Assessment Day 2: Nutrition/Obesity/Lipids

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Quizzes Created: 10 | Total Attempts: 10,912
Questions: 30 | Attempts: 188

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Assessment Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which lipoprotein transports dietary fat and dietary cholesterol from the intestine?

    • A.

      VLDL

    • B.

      HDL

    • C.

      IDL

    • D.

      LDL

    • E.

      Chylomicrons

    Correct Answer
    E. Chylomicrons
    Explanation
    Chylomicrons are the lipoproteins that transport dietary fat and dietary cholesterol from the intestine. They are formed in the intestinal cells after the absorption of dietary fat and are released into the lymphatic system. Chylomicrons then enter the bloodstream and deliver their cargo of fats and cholesterol to various tissues in the body. Once the fats are utilized or stored, chylomicrons become smaller and eventually get cleared from the bloodstream. Therefore, chylomicrons play a crucial role in the transport of dietary fat and cholesterol.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is Cholesterol not a precursor to:

    • A.

      Hormones

    • B.

      Cell Membranes

    • C.

      Bone Structure

    • D.

      Bile Acids

    • E.

      All of the above are Precursors

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are Precursors
    Explanation
    Cholesterol is a precursor to hormones, cell membranes, bone structure, and bile acids. This means that cholesterol is involved in the synthesis of these substances. Therefore, all of the given options are correct, as cholesterol serves as a precursor to all of them.

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  • 3. 

    What component of a lipoprotein contributes greatest to its density

    • A.

      Triglyceride

    • B.

      Apolipoprotein

    • C.

      Free Cholesterol

    • D.

      Phospholipids

    • E.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    B. Apolipoprotein
    Explanation
    Apolipoprotein contributes the greatest to the density of a lipoprotein. Lipoproteins are particles that transport lipids (such as cholesterol and triglycerides) in the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins are proteins that surround and stabilize these lipoprotein particles. They play a crucial role in lipid metabolism and are responsible for the structural integrity and function of lipoproteins. The presence and type of apolipoproteins determine the density of the lipoprotein, with different types of apolipoproteins contributing to different densities. Therefore, apolipoprotein is the component that contributes the most to the density of a lipoprotein.

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  • 4. 

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are the principle transport vehicles for ________ in the blood.

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Triglycerides

    • C.

      Cholesterol

    • D.

      Amino Acids

    Correct Answer
    C. Cholesterol
    Explanation
    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a lipid molecule that is essential for various bodily functions, including cell membrane formation and hormone production. LDL carries cholesterol from the liver to the cells throughout the body, where it is utilized for these functions. Therefore, the correct answer is cholesterol.

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  • 5. 

    Apolipoprotein A is bound to all __________ and Apolipoprotein B is bound to __________.

    • A.

      HDL;Triglycerides

    • B.

      LDL; VLDL

    • C.

      HDL; Chylomicrons,VLDL,IDL,LDL, Lp(a)

    • D.

      All of the above are incorrect

    Correct Answer
    C. HDL; Chylomicrons,VLDL,IDL,LDL, Lp(a)
  • 6. 

    There are two ways that lipoproteins are commonly classified:

    • A.

      HDL/Non-HDL or By the Apolipoproteins in their structural surface

    • B.

      By density and by the harm they pose to the body

    • C.

      By Triglyceride concentration and by cholesterol concentration.

    • D.

      None of the above are correct.

    Correct Answer
    A. HDL/Non-HDL or By the Apolipoproteins in their structural surface
    Explanation
    Lipoproteins are commonly classified by either their HDL (high-density lipoprotein) or non-HDL composition, or by the apolipoproteins present on their structural surface. This classification helps in understanding the different types of lipoproteins and their role in the body's lipid metabolism. Other options such as classification by density or harm to the body, or by triglyceride and cholesterol concentration, are not correct methods of classifying lipoproteins.

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  • 7. 

    Because triglycerides and cholesterol (both being oil-based) cannot dissolve in blood, they must be “packaged” inside a “transport vehicle” in order to circulate in the (water-based) bloodstream throughout your body. Those transport vehicles are called:

    • A.

      Phospholipids

    • B.

      APOE

    • C.

      Lipoproteins

    • D.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Lipoproteins
    Explanation
    Triglycerides and cholesterol cannot dissolve in blood because they are oil-based, while blood is water-based. Therefore, they need to be packaged inside a transport vehicle in order to circulate in the bloodstream. These transport vehicles are called lipoproteins, which are a combination of proteins and lipids. Lipoproteins allow for the transportation of triglycerides and cholesterol throughout the body, ensuring that they can reach their intended destinations. Phospholipids, APOE, and proteins are not specifically designed for this purpose and do not play a significant role in transporting triglycerides and cholesterol in the bloodstream.

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  • 8. 

    Elevated Lp(a) presents a far greater risk than elevated LDL because it is both atherogenic and thrombogenic

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Elevated Lp(a) is considered to present a greater risk than elevated LDL because it is both atherogenic and thrombogenic. Atherogenic refers to the ability to promote the formation of fatty plaques in the arteries, leading to atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thrombogenic means that it promotes the formation of blood clots, which can lead to blockages in blood vessels and potentially cause heart attacks or strokes. Therefore, elevated Lp(a) poses a dual risk by contributing to both plaque formation and blood clotting, making it more dangerous than elevated LDL alone.

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  • 9. 

    In unhealthy lipoprotein metabolism (unhealthy eating), more particles are created than the body can use and remove, causing a greater particle load to progress through the metabolic pathway, with the particles getting progressively more cholesterol-rich throughout the process. This leads to an increased number of particles that are high in cholesterol, thus increasing the patient’s risk for atherosclerosis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Unhealthy lipoprotein metabolism refers to a condition where the body produces more lipoprotein particles than it can effectively utilize and eliminate. As a result, these particles accumulate and progress through the metabolic pathway, becoming increasingly cholesterol-rich. This buildup of cholesterol-rich particles increases the risk of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the formation of plaque in the arteries. Therefore, the statement that an unhealthy lipoprotein metabolism increases the patient's risk for atherosclerosis is true.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following statements are true regarding lipoprotein particles and atherosclerosis?

    • A.

      Smaller particles more easily infiltrate the vessel wall, initiating the atherosclerotic process

    • B.

      More particles means more opportunity for infiltration to occur.

    • C.

      Higher cholesterol content can result in a more rapid advancement in atherosclerosis.

    • D.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are true
    Explanation
    Smaller lipoprotein particles are more easily able to penetrate the vessel wall, which is a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis. This is because smaller particles can pass through the endothelial lining more easily. Additionally, a higher number of lipoprotein particles increases the chances of infiltration occurring, as there are more particles available to interact with the vessel wall. Finally, higher cholesterol content in the lipoprotein particles can lead to a faster progression of atherosclerosis, as cholesterol is a key component of the fatty plaques that form in the vessel wall. Therefore, all of the statements provided are true.

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  • 11. 

    Regular aerobic exercise, loss of excess weight (fat), and cessation of cigarette smoking may increase HDL cholesterol levels.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Regular aerobic exercise, loss of excess weight (fat), and cessation of cigarette smoking can all have a positive impact on HDL cholesterol levels. Aerobic exercise helps to increase HDL cholesterol levels by stimulating the production of enzymes that transport cholesterol from the tissues to the liver for excretion. Losing excess weight, particularly fat, can also raise HDL levels. Smoking cessation is important because cigarette smoking has been shown to lower HDL cholesterol levels. Therefore, all of these lifestyle changes can contribute to an increase in HDL cholesterol levels.

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  • 12. 

    Lp(a) is considered to be ____ more atherogenic (disease causing) than LDL cholesterol.  

    • A.

      100X

    • B.

      50X

    • C.

      10X

    • D.

      15X

    Correct Answer
    C. 10X
    Explanation
    Lp(a) is considered to be 10 times more atherogenic (disease causing) than LDL cholesterol. This means that Lp(a) is 10 times more likely to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the arteries. Atherosclerosis can lead to various cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attacks and strokes. Therefore, having high levels of Lp(a) in the blood is considered to be a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

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  • 13. 

    HDL removes surplus cholesterol from the periphery and transports it to the liver for disposal

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transports it to the liver for disposal. This process is known as reverse cholesterol transport. HDL acts as a scavenger, picking up cholesterol from cells in the peripheral tissues and carrying it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and eliminated from the body. Therefore, the statement that HDL removes surplus cholesterol from the periphery and transports it to the liver for disposal is true.

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  • 14. 

    ________packages the fat we consume and transports it from our small intestine to the liver.

    • A.

      LDL

    • B.

      VLDL

    • C.

      Chylomicrons

    • D.

      HDL

    Correct Answer
    C. Chylomicrons
    Explanation
    Chylomicrons are responsible for packaging the fat we consume and transporting it from our small intestine to the liver. They are large lipoprotein particles that are formed in the intestinal cells after the digestion and absorption of dietary fats. Chylomicrons contain triglycerides, cholesterol, and other lipids, and they are released into the lymphatic system before entering the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, chylomicrons deliver the dietary fat to various tissues, including the liver, where it can be further metabolized or stored. LDL, VLDL, and HDL are also lipoproteins involved in lipid transport, but they have different functions and compositions compared to chylomicrons.

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  • 15. 

    _______is(are) a class of lipoproteins formed in the degradation of very-low-density lipoproteins; some are cleared rapidly into the liver and some are degraded to low-density lipoproteins.

    • A.

      IDL

    • B.

      Remnants lipoproteins

    • C.

      HDL

    • D.

      VLDL3

    Correct Answer
    A. IDL
    Explanation
    IDL (Intermediate-density lipoproteins) are a class of lipoproteins formed in the degradation of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Some IDL particles are cleared rapidly into the liver, while others are further degraded to form low-density lipoproteins (LDL). This process is part of the normal metabolism of lipids in the body.

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  • 16. 

    Their levels are genetically determined and remain relatively stable over an individual's lifetime. 

    • A.

      Small, dense LDL

    • B.

      Lp(a)

    • C.

      LpPla2

    • D.

      IDL

    Correct Answer
    B. Lp(a)
    Explanation
    Lp(a) levels are genetically determined and remain relatively stable over an individual's lifetime. Lp(a) is a lipoprotein that consists of LDL cholesterol and a protein called apolipoprotein(a). It is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The levels of Lp(a) are determined by genetic factors and do not significantly change over time. Therefore, Lp(a) is the correct answer as it aligns with the statement that the levels are genetically determined and remain stable throughout an individual's lifetime.

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  • 17. 

    __________transport cholesterol from the tissues of the body back to the liver through a process called reverse cholesterol transport, so the cholesterol can be eliminated in the bile.

    • A.

      LDL

    • B.

      Chylomicrons

    • C.

      Triglycerides

    • D.

      Phopholipids

    • E.

      HDL

    Correct Answer
    E. HDL
    Explanation
    HDL, also known as high-density lipoprotein, is responsible for transporting cholesterol from the tissues of the body back to the liver through a process called reverse cholesterol transport. This process allows the cholesterol to be eliminated in the bile.

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  • 18. 

    __________transports cholesterol to the tissues of the body. It is therefore considered the "bad" cholesterol.

    • A.

      IDL

    • B.

      Lp(a)

    • C.

      VLDL3

    • D.

      LDL

    Correct Answer
    D. LDL
    Explanation
    LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, transports cholesterol to the tissues of the body. It is considered the "bad" cholesterol because high levels of LDL can lead to the buildup of plaque in the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. LDL is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following appropriately represents the Friedewald Equation for calculating LDL cholesterol?

    • A.

      LDL = TC – HDL – TG/5

    • B.

      LDL = HDL + TG/5

    • C.

      LDL = TC – HDL - VLDL

    • D.

      TC = HDL + LDL + TG

    Correct Answer
    A. LDL = TC – HDL – TG/5
    Explanation
    The correct answer is LDL = TC – HDL – TG/5. This equation represents the Friedewald Equation for calculating LDL cholesterol. In this equation, LDL cholesterol is calculated by subtracting HDL cholesterol and one-fifth of the triglyceride (TG) level from the total cholesterol (TC) level. This equation is commonly used in clinical practice to estimate LDL cholesterol levels when direct measurement is not available.

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  • 20. 

    The VAP:

    • A.

      Is a comprehensive lipid analysis utilizing proprietary technology called the Vertical auto profile ultracentrifugation.

    • B.

      Offers a direct measure LDL.

    • C.

      Simultaneously measures cholesterol concentrations of all 5 lipoprotein classes and their subclasses in a nonfasting patient.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The VAP is a comprehensive lipid analysis that uses a proprietary technology called the Vertical auto profile ultracentrifugation. It offers a direct measure of LDL and simultaneously measures cholesterol concentrations of all 5 lipoprotein classes and their subclasses in a nonfasting patient. Therefore, all of the statements mentioned above are correct.

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  • 21. 

    ____________________is elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low high-density lipoprotein level that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.

    • A.

      Hyperlipidemia

    • B.

      Dyslipidemia

    • C.

      Metabolic Syndrome

    • D.

      Hypoapolipoproteins

    Correct Answer
    B. Dyslipidemia
    Explanation
    Dyslipidemia refers to the elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low high-density lipoprotein level that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. It is a condition characterized by abnormal levels of lipids in the blood, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. This condition can be caused by various factors including genetics, diet, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Managing dyslipidemia typically involves lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and medication if necessary.

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  • 22. 

       ___________ is used to measure obesity, and a measurement over __________, a patient is considered to be obese.

    • A.

      BMI; 30

    • B.

      HTN; 200 lbs

    • C.

      BMI; 20

    • D.

      LDL; 130mg/dl

    Correct Answer
    A. BMI; 30
    Explanation
    BMI (Body Mass Index) is used to measure obesity, and a measurement over 30 indicates that a patient is considered to be obese.

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  • 23. 

    The energy provided from food is called _______________.

    • A.

      BMI

    • B.

      Kcal

    • C.

      Calories

    • D.

      Fatty acids

    • E.

      B & C

    Correct Answer
    E. B & C
    Explanation
    The energy provided from food is called Kcal and Calories. Kcal stands for kilocalorie and is a unit of energy. Calories are also a unit of energy and are used to measure the amount of energy provided by food. Both Kcal and Calories are commonly used to quantify the energy content of food.

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  • 24. 

    Select all of the following Nutirents that provide energy.

    • A.

      Vitamins

    • B.

      Fats

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Minerals

    • E.

      Carbohydrates

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Fats
    C. Proteins
    E. Carbohydrates
    Explanation
    Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates are all nutrients that provide energy. Fats are a concentrated source of energy, providing 9 calories per gram. Proteins also provide energy, with 4 calories per gram. Carbohydrates are the body's primary source of energy, providing 4 calories per gram. Vitamins and minerals, on the other hand, are essential for various bodily functions but do not directly provide energy.

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  • 25. 

    The prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. Once associated with high-income countries, obesity is now also prevalent in low- and middle-income countries.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the statement accurately reflects the increase in the prevalence of obesity between 1980 and 2008. The statement also highlights the shift in obesity rates from being predominantly present in high-income countries to now being prevalent in low- and middle-income countries as well.

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  • 26. 

    Extra sugar your body does not immediately require for energy can easily be converted to _______________________ a type of fat that can then be stored. This can result in _____________________________________________________ increasing your risk of developing CVD.

    • A.

      Triglycerides; Triglyceride rich disorder

    • B.

      LDL; Cholestrol rich disorder

    • C.

      Fatty Acids; Triglyceride Rich Disorder

    • D.

      Plaques; atherosclerosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Triglycerides; Triglyceride rich disorder
    Explanation
    Extra sugar that is not immediately needed for energy can be converted into triglycerides, which are a type of fat that can be stored in the body. This can lead to the development of a triglyceride rich disorder, increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD).

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  • 27. 

      ________________, perhaps the most important nutritional disease in the United States and Europe, results usually from excessive caloric intake, although emotional, genetic, and endocrine factors may be present.

    • A.

      Nutritional Deficiencies

    • B.

      Over Eating

    • C.

      CVD

    • D.

      Obesity

    Correct Answer
    D. Obesity
    Explanation
    Obesity is suggested as the correct answer because it is described as "perhaps the most important nutritional disease in the United States and Europe" and is caused by excessive caloric intake. The other options, nutritional deficiencies, overeating, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), do not fit the description provided in the question.

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  • 28. 

    Whether you are consuming a diet exclusively composed of carbohydrates and protein, anything that the body does not need will be stored as FAT.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When consuming a diet that consists solely of carbohydrates and protein, any excess nutrients that the body does not require for immediate energy or other bodily functions will be converted and stored as fat. This is because the body has a limited capacity to store carbohydrates and protein, so any excess is converted into fat for long-term energy storage. Therefore, it is true that anything the body does not need from a diet composed of carbohydrates and protein will be stored as fat.

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  • 29. 

    CHECK ALL THAT APPLY.  Important points that came out of the WELLMED study which are important to share with customers are which of the following:

    • A.

      Patients who were in the VAP group saw lower LDL levels

    • B.

      Patients who were in the VAP group saw higher HDL levels

    • C.

      Patients who were in the VAP group had a cost saving of 35% verse the control group

    • D.

      Patients who were in the VAP group had higher ED visits

    • E.

      Patients who were in the VAP group had fewer in-patient hospital stays

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Patients who were in the VAP group saw lower LDL levels
    B. Patients who were in the VAP group saw higher HDL levels
    C. Patients who were in the VAP group had a cost saving of 35% verse the control group
    E. Patients who were in the VAP group had fewer in-patient hospital stays
    Explanation
    The WELLMED study found that patients in the VAP group experienced lower levels of LDL cholesterol and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Additionally, these patients had a cost saving of 35% compared to the control group and had fewer in-patient hospital stays. Therefore, it is important to share these findings with customers to highlight the potential benefits of being in the VAP group.

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  • 30. 

    In the WELLMED STUDY,  they say a reduction of _____% in in-patient stays as well as a ______% reduction in ER visits in the patients assessed and treated from the VAP test.

    • A.

      30% and 25%

    • B.

      35% and 40%

    • C.

      20% and 22%

    • D.

      No reduction of seen in either

    Correct Answer
    A. 30% and 25%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 30% and 25%. According to the WELLMED STUDY, there was a reduction of 30% in in-patient stays and a reduction of 25% in ER visits for patients who were assessed and treated from the VAP test. This suggests that the VAP test is effective in reducing the need for hospitalization and emergency room visits, potentially leading to cost savings and improved patient outcomes.

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  • Mar 17, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 27, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Lee Ann
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