Kantian Ethics And Engineering Ethics Quiz

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Kantian Ethics And Engineering Ethics Quiz - Quiz

The quiz below has questions on Kantian ethics and engineering ethics. Every line of work has a code of ethics that people are expected to follow, and the quiz below is perfect to see how the knowledge you are when it comes to what is right or wrong. Do give it a try and see how engineering ethics are similar to the Kantian one. All the best this year!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is true about the formulation of virtue ethics expressed by Thomas Aquinas?

    • A.

      It features an updated understanding of what it means to be human, which is informed by medieval technology

    • B.

      It is revolutionary because it is almost completely contrary to Aristotle's theory

    • C.

      It is more expansive than Aristotle's theory because Thomas thought that human flourishing must have a spiritual or religious dimension

    • D.

      The central concept of eudaimonia (happiness) is defined as suffering

    Correct Answer
    C. It is more expansive than Aristotle's theory because Thomas thought that human flourishing must have a spiritual or religious dimension
    Explanation
    Thomas Aquinas' formulation of virtue ethics is more expansive than Aristotle's theory because Aquinas believed that human flourishing must have a spiritual or religious dimension. While Aristotle focused on the cultivation of virtues for the sake of individual happiness and well-being, Aquinas believed that true human flourishing could only be achieved through a connection with the divine. This added dimension of spirituality sets Aquinas' formulation apart from Aristotle's theory.

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  • 2. 

    Immanuel Kant believed that moral laws are...

    • A.

      Descriptions of how great people behave in moral situations

    • B.

      "Imperatives" because they are commanded by God, even though God gives individuals free will

    • C.

      "Imperatives" originating in the structure of reason that an individual can disobey

    • D.

      Derivable from the moral intuitions of ordinary people

    Correct Answer
    C. "Imperatives" originating in the structure of reason that an individual can disobey
    Explanation
    Immanuel Kant believed that moral laws are "imperatives" originating in the structure of reason that an individual can disobey. According to Kant, moral laws are not based on the behavior of great people or on divine commandments, but rather they are derived from rationality itself. These moral imperatives are universal and apply to all rational beings. They are not subjective or based on personal intuitions, but rather they are objective and binding on all individuals. Kant emphasized that individuals have the freedom to choose whether or not to follow these moral imperatives, even though they are rooted in reason.

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  • 3. 

    Johnny is two years old and will die from an incurable kidney disease if he does not receive a donated liver, but there is no genetically appropriate donor available. Therefore, the parents decide, with the help of new reproductive technologies and pre-implantation genetic selection, to "create" a sibling that can serve as an organ donor (and still survive with one healthy kidney). A Kantian analysis of this case would lead to the following result.

    • A.

      The plan of the parents is morally right since it will lead to the maximum happiness of the whole family

    • B.

      The plan of the parents is morally wrong if it involves using the new sibling as a mere means to an end

    • C.

      The plan of the parents is morally right provided that the law allows the new sibling to donate a kidney

    • D.

      The plan of the parents is morally wrong because most siblings would not consent to donating a kidney

    Correct Answer
    B. The plan of the parents is morally wrong if it involves using the new sibling as a mere means to an end
    Explanation
    A Kantian analysis would lead to the conclusion that the plan of the parents is morally wrong if it involves using the new sibling as a mere means to an end. According to Kantian ethics, individuals should be treated as ends in themselves, and not merely as a means to achieve someone else's goals. Using the new sibling solely for the purpose of organ donation would violate this principle, as it reduces the sibling to a mere instrument for the benefit of another person.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is the best description of the difference between utilitarianism and consequentialism?

    • A.

      Consequentialists seek to maximize equality, whereas utilitarians seek to maximize the sum total of happiness

    • B.

      Consequentialism and utilitarianism are two different names of the same ethical theory

    • C.

      Consequentialism is a family of ethical theories that evaluate our actions solely according to their consequences. Utilitarianism is one of several examples of consequentialist theories

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Consequentialism is a family of ethical theories that evaluate our actions solely according to their consequences. Utilitarianism is one of several examples of consequentialist theories
    Explanation
    Consequentialism is a broader category that includes various ethical theories that evaluate actions based on their consequences. Utilitarianism is a specific example of a consequentialist theory, which focuses on maximizing the overall happiness or well-being. Therefore, the correct answer explains that consequentialism encompasses multiple theories, while utilitarianism is just one specific type within that category.

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  • 5. 

    Kantian ethics (understood as respect for persons) and utilitarianism can explain most of common morality, i.e., the system by which most people determine right from wrong, but they each have certain defects that keep them from giving complete accounts of common morality. Which of the following is one of these defects?

    • A.

      Kantianism cannot account for the aspirational aspect of common morality, which advocates promoting well-being and the benefit of others

    • B.

      Utilitarianism cannot account for the importance that happiness and well-being plays in common morality, because of it's focus on consequences

    • C.

      Kantianism cannot account for the importance of equal treatment in common morality, because of its emphasis on duty

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Kantianism cannot account for the aspirational aspect of common morality, which advocates promoting well-being and the benefit of others
    Explanation
    Kantianism focuses on the concept of duty and respect for persons, rather than promoting well-being and the benefit of others. This means that Kantian ethics may not fully account for the aspirational aspect of common morality, which emphasizes the importance of actively promoting the well-being and benefit of others. While Kantian ethics provides a strong framework for moral decision-making, it may fall short in addressing the aspirational goals that many people have in promoting the overall welfare of others.

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  • 6. 

    What kind of organizational culture did investigations of NASA after the Columbia disaster discover?

    • A.

      No such investigations were made because of political concerns

    • B.

      NASA had an established program through which engineers and other employees could register dissent to policies with which they disagree

    • C.

      The culture was one in which the organization could be considered at least part of the "cause" of the accident

    • D.

      It was one in which a "culture of dissent" was firmly established

    Correct Answer
    C. The culture was one in which the organization could be considered at least part of the "cause" of the accident
    Explanation
    The investigations of NASA after the Columbia disaster discovered that the organizational culture could be considered at least part of the "cause" of the accident. This suggests that there were systemic issues within the organization that contributed to the disaster.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following best explains the difference between uncertainty and risk?

    • A.

      A risk is an unwanted event that occurs with a known probability, whereas an uncertain event occurs with a probability that is unknown or undefined

    • B.

      There is no difference between risk and uncertainty

    • C.

      A risk is an unwanted event that occurs with a probability of at least 1%; an uncertain event occurs with a probability of less than 1%

    • D.

      An uncertain event occurs with a known probability, whereas a risk occurs with a probability that is unknown or undefined.

    Correct Answer
    A. A risk is an unwanted event that occurs with a known probability, whereas an uncertain event occurs with a probability that is unknown or undefined
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains the difference between uncertainty and risk by stating that risk is an unwanted event that occurs with a known probability, while uncertainty refers to an event that occurs with a probability that is unknown or undefined. This explanation highlights the distinction between the two concepts, emphasizing that risk involves a quantifiable probability, whereas uncertainty lacks a clear probability measure.

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  • 8. 

    "Normalization of deviance" means...

    • A.

      We become so accustomed to deviant behavior in a technological system that we decide to implement new rules that makes this behavior normal

    • B.

      We become so accustomed to deviant behavior in a technological system that we no longer consider it deviant, despite the fact that we have exceeded the applicable safety rules

    • C.

      We become so accustomed to deviant behavior in a technological system that we no longer consider it as deviant, and therefore revise the applicable safety rules to reflect the new practice

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. We become so accustomed to deviant behavior in a technological system that we no longer consider it deviant, despite the fact that we have exceeded the applicable safety rules
    Explanation
    "Normalization of deviance" refers to the situation where we become so accustomed to deviant behavior in a technological system that we no longer consider it deviant, even though it exceeds the applicable safety rules. This means that the behavior becomes accepted and normalized within the system, despite being unsafe or against established guidelines. It highlights the danger of gradually accepting and normalizing deviations from safe practices, which can lead to serious consequences.

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  • 9. 

    Qin is an engineer who works for SmallTime Industries. Earlier in his career, he had co-founded Old Army Industries, which became the world's largest producer of electro-widgets, but he no longer has ties with any workers and has long since sold his financial interests in the company. Qin has recently taken on a new responsibility at SmallTime that may require him to buy electro-widgets. Which of the following best describes Qin's situation?

    • A.

      He is in a potential conflict of interest situation

    • B.

      He is an actual conflict of interest situation

    • C.

      He is in an apparent conflict of interest situation

    • D.

      He is in a kinetic conflict of interest situation

    Correct Answer
    C. He is in an apparent conflict of interest situation
    Explanation
    Qin's previous involvement with Old Army Industries, a company that produces electro-widgets, creates an appearance of a conflict of interest. Although he no longer has any ties or financial interests in the company, his new responsibility at SmallTime Industries may require him to buy electro-widgets, which could be seen as favoring his previous company. Therefore, Qin is in an apparent conflict of interest situation.

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  • 10. 

    The Texas Engineering Practices Act states that "If engineers' judgement is overruled under circumstances that endanger life or property, they shall notify their employer or client and such other authority as may be appropriate." Which of the following best describes the instruction in the italicized clause?

    • A.

      Preventive and supererogatory

    • B.

      Preventive and obligatory

    • C.

      Prohibitive and permissible

    • D.

      Prohibitive and obligatory

    Correct Answer
    B. Preventive and obligatory
    Explanation
    The instruction in the italicized clause is described as preventive and obligatory. This means that engineers are required to notify their employer or client and any other appropriate authority if their judgment is overruled in a way that endangers life or property. This instruction is aimed at preventing potential harm and is mandatory for engineers to follow.

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  • 11. 

    Terry, an engineer for a company that does oil and gas exploration and production, is asked to make a recommendation on where to drill a well that will be located in an area in which his family owns a considerable amount of land. What should Terry do?

    • A.

      Use his best professional judgment because doing so allows him to escape the conflict of interest situation

    • B.

      Notify his family of the possibility and ask them if he should choose their property

    • C.

      "Blow the whistle" and let state regulators know about his ethical predicament

    • D.

      Notify his manager about this situation and offer to leave this task to other employees

    Correct Answer
    D. Notify his manager about this situation and offer to leave this task to other employees
    Explanation
    Terry should notify his manager about the situation and offer to leave the task to other employees. This is the most appropriate course of action as it shows transparency and integrity. By involving his manager, Terry ensures that the decision-making process is unbiased and fair. It also helps to avoid any potential conflict of interest and maintains the ethical standards of the company.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is the best characterization of a proper engineering decision?

    • A.

      A decision that may affect the health, safety or well-being of others

    • B.

      A decision that may only be taken by licensed engineers

    • C.

      A decision that may affect the health, safety or well-being of others, or involves technical matters that require engineering expertise

    • D.

      A decision for which engineers can be held responsible according to the NSPE code even if the actual decision was taken by the engineer's manager

    Correct Answer
    C. A decision that may affect the health, safety or well-being of others, or involves technical matters that require engineering expertise
    Explanation
    A proper engineering decision is one that may have an impact on the health, safety, or well-being of others. Additionally, it may involve technical matters that require engineering expertise. This means that the decision should be made by someone with the necessary knowledge and skills in engineering to ensure that it is made in the best interest of all parties involved. It is important for engineers to take responsibility for such decisions, even if they were made under the guidance or direction of a manager.

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  • 13. 

    Could an engineer in Roger Boisjoly's shoes use the line-drawing technique to determine if he should whistleblow?

    • A.

      Yes, because this determination primarily depends on resolving a conceptual issue

    • B.

      Yes, because this determination primarily depends on resolving a moral issue

    • C.

      No, because this determination primarily depends on resolving a factual issue

    • D.

      No, because this determination primarily depends on resolving an application issue

    Correct Answer
    B. Yes, because this determination primarily depends on resolving a moral issue
    Explanation
    The line-drawing technique involves evaluating the ethical implications of a decision. Whistleblowing involves reporting wrongdoing, which is inherently a moral issue. Therefore, an engineer in Roger Boisjoly's shoes could use the line-drawing technique to determine if he should whistleblow, as it would help him evaluate the ethical aspects of his decision.

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  • 14. 

    How do (contemporary) Kantians reason about risk?

    • A.

      When imposing a risk on others, we are not permitted to treat people as a means to an end

    • B.

      When imposing a risk on others, we are not permitted to violate the hypothetical imperative

    • C.

      When imposing a risk on others, we are not permitted to withhold any information to them

    • D.

      When imposing a risk on others, we are not permitted to treat people in a way that they would not consent to, or that rational people could not consent to

    Correct Answer
    D. When imposing a risk on others, we are not permitted to treat people in a way that they would not consent to, or that rational people could not consent to
    Explanation
    Contemporary Kantians reason that when imposing a risk on others, it is not permissible to treat people in a manner that they would not consent to, or that rational individuals could not consent to. This aligns with Kant's ethical framework, which emphasizes the importance of treating individuals as ends in themselves rather than as mere means to an end. By considering the consent and rationality of individuals involved, contemporary Kantians ensure that risks are not imposed on others in a way that violates their autonomy and dignity.

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  • 15. 

    Suppose it is unknown that the probability of a single accident caused by a piece of equipment in a given year is .0001 and that the consequence of such an accident is -10000 units of utility. If that single accident does not occur, then the outcome is 10 positive units of utility. What is the expected utility outcome for a given year?

    • A.

      About -10000 units of utility

    • B.

      About 0 units of utility

    • C.

      About 9 units of utility

    • D.

      About 10 units of utility

    Correct Answer
    C. About 9 units of utility
    Explanation
    The expected utility outcome for a given year can be calculated by multiplying the probability of each outcome by its corresponding utility and summing them up. In this case, the probability of the accident occurring is unknown, so we cannot calculate the exact expected utility. However, we can make an estimate based on the information given. Since the consequence of the accident is -10000 units of utility and the outcome without the accident is 10 units of utility, we can assume that the probability of the accident is very low. Therefore, the expected utility outcome is likely to be closer to the utility of the outcome without the accident, which is 10 units. So, the correct answer is about 9 units of utility.

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  • 16. 

    Roger Boisjoly's actions the night before the catastrophic Challenger launch are normally considered...

    • A.

      External whistleblowing, because he used a toll-free phone line set up for government contractors to report improper actions by government employees

    • B.

      Anonymous whistleblowing, because he expressed his concerns to management through an unsigned, typed letter to avoid confrontation

    • C.

      Insubordination, because he directly contacted NASA personnel over his manager's objections

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
  • 17. 

    "Moral claims are made at a communal level and are only valid in that setting." This is an example of:

    • A.

      Cultural nihilism

    • B.

      Ethical subjectivism

    • C.

      Cultural relativism

    • D.

      Cultural realism

    Correct Answer
    C. Cultural relativism
    Explanation
    Cultural relativism is the belief that moral claims are only valid within a specific cultural context. It suggests that there are no universal moral truths and that what is considered morally right or wrong varies from culture to culture. This aligns with the given statement that moral claims are made at a communal level and are only valid in that setting. Cultural relativism acknowledges the diversity of moral values and practices across different societies.

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  • 18. 

    "In many situations it is impossible to know which alternative act would bring about the best consequences, because it is impossible to know for sure what the consequences of an act will be before it is performed."

    • A.

      This objection shows that all versions of utilitarianism are false

    • B.

      The best response utilitarians can give to this objection is to question the assumption that we are always able to know in advance whether an act is right or wrong

    • C.

      Since some utilitarians evaluate acts according to their expected consequences and the expected consequences are often easier to determine in advance than the actual ones, the objection is not as forceful for all utilitarians

    • D.

      Both (b) and (c)

    Correct Answer
    D. Both (b) and (c)
    Explanation
    The objection raised in the statement suggests that it is impossible to determine the best consequences of an act before it is performed, making it difficult to apply utilitarianism. The best response for utilitarians is to question the assumption that we can always know in advance whether an act is right or wrong. Some utilitarians evaluate acts based on expected consequences, which are often easier to determine beforehand. Therefore, both response (b) and (c) are valid in countering this objection and showing that all versions of utilitarianism are not necessarily false.

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  • 19. 

    How would an act utilitarian assess the morality of an engineer who accepts a bribe from a subcontractor?

    • A.

      By asking whether an individual engineer's utility would be maximized if he or she accepted the bribe

    • B.

      By asking whether utility would be maximized if engineers generally accepted bribes

    • C.

      By asking what the total consequences of that act would be for everyone concerned

    • D.

      By asking whether a rational and impartial person would conclude that utility is maximized for himself if engineers in general accepted bribes

    Correct Answer
    C. By asking what the total consequences of that act would be for everyone concerned
    Explanation
    An act utilitarian would assess the morality of an engineer accepting a bribe by considering the total consequences of that act for everyone involved. This means evaluating the potential positive and negative outcomes for all parties affected by the engineer's decision, including the subcontractor, other engineers, and society as a whole. By taking into account the overall consequences, an act utilitarian would determine whether accepting the bribe would lead to the greatest overall utility or happiness for the greatest number of people.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is the best definition of eudaimonia (happiness) as it is used in Aristotle's ethics?

    • A.

      The ability to work against one's inclinations, which are the only condition that allows acts to be called "virtuous"

    • B.

      Maximizing the pleasure and minimizing the pain that will likely result from a particular action

    • C.

      Fulfilling one's potential, which results from the cultivation of one's virtues

    • D.

      A central term in virtue ethics, which is equivalent to what utilitarians mean by "happiness" or "pleasure."

    Correct Answer
    C. Fulfilling one's potential, which results from the cultivation of one's virtues
    Explanation
    Eudaimonia, as used in Aristotle's ethics, refers to fulfilling one's potential through the cultivation of one's virtues. This definition emphasizes the importance of developing and practicing virtuous qualities in order to achieve true happiness. It suggests that happiness is not merely derived from pleasure or the absence of pain, but rather from living a life in accordance with one's virtues and reaching one's full potential. This aligns with Aristotle's belief that virtue is essential for a flourishing and meaningful life.

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  • 21. 

    "The Ford F-150 is a large truck" is...

    • A.

      A factual claim

    • B.

      A conceptual claim

    • C.

      An application issue

    • D.

      A moral issue

    Correct Answer
    C. An application issue
    Explanation
    The statement "The Ford F-150 is a large truck" is categorized as an application issue because it refers to a specific object (the Ford F-150) and provides a description of its size (large). This statement is not a factual claim because it does not present verifiable information, nor is it a conceptual claim as it does not involve abstract ideas or concepts. It is also not a moral issue as it does not involve ethical considerations or judgments. Therefore, the most appropriate categorization for this statement is an application issue.

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  • 22. 

    "The paramountcy clause states that engineers shall hold paramount the health, safety and welfare of the public." The question of what is meant by the term "welfare" in this statement is...

    • A.

      A factual issue

    • B.

      A conceptual issue

    • C.

      An application issue

    • D.

      A moral issue

    Correct Answer
    B. A conceptual issue
    Explanation
    The term "welfare" in the statement is a conceptual issue because it refers to a broad and abstract concept that can have different interpretations. The interpretation of what constitutes welfare can vary depending on individual perspectives and cultural contexts. Therefore, understanding and defining the term "welfare" in the context of the paramountcy clause requires conceptual analysis and interpretation rather than a straightforward factual or application-based answer.

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  • 23. 

    In the line-drawing technique...

    • A.

      The features selected should describe the negative paradigm and not the positive paradigm

    • B.

      The features selected should describe the test case as closely as possible

    • C.

      The features selected should help to determine whether the test case resembles the positive or negative paradigm more closely

    • D.

      The features selected should be irrelevant to the paradigms

    Correct Answer
    C. The features selected should help to determine whether the test case resembles the positive or negative paradigm more closely
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "The features selected should help to determine whether the test case resembles the positive or negative paradigm more closely." In line-drawing technique, the goal is to select features that can help determine whether the test case aligns more with the positive paradigm (expected behavior) or the negative paradigm (unexpected behavior). By selecting features that can differentiate between these two paradigms, the technique can effectively identify and classify test cases.

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  • 24. 

    In the 1930's, engineers working for GE developed the sealed beam headlight working on their own time, which prevented many accidents caused by night driving. This is an example of...

    • A.

      Preventive ethics

    • B.

      Hedonistic ethics

    • C.

      Aspirational ethics

    • D.

      Prohibitive ethics

    Correct Answer
    C. Aspirational ethics
    Explanation
    The development of the sealed beam headlight by engineers working for GE in their own time in the 1930s can be seen as an example of aspirational ethics. Aspirational ethics refers to actions or decisions that are driven by a desire to achieve a higher moral standard or to contribute positively to society. In this case, the engineers were motivated to develop a safer headlight that would prevent accidents caused by night driving, showing their aspiration to improve safety and protect lives on the road.

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  • 25. 

    What is the best description of moral nihilism?

    • A.

      Moral judgments such as "That is wrong" are just expressions of one's own moral views and have no binding force on others

    • B.

      Moral judgments such as "That is wrong" are just expressions of moral views within a culture and have no binding force on people in other cultures

    • C.

      Statements such as "That is wrong" do not have any moral content - because moral content does not exist - and are just a way of getting people to do what we want them to do

    • D.

      Moral judgments such as "That is wrong" are derived from a moral theory and have no validity or meaning for people who do not accept that theory

    Correct Answer
    C. Statements such as "That is wrong" do not have any moral content - because moral content does not exist - and are just a way of getting people to do what we want them to do
    Explanation
    Moral nihilism is the belief that moral values and judgments do not exist objectively. The correct answer reflects this by stating that statements such as "That is wrong" do not have any moral content because moral content does not exist. Instead, they are seen as a manipulative tool to influence others to behave according to our desires. This perspective denies the existence of moral truths and suggests that moral judgments are merely subjective expressions of personal preferences or attempts to control others.

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  • 26. 

    The precautionary principle can be interpreted as (a/an)...

    • A.

      Normative principle saying that is is better to get a false negative than a false positive when assessing a risk

    • B.

      Normative principle saying that it is better to get a false positive than a false negative when assessing a risk

    • C.

      Epistemic principle saying that it is better to get a false positive than a false negative when assessing a risk

    • D.

      Epistemic principle saying that it is better to get a false negative than a false positive when assessing a risk

    Correct Answer
    C. Epistemic principle saying that it is better to get a false positive than a false negative when assessing a risk
    Explanation
    The precautionary principle is an epistemic principle that suggests it is better to err on the side of caution and assume a risk exists (false positive) rather than mistakenly assuming there is no risk (false negative). This approach is taken to prioritize safety and prevent potential harm, even if it means taking action or implementing measures that may not be necessary in the end. By focusing on avoiding false negatives, the precautionary principle aims to minimize the chances of overlooking or underestimating risks that could have significant consequences.

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  • 27. 

    Anthropocentrism could be considered an egalitarian position in environmental ethics

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Anthropocentrism is a viewpoint that places human beings at the center of importance and value, often prioritizing human needs and interests above those of the environment and other species. Egalitarianism, on the other hand, promotes equality and fairness among all individuals, regardless of their species. Therefore, anthropocentrism cannot be considered an egalitarian position in environmental ethics.

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  • 28. 

    Although restricted, biocentrism is largely compatible with anthropocentrism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Biocentrism is a philosophical viewpoint that places equal value on all living organisms, considering them as intrinsically valuable. On the other hand, anthropocentrism is a viewpoint that prioritizes human beings and their interests above all other living beings. These two viewpoints are fundamentally different and incompatible. While biocentrism promotes the idea of equal consideration for all life forms, anthropocentrism focuses solely on human interests. Therefore, the statement that biocentrism is largely compatible with anthropocentrism is incorrect.

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  • 29. 

    What is the principle difference between the weak and strong anthropocentric world views?

    • A.

      Strong anthropocentrism is applicable to more situations than weak anthropocentrism

    • B.

      Weak anthropocentrism cannot account for why human beings deserve priority

    • C.

      Strong anthropocentrism considers some human desires to be illegitimate bases for actions that harm non-humans

    • D.

      Weak anthropocentrism does not view the natural world as merely a standing reserve

    Correct Answer
    D. Weak anthropocentrism does not view the natural world as merely a standing reserve
    Explanation
    Weak anthropocentrism does not view the natural world as merely a standing reserve. This means that weak anthropocentrism does not see the natural world as solely existing for human use and exploitation. It recognizes the value of the natural world beyond its instrumental worth to humans and acknowledges the intrinsic worth of non-human entities. In contrast, strong anthropocentrism considers the natural world as a resource to be used for human benefit and may prioritize human desires over the well-being of non-human beings.

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  • 30. 

    The question of which beings deserve moral consideration is of minimal significance to environmental ethics

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The question of which beings deserve moral consideration is of significant importance to environmental ethics. Environmental ethics is concerned with the moral obligations and responsibilities humans have towards the environment and its inhabitants. Determining which beings deserve moral consideration is crucial in deciding how we should treat and interact with the natural world. It helps shape our attitudes towards animals, plants, ecosystems, and the environment as a whole. Therefore, the statement that the question of moral consideration is of minimal significance to environmental ethics is false.

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  • 31. 

    One principle concern of environmental ethics is the effect of our actions on future generations

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Environmental ethics is a branch of philosophy that focuses on understanding the moral obligations and responsibilities that humans have towards the environment. One of the key concerns of environmental ethics is the impact of our actions on future generations. This means that our decisions and behaviors today can have long-lasting consequences for the well-being and quality of life of future generations. By recognizing and addressing this concern, we can strive to make choices that are sustainable and considerate of the needs and rights of future generations. Therefore, the statement "One principle concern of environmental ethics is the effect of our actions on future generations" is true.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is true of environmental ethics?

    • A.

      It is sub-category of hedonistic act utilitarianism

    • B.

      Some argue it is a necessary foundation for all ethics

    • C.

      It contradicts most established ethical theories

    • D.

      It is in some ways a product of advances in ecology

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Some argue it is a necessary foundation for all ethics
    D. It is in some ways a product of advances in ecology
    Explanation
    Environmental ethics is a branch of ethics that focuses on the moral relationship between humans and the environment. Some argue that it is a necessary foundation for all ethics because it recognizes the intrinsic value of the environment and the interconnectedness of all living beings. It emphasizes the importance of sustainable practices and the responsibility to protect and preserve the natural world. Additionally, environmental ethics has been influenced by advances in ecology, as our understanding of ecological systems and the impact of human activities on the environment has grown.

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  • 33. 

    "Normalizing deviance" is a good example of the moral impediment of 

    Correct Answer(s)
    self-deception
    self deception
    Explanation
    "Normalizing deviance" refers to the process of gradually accepting and normalizing behaviors or actions that are initially considered deviant or unethical. This can occur when individuals deceive themselves into believing that these behaviors are acceptable or justified. The term "self-deception" accurately captures this concept, as it involves individuals deceiving themselves and rationalizing their actions, ultimately blurring the line between right and wrong. This moral impediment hinders individuals from recognizing and addressing their unethical behavior, leading to a normalization of deviance.

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  • 34. 

    Dr. Harris's father's failure to consider the environmental impact of his engineering work is an example of...

    • A.

      Microscopic vision

    • B.

      Normalizing deviance

    • C.

      Self-interest

    • D.

      Moral apathy

    Correct Answer
    A. Microscopic vision
    Explanation
    The correct answer is microscopic vision. This refers to a narrow focus on immediate goals or tasks, without considering the broader impact or consequences. In this case, Dr. Harris's father failed to consider the environmental impact of his engineering work, indicating a lack of awareness or concern for the larger effects of his actions.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is a possible antidote to 'microscopic vision'?

    • A.

      Good technical insight

    • B.

      A fresh set of eyes

    • C.

      A strong sense of duty

    • D.

      A robust moral imagination

    Correct Answer
    D. A robust moral imagination
    Explanation
    A robust moral imagination can be seen as a possible antidote to 'microscopic vision' because it allows individuals to consider the broader ethical implications and consequences of their actions. It enables them to think beyond their immediate concerns and take into account the impact on others and society as a whole. This antidote encourages individuals to have a broader perspective and make decisions that align with their moral values, rather than getting caught up in narrow and self-centered thinking.

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  • 36. 

    The fact that 'groupthink' can influence self-deception is an example of the inter-relatedness of impediments to moral responsibility.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that "groupthink" can lead to self-deception, which in turn can hinder moral responsibility. Groupthink refers to the tendency of a group to conform to a particular way of thinking or making decisions, often at the expense of critical thinking or individual accountability. When individuals are influenced by groupthink, they may deceive themselves into believing that their actions are morally justified, even if they go against their own values or ethical standards. This interconnectedness between groupthink, self-deception, and moral responsibility highlights how one factor can contribute to or exacerbate another.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is true of many who choose self-interest over professional responsibility?

    • A.

      They often hold a weak conception of professionalism

    • B.

      They have a good reason for their failure to act ethically

    • C.

      They always have a long record of moral irresponsibility

    • D.

      They are never aware of professional codes of conduct

    Correct Answer
    A. They often hold a weak conception of professionalism
    Explanation
    Many who choose self-interest over professional responsibility often hold a weak conception of professionalism. This means that they may not fully understand or appreciate the importance of adhering to professional standards and ethics. They may prioritize their own personal gain or interests over the well-being of others or the integrity of their profession. This weak understanding of professionalism can lead to unethical behavior and a lack of accountability for their actions.

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  • 38. 

    'Groupthink' was one of the impediments that affected the decision-makers involved in the Columbia disaster.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Groupthink refers to a phenomenon where a group of people makes decisions that prioritize conformity and consensus over critical thinking and individual opinions. In the case of the Columbia disaster, the decision-makers involved were affected by groupthink, which means they may have failed to consider alternative perspectives or identify potential risks and flaws in their decision-making process. This ultimately contributed to the tragedy.

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  • 39. 

    Although an overall majority of "teachers" involved in Milgrim's experiment were willing to administer painful shocks to the "learners," gender, social class, and nationality appeared to play a significant role in what types of people demonstrated this willingness.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given explanation states that gender, social class, and nationality played a significant role in determining the willingness of people to administer painful shocks in Milgrim's experiment. However, the correct answer is False, which means that these factors did not play a significant role.

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  • 40. 

    A potential solution to impediments to moral responsibility such as uncritical acceptance of authority is to foster a culture of responsible assent.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that a potential solution to impediments to moral responsibility is to foster a culture of responsible assent. However, the correct answer is false because fostering a culture of responsible assent may not necessarily address the specific impediment of uncritical acceptance of authority. While responsible assent is important, it may not be the only solution or the most effective solution for addressing this particular impediment.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following are symptoms of 'groupthink'? Select all that apply.

    • A.

      Maintaining a sense of vulnerability

    • B.

      Holding an illusion of morality regarding group actions

    • C.

      Welcoming the perspectives of outsiders

    • D.

      Self-censoring contrary opinions

    • E.

      Construing silence as consent

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Holding an illusion of morality regarding group actions
    D. Self-censoring contrary opinions
    E. Construing silence as consent
    Explanation
    Groupthink is a phenomenon where a group of people prioritize consensus and harmony over critical thinking and individual opinions. Holding an illusion of morality regarding group actions is a symptom of groupthink because it involves the belief that the group's decisions and actions are inherently right and moral. Self-censoring contrary opinions is also a symptom as it involves individuals suppressing their own dissenting views to maintain group harmony. Construing silence as consent is another symptom as it implies that the group assumes agreement or approval from those who do not speak up.

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  • 42. 

    In what way was Robert Lund's behavior leading up to the loss of Challenger similar to that of the "teachers" in Milgrim's experiment?

    • A.

      They were overly deferential to authority

    • B.

      They were not thinking like managers

    • C.

      They should not bear full responsibility for the harm they caused

    • D.

      They knew what they were doing was wrong at the time

    Correct Answer
    A. They were overly deferential to authority
    Explanation
    Robert Lund's behavior leading up to the loss of Challenger was similar to that of the "teachers" in Milgrim's experiment because they were overly deferential to authority. This means that both Lund and the "teachers" showed a strong willingness to comply with the instructions and demands of those in positions of authority, even if it went against their own judgment or moral compass. This deference to authority resulted in detrimental consequences in both cases.

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  • 43. 

    In regard to an engineer's responsibility to protect the public welfare, which of the following statements are accurate?

    • A.

      The NSPE code of ethics is perhaps more emphatic than the TBPE rules in describing this responsibility as "paramount"

    • B.

      The TBPE rules do not mention public health, only public safety

    • C.

      The NSPE code does not address the engineer's responsibility to the profession

    • D.

      The TBPE rules address the engineer's responsibility to the environment by introducing the terminology of 'sustainable development'

    • E.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    A. The NSPE code of ethics is perhaps more emphatic than the TBPE rules in describing this responsibility as "paramount"
    Explanation
    The NSPE code of ethics places a greater emphasis on an engineer's responsibility to protect the public welfare as "paramount" compared to the TBPE rules. The TBPE rules do not specifically mention public health, only public safety. The NSPE code does not address the engineer's responsibility to the profession. Additionally, the TBPE rules introduce the concept of 'sustainable development' as part of an engineer's responsibility to the environment. Therefore, all of the statements mentioned in the question are accurate.

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  • 44. 

    The rules outlined in the TEPA should be considered:

    • A.

      A code of ethics for voluntary adoption by all engineers in the state

    • B.

      General guidelines for every engineer's behavior

    • C.

      A code of ethics for voluntary adoption by all engineers licensed by TBPE

    • D.

      A law binding on all engineers licensed by TBPE

    • E.

      A law binding on all engineers practicing in the state

    Correct Answer
    D. A law binding on all engineers licensed by TBPE
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "A law binding on all engineers licensed by TBPE." This answer is supported by the mention of "TEPA" in the question. TEPA stands for Texas Engineering Practice Act, which is a law that governs the practice of engineering in the state of Texas. Therefore, the rules outlined in TEPA should be considered as a law binding on all engineers licensed by the Texas Board of Professional Engineers (TBPE).

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  • 45. 

    What prompted the Texas state legislature to pass the Texas Engineering Practices Act?

    • A.

      A building collapse in San Antonio that was the result of the use of deficient materials

    • B.

      An explosion at a school that was caused by a gas leak killing nearly 300

    • C.

      A drilling rig explosion that occurred off the coast of Texas and threatened the lives of members of the public

    • D.

      A methane explosion that occurred in a coal mine and killed 169 workers

    Correct Answer
    B. An explosion at a school that was caused by a gas leak killing nearly 300
  • 46. 

    The purpose behind the NSPE defining an engineer's responsibility to the profession is probably...

    • A.

      To ensure that engineers continue to be well compensated

    • B.

      To ensure that the public impression of the engineering profession remains positive

    • C.

      To strengthen the networking of engineers in professional societies

    • D.

      To help unlicensed persons practice engineering

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The purpose behind the NSPE defining an engineer's responsibility to the profession is probably to establish ethical standards and guidelines that engineers should adhere to in order to maintain the integrity and professionalism of the engineering field. It is not related to compensation, public impression, networking, or promoting unlicensed practice.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following are among the TEPA rules on professional conduct and ethics?

    • A.

      Engineers shall be objective and truthful

    • B.

      Engineers shall not perform any engineering function that is likely to endanger the public

    • C.

      Engineers shall practice only in areas of their competance

    • D.

      A and B, but not C

    • E.

      A, B, and C

    Correct Answer
    E. A, B, and C
    Explanation
    The TEPA rules on professional conduct and ethics include the following principles: engineers should be objective and truthful, engineers should not perform any engineering function that is likely to endanger the public, and engineers should practice only in areas of their competence. Therefore, the correct answer is A, B, and C.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following is an example of conflict of interest according to the definition in the TBPE rules?

    • A.

      When an engineer has two clients with similar requirements

    • B.

      When an engineer accepts an assignment outside the engineer's are of competence

    • C.

      When an engineer accepts an assignment in which the decisions he or she will make for the client can also financially impact that engineer

    • D.

      When an engineer is paid by two clients for the same work

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. When an engineer accepts an assignment in which the decisions he or she will make for the client can also financially impact that engineer
    Explanation
    An example of a conflict of interest according to the TBPE rules is when an engineer accepts an assignment in which the decisions they make for the client can also financially impact the engineer. This means that the engineer may have a personal financial stake in the outcome of their decisions, which can compromise their objectivity and impartiality in serving the client's best interests. This situation can potentially lead to biased decision-making and undermine the engineer's professional integrity.

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  • 49. 

    An unlicensed engineer who works for a licensed engineer can perform which of the following tasks under the supervision of that licensed engineer?

    • A.

      Design of engineered products or projects

    • B.

      Supervision of construction of engineered public works projects

    • C.

      Responsible charge of teams of unlicensed engineers working on engineering projects

    • D.

      A and C

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Design of engineered products or projects
    Explanation
    An unlicensed engineer who works for a licensed engineer can perform the task of designing engineered products or projects under the supervision of the licensed engineer. This means that the unlicensed engineer can assist in the design process, but must be supervised by the licensed engineer who takes ultimate responsibility for the design. This allows the unlicensed engineer to gain experience and contribute to the design process while still being under the guidance and oversight of a licensed professional.

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  • 50. 

    The Texas Engineering Practices Act (TEPA) defines the practice of engineering as...

    • A.

      Design coordination of technical submissions prepared by others, including the work of other professionals working with or under the direction of an engineer

    • B.

      Engineering survey to support the sound conception, planning, design, construction, maintenance, or operation of an engineering product

    • C.

      The performance of or an offer or attempt to perform any public or private service or creative work, the adequate performance of which requires engineering education, training, and experience in applying special knowledge or judgement of the mathematical, physical or engineering sciences

    • D.

      Any design or fabrication work done by an individual with a job title that includes the designation "engineer"

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. The performance of or an offer or attempt to perform any public or private service or creative work, the adequate performance of which requires engineering education, training, and experience in applying special knowledge or judgement of the mathematical, physical or engineering sciences
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the performance of or an offer or attempt to perform any public or private service or creative work, the adequate performance of which requires engineering education, training, and experience in applying special knowledge or judgement of the mathematical, physical or engineering sciences. This definition encompasses the broad scope of engineering, including the application of technical knowledge and skills in various fields to provide services or perform creative work that requires engineering expertise. It emphasizes the importance of education, training, and experience in engineering to ensure the adequate performance of such services or work.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Dec 07, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 10, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Brand820
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