

    • B.

      Hematopoiesis

    • C.

      Hemopoigen

    • D.

      Only A&B

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Only A&B
    Explanation
    Blood cell formation is also known as hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis. These terms are used interchangeably to describe the process by which new blood cells are produced in the body. Hemopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow and involves the differentiation and maturation of stem cells into various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Therefore, the correct answer is A&B, as both hemopoiesis and hematopoiesis refer to blood cell formation.

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  • 41. 

    Hematopoiesis takes place in the yolk sacs, liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow in what stage?

    • A.

      Postnatal

    • B.

      Prenatal

    • C.

      Embryo

    • D.

      At birth

    • E.

      Only B&C

    Correct Answer
    E. Only B&C
    Explanation
    Hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation, occurs in various organs during different stages of development. In the prenatal stage, hematopoiesis takes place in the yolk sacs, liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow. This process continues in the embryo stage as well. Therefore, the correct answer is "Only B&C" because hematopoiesis occurs in both the prenatal and embryo stages.

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  • 42. 

    Postnatal Hematopoiesis occurs only in red bone marrow of flat bones like sternum, ribs, skull, pelvis and end of long bones 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Postnatal hematopoiesis refers to the production of new blood cells that occurs after birth. It primarily takes place in the red bone marrow, which is found in flat bones such as the sternum, ribs, skull, pelvis, and the ends of long bones. This is where hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Therefore, the statement "Postnatal Hematopoiesis occurs only in red bone marrow of flat bones like sternum, ribs, skull, pelvis and end of long bones" is true.

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  • 43. 

    Mature erythrocytes have nucleus'

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Mature erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, do not have a nucleus. During their development, erythrocytes expel their nucleus to make more space for the oxygen-carrying protein called hemoglobin. This allows them to have a biconcave shape and increases their flexibility to pass through narrow blood vessels. Therefore, the statement that mature erythrocytes have a nucleus is incorrect.

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  • 44. 

    Produced by the kidneys and increase RBC precursors

    • A.

      Thrombopoietin

    • B.

      Cytokines

    • C.

      Erythropoietin

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Erythropoietin
    Explanation
    Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells (RBCs) in the bone marrow. It increases the number of RBC precursors, known as erythroblasts, leading to an increase in the production of mature RBCs. Thrombopoietin is a hormone that regulates the production of platelets, not RBCs. Cytokines are a broad category of proteins that regulate various immune and inflammatory responses, but they do not specifically increase RBC precursors. Therefore, the correct answer is Erythropoietin.

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  • 45. 

    Hormone from the liver stimulates platelet formation

    • A.

      Erythropoietin

    • B.

      Thrombopoietin

    • C.

      Cytokines

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Thrombopoietin
    Explanation
    Thrombopoietin is the hormone that stimulates platelet formation. It is produced by the liver and plays a crucial role in the regulation of platelet production. Erythropoietin is a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells, not platelets. Cytokines are a group of proteins that regulate various immune and inflammatory responses, but they do not specifically stimulate platelet formation. Therefore, the correct answer is Thrombopoietin.

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  • 46. 

    (You can select more than one answer)Cytokines are

    • A.

      Are local hormones of bone marrow

    • B.

      Produced by some marrow cells to stimulate proliferation in other marrow cells

    • C.

      Colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and interleukin stimulate WBC production

    • D.

      Stimulates plasma formation

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Are local hormones of bone marrow
    B. Produced by some marrow cells to stimulate proliferation in other marrow cells
    C. Colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and interleukin stimulate WBC production
    Explanation
    Cytokines are local hormones of the bone marrow because they are produced by some marrow cells to stimulate proliferation in other marrow cells. Additionally, colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and interleukin are examples of cytokines that stimulate white blood cell (WBC) production. Therefore, all of the given answers are correct.

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  • 47. 

    What is the shape of an erythrocyte?

    Correct Answer(s)
    Biconcave
    Explanation
    An erythrocyte, also known as a red blood cell, has a biconcave shape. This means that it is round and flat with a concave shape on both sides. The biconcave shape allows for a larger surface area, which is important for the cell's function of carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. It also allows for flexibility and easy movement through narrow blood vessels.

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  • 48. 

    What is the average life-span of the RBC?

    Correct Answer(s)
    120 days
    Explanation
    The average life-span of a red blood cell (RBC) is 120 days. This means that, on average, RBCs circulate in the bloodstream for approximately 120 days before being removed and replaced by new ones. This is an important factor to consider in understanding the body's ability to maintain a healthy level of red blood cells and the need for regular production of new RBCs to ensure proper oxygen transport throughout the body.

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  • 49. 

    The HEME group in Hemoglobin transports what?

    • A.

      Carbon Dioxide

    • B.

      Chlorine

    • C.

      Sulfur

    • D.

      Oxygen

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Oxygen
    Explanation
    The HEME group in Hemoglobin transports oxygen. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that binds to oxygen in the lungs and carries it to the body's tissues. The HEME group, which contains iron, is responsible for binding the oxygen molecules and facilitating their transport throughout the body via the circulatory system. This process is crucial for delivering oxygen to cells and organs, enabling them to carry out essential functions and produce energy.

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  • 50. 

    Iron is required for oxygen transport

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Iron is required for oxygen transport because it is a crucial component of hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds to oxygen in the lungs and carries it to the body's tissues and organs. Without sufficient iron, the body cannot produce enough hemoglobin, leading to a condition called iron deficiency anemia. This can result in fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath due to the decreased ability of blood to transport oxygen effectively. Therefore, the statement that iron is required for oxygen transport is true.

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