A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that is due to past experience
A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to drug treatment.
Behavior changes that are the result of development or maturation.
Replacing old habits with new habits.
She is classically conditioned to fear water.
She has formed a cognitive map of the area.
Helen was observing the actions of others in the situation.
The standing water was a reliable predictor of danger.
A stimulus and a response
A neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally elicits a response
A behavioral response and a natural environmental consequence
An unconditioned response and a conditioned response
Performance of a behavior was affected by the cognitive expectation of reinforcement or punishment.
Negative reinforcement is less effective than positive reinforcement in changing behavior.
Learned helplessness can be overcome through guided mastery experiences.
Even emotional responses can be classically conditioned.
A conditioned stimulus.
An unconditioned response.
An unconditioned stimulus.
A conditioned response
Focusing on the delayed reinforcer
Walking to reach for an object
Throwing a ball on command
Salivating shivering in response to cold
Speaking after being spoken to
Voluntary behaviors are to involuntary behaviors.
Elicited behaviors are to emitted behaviors.
Consequences are to positive reinforcement.
Elicited behaviors are to reflexive behaviors
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
Unconditioned response (UCR).
Conditioned stimulus (CS).
conditioned response (CR).
Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
By pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus, the neutral stimulus can come to produce the same response.
Mental processes play a critical role in the process of imitating the behavior of others.
Behavior can only be understood by considering underlying mental processes.
The Premack principle
Time-out from positive reinforcement
Reinforcing an incompatible behavior
Punishment by removal
Related to internal events that are subsequently observable through overt behavior.
Maintained by associations made with other learned stimuli.
Defined by the effect that it produces—increasing or strengthening behavior.
Based upon behaviors that are elicited by discriminative stimuli.
Addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of an aversive stimulus.
Primary reinforcer is to conditioned reinforcer.
Increase in behavior is to decrease in behavior.
Addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of a reinforcing stimulus.
The law of effect
B. F. Skinner
John B. Watson
Experience global brain deactivation during sleep and do not dream.
Experience sleep cycles in which REM sleep alternates with slow-wave NREM sleep.
Only experience NREM sleep.
Only experience REM sleep during mating season.
The number of dopamine receptors in the brain’s reward system decreases.
The number of endorphin receptors in the brain’s reward system decreases.
The number of dopamine receptors in the brain’s reward system increases but the number of endorphin receptors in the brain’s motivation system drops.
It varies greatly, depending upon the specific addictive drug.
They experienced occasional episodes of delirium tremens.
They had an abnormally low number of dopamine receptors and transporters.
They had an abnormally low number of serotonin receptors and transporters.
Withdrawal symptoms of “crashing” and flashbacks were still common.
Here's an interesting quiz for you.