Psy Kev 101 1-5

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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Psychologists formally define learning as: Select one:

    • A.

      A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that is due to past experience

    • B.

      A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to drug treatment.

    • C.

      Behavior changes that are the result of development or maturation.

    • D.

      Replacing old habits with new habits.

    Correct Answer
    A. A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that is due to past experience
    Explanation
    Psychologists define learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that is a result of past experience. This means that when individuals learn, their behavior or knowledge is permanently altered as a result of the experiences they have had in the past. This definition emphasizes that learning is not a temporary or short-term change, but rather a lasting transformation that occurs as a result of past experiences.

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  • 2. 

    Helen always drives down Sheridan Avenue to go to the college campus. One morning Helen discovers that Sheridan Avenue is closed at 23rd Street because of flooding. Helen immediately takes a different route to the campus. How would psychologist Edward Tolman explain Helen's behavior? Select one:  

    • A.

      She is classically conditioned to fear water.

    • B.

      She has formed a cognitive map of the area.

    • C.

      Helen was observing the actions of others in the situation.

    • D.

      The standing water was a reliable predictor of danger.

    Correct Answer
    B. She has formed a cognitive map of the area.
    Explanation
    Edward Tolman would explain Helen's behavior by suggesting that she has formed a cognitive map of the area. This means that Helen has developed a mental representation of the layout and routes in her environment. When she encountered the road closure, she was able to use her cognitive map to quickly navigate an alternative route to the college campus. This explanation highlights the role of mental processes and internal representations in guiding behavior.

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  • 3. 

    To produce a learned response in classical conditioning, what two elements are repeatedly paired? Select one:

    • A.

      A stimulus and a response

    • B.

      A neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally elicits a response

    • C.

      A behavioral response and a natural environmental consequence

    • D.

      An unconditioned response and a conditioned response

    Correct Answer
    B. A neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally elicits a response
    Explanation
    In classical conditioning, a learned response is produced by repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that naturally elicits a response. Through this repeated pairing, the neutral stimulus becomes associated with the naturally elicited response and eventually elicits the response on its own. This process is known as conditioning and forms the basis of classical conditioning.

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  • 4. 

    The famous Bobo doll studies showed that: Select one:

    • A.

      Performance of a behavior was affected by the cognitive expectation of reinforcement or punishment.

    • B.

      Negative reinforcement is less effective than positive reinforcement in changing behavior.

    • C.

      Learned helplessness can be overcome through guided mastery experiences.

    • D.

      Even emotional responses can be classically conditioned.

    Correct Answer
    A. Performance of a behavior was affected by the cognitive expectation of reinforcement or punishment.
    Explanation
    The famous Bobo doll studies conducted by Albert Bandura demonstrated that the performance of a behavior can be influenced by the cognitive expectation of receiving reinforcement or punishment. In these studies, children observed an adult model behaving aggressively towards a Bobo doll and then were given the opportunity to interact with the doll themselves. The children who witnessed the adult being praised or rewarded for their aggressive behavior were more likely to imitate the same behavior, while those who observed the adult being punished or reprimanded were less likely to engage in aggressive behavior. This highlights the role of cognitive processes, such as expectations of reinforcement or punishment, in shaping behavior.

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  • 5. 

    Six-year-old Blair liked going to school right up until her first grade teacher, Ms. Hanemayer, took maternity leave. The substitute teacher, old Mrs. Snarly, was strict and scolded Blair on several occasions, making her cry. On one Saturday morning as Blair was helping her father with grocery shopping, she rounded the corner and came face to face with old Mrs. Snarly. Blair instantly burst into tears. Blair’s crying at just the sight of Mrs. Snarly is an example of: Select one:

    • A.

      A conditioned stimulus.

    • B.

      An unconditioned response.

    • C.

      An unconditioned stimulus.

    • D.

      A conditioned response

    Correct Answer
    A. A conditioned stimulus.
    Explanation
    Blair's crying at just the sight of Mrs. Snarly suggests that Mrs. Snarly has become a conditioned stimulus. This means that Blair has associated Mrs. Snarly's presence with the negative experiences and scolding she received from her. As a result, Blair has developed a conditioned response of crying whenever she sees Mrs. Snarly, even if there is no actual threat or scolding present.

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  • 6. 

    Anthony is studying for his final exam the next day, but a friend calls and invites him to a party. Anthony really wants to go to the party, but he also needs a good grade on his final in order to maintain his standing on the Dean's Honor Roll and increase his chances of getting into medical school. Instead of thinking about how much fun the party will be, Anthony instead visualizes himself as a doctor, treating patients and performing surgery. What self-control strategy is Anthony using?

    • A.

      Self-reinforcement

    • B.

      Precommitment

    • C.

      Focusing on the delayed reinforcer

    • D.

      Stimulus control

    Correct Answer
    C. Focusing on the delayed reinforcer
    Explanation
    Anthony is using the self-control strategy of focusing on the delayed reinforcer. Instead of being tempted by the immediate gratification of going to the party, Anthony is visualizing his future as a doctor and the long-term benefits of getting a good grade on his final exam. By focusing on the delayed reinforcer, Anthony is able to resist the temptation and prioritize his long-term goals over short-term enjoyment.

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  • 7. 

    Which behavior is a reflex, meaning that it is governed by the nervous system and occurs automatically? Select one:  

    • A.

      Walking to reach for an object

    • B.

      Throwing a ball on command

    • C.

      Salivating shivering in response to cold

    • D.

      Speaking after being spoken to

    Correct Answer
    C. Salivating shivering in response to cold
    Explanation
    Salivating and shivering in response to cold are reflex behaviors because they are governed by the nervous system and occur automatically. These behaviors are involuntary and do not require conscious thought or effort. When the body detects cold temperatures, the nervous system triggers the reflexes of salivating and shivering as a means to protect and regulate the body's temperature.

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  • 8. 

    Classical conditioning is to operant conditioning as: Select one:  

    • A.

      Voluntary behaviors are to involuntary behaviors.

    • B.

      Elicited behaviors are to emitted behaviors.

    • C.

      Consequences are to positive reinforcement.

    • D.

      Elicited behaviors are to reflexive behaviors

    Correct Answer
    B. Elicited behaviors are to emitted behaviors.
    Explanation
    Classical conditioning involves learning through the association of stimuli and the elicitation of involuntary, reflexive behaviors. On the other hand, operant conditioning involves learning through the consequences of voluntary behaviors and the emission of those behaviors. Therefore, the relationship between classical conditioning and operant conditioning can be understood as elicited behaviors (classical conditioning) being to emitted behaviors (operant conditioning).

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  • 9. 

    In response to cutting up an onion, airborne irritants released by the onion body will cause your eyes to tear. Using Pavlov's terminology, the tears would be termed a(n): Select one:  

    • A.

      Unconditioned stimulus (UCS).

    • B.

      Unconditioned response (UCR).

    • C.

      Conditioned stimulus (CS).

    • D.

      conditioned response (CR).

    Correct Answer
    B. Unconditioned response (UCR).
    Explanation
    When you cut up an onion, the irritants released by the onion body cause your eyes to tear. This is an involuntary response that occurs naturally without any prior conditioning. In Pavlov's terminology, this type of response is called an unconditioned response (UCR). It is an automatic and unlearned reaction to the irritants in the onion.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following statements best captures the basic idea of operant conditioning? Select one:

    • A.

      Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.

    • B.

      By pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus, the neutral stimulus can come to produce the same response.

    • C.

      Mental processes play a critical role in the process of imitating the behavior of others.

    • D.

      Behavior can only be understood by considering underlying mental processes.

    Correct Answer
    A. Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
    Explanation
    Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences. This means that individuals learn to repeat behaviors that are followed by rewards or positive consequences, while behaviors that are followed by punishment or negative consequences are less likely to be repeated. This principle is the basis of operant conditioning, as it emphasizes the role of consequences in shaping and maintaining behavior.

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  • 11. 

    A rat in a Skinner box is reinforced for the first bar press it makes after one minute has elapsed. The rat is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement. Select one:  

    • A.

      Fixed-interval

    • B.

      Fixed-ratio

    • C.

      Variable-interval

    • D.

      Variable-ratio

    Correct Answer
    A. Fixed-interval
    Explanation
    In a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement, the reinforcement is delivered after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement. In this scenario, the rat is reinforced for the first bar press it makes after one minute has elapsed. This means that the reinforcement is delivered on a fixed schedule, specifically after a fixed interval of one minute. Therefore, the rat is on a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement.

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  • 12. 

    A _____ reinforcer is one that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a _____ reinforcer. Select one:

    • A.

      Negative; positive

    • B.

      Conditioned; punishing

    • C.

      Primary; conditioned

    • D.

      Conditioned; primary

    Correct Answer
    D. Conditioned; primary
    Explanation
    A conditioned reinforcer is one that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforcer. This means that the conditioned reinforcer becomes reinforcing through its association with a primary reinforcer, such as food or water. The conditioned reinforcer may initially have no inherent reinforcing value, but through repeated pairing with a primary reinforcer, it becomes a powerful motivator.

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  • 13. 

    Terry wants his teenage daughter, Lauren, to help him with the housework, so he tells her that she can play “The Sims” on his computer as soon as she finishes doing the dinner dishes and putting away the clean laundry. Which strategy is Terry using? Select one:  

    • A.

      The Premack principle

    • B.

      Time-out from positive reinforcement

    • C.

      Reinforcing an incompatible behavior

    • D.

      Punishment by removal

    Correct Answer
    A. The Premack principle
    Explanation
    Terry is using the Premack principle. The Premack principle states that a more preferred activity can be used as a reward or reinforcement for a less preferred activity. In this case, Terry is using the opportunity to play "The Sims" as a reward for completing the housework tasks of doing the dinner dishes and putting away the clean laundry. By allowing Lauren to engage in the preferred activity after completing the less preferred tasks, Terry is using the Premack principle to motivate and reinforce her behavior.

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  • 14. 

    In operant conditioning, reinforcement is: Select one:  

    • A.

      Related to internal events that are subsequently observable through overt behavior.

    • B.

      Maintained by associations made with other learned stimuli.

    • C.

      Defined by the effect that it produces—increasing or strengthening behavior.

    • D.

      Based upon behaviors that are elicited by discriminative stimuli.

    Correct Answer
    C. Defined by the effect that it produces—increasing or strengthening behavior.
    Explanation
    Reinforcement in operant conditioning is defined by the effect it produces, which is an increase or strengthening of behavior. This means that when a behavior is reinforced, it is more likely to occur again in the future. This can be achieved through various means, such as providing rewards or positive consequences for the behavior. The focus is on the outcome or consequence of the behavior, rather than any internal events or associations with other stimuli.

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  • 15. 

    The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses is called: Select one:  

    • A.

      Stimulus discrimination.

    • B.

      Stimulus generalization.

    • C.

      Conditioning.

    • D.

      Extinction.

    Correct Answer
    C. Conditioning.
    Explanation
    Conditioning refers to the process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses. It involves the pairing of a specific stimulus with a particular response, leading to the formation of a conditioned response. This process can occur through classical conditioning, where a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a reflexive response, or through operant conditioning, where a behavior is reinforced or punished to increase or decrease its occurrence. Stimulus discrimination and stimulus generalization are related concepts that occur within the context of conditioning, while extinction refers to the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

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  • 16. 

    Positive reinforcement is to negative reinforcement as: Select one:  

    • A.

      Addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of an aversive stimulus.

    • B.

      Primary reinforcer is to conditioned reinforcer.

    • C.

      Increase in behavior is to decrease in behavior.

    • D.

      Addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of a reinforcing stimulus.

    Correct Answer
    A. Addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of an aversive stimulus.
    Explanation
    Positive reinforcement involves adding a reinforcing stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring again in the future. Negative reinforcement involves removing an aversive stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring again in the future. Therefore, the relationship between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement is that the addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to the removal of an aversive stimulus.

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  • 17. 

    Caleb had a wonderful time on his first date with Shauna. Because of this, he asked Shauna to go out on a second date. What best explains Caleb’s behavior of asking Shauna for another date? Select one:

    • A.

      Latent learning

    • B.

      Response generalization

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D.

      The law of effect

    Correct Answer
    D. The law of effect
    Explanation
    The law of effect suggests that Caleb's behavior of asking Shauna for another date is motivated by the positive experience he had on their first date. According to this principle, behaviors that are followed by positive consequences are more likely to be repeated in the future. In this case, Caleb's enjoyment of the first date likely reinforced his desire to go on a second date with Shauna.

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  • 18. 

    Who discovered the basic process of classical conditioning? Select one:  

    • A.

      Robert Rescorla

    • B.

      B. F. Skinner

    • C.

      John B. Watson

    • D.

      Ivan Pavlov

    Correct Answer
    D. Ivan Pavlov
    Explanation
    Ivan Pavlov is credited with discovering the basic process of classical conditioning. He conducted experiments with dogs, where he observed that the dogs would salivate in response to the sound of a bell after repeatedly pairing the sound with the presentation of food. This led to the understanding that a neutral stimulus (the bell) could elicit a conditioned response (salivation) through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus (food). Pavlov's work laid the foundation for understanding how associations are formed between stimuli and responses, and his findings have had a significant impact on the field of psychology.

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  • 19. 

    Every Friday, Dr. Cruz would give a quiz in his psychology class. Students quickly learned to be nervous on Friday mornings, just before each quiz. Halfway through the semester, Dr. Cruz stopped giving quizzes on Fridays and the students' anxiety began to diminish with each passing week in which there was no quiz. The decrease in the students' anxiety may be attributed to the process of:

    • A.

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • B.

      Extinction.

    • C.

      Stimulus generalization.

    • D.

      Latent learning.

    Correct Answer
    B. Extinction.
    Explanation
    The decrease in the students' anxiety can be attributed to extinction. Extinction is the process of reducing or eliminating a conditioned response by repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. In this case, the conditioned stimulus is Friday mornings, which used to be associated with quizzes and caused anxiety. However, when Dr. Cruz stopped giving quizzes on Fridays, the association between Friday mornings and quizzes was broken, leading to a decrease in anxiety over time. This is an example of extinction because the conditioned response (anxiety) is gradually reduced or eliminated when the conditioned stimulus (Friday mornings) is no longer followed by the unconditioned stimulus (quizzes).

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  • 20. 

    Jake is a recovering alcoholic. He has not had a drink of alcohol in over 6 months. One of the strategies that Jake has used to remain abstinent has been to stay away from bars, avoid parties in which alcohol is served, and even find new friends who do not drink alcohol. Jake is overcoming the short-term reinforcement he associated with alcohol use by using which strategy?

    • A.

      Reinforcement delay

    • B.

      Negative reinforcement

    • C.

      Motivational commitment

    • D.

      Stimulus control

    Correct Answer
    D. Stimulus control
    Explanation
    Jake is using the strategy of stimulus control to overcome the short-term reinforcement he associated with alcohol use. By staying away from bars, avoiding parties with alcohol, and finding new friends who do not drink, Jake is removing the environmental cues and triggers that previously reinforced his alcohol use. This strategy helps Jake to control his exposure to alcohol-related stimuli and reduces the likelihood of relapse.

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  • 21. 

    A group of techniques that induce an altered state of focused attention and heightened awareness is a definition of:

    • A.

      Memory consolidation.

    • B.

      Somnambulism.

    • C.

      Meditation.

    • D.

      Age regression.

    Correct Answer
    C. Meditation.
    Explanation
    Meditation is a practice that involves inducing an altered state of focused attention and heightened awareness. It is a technique used to calm the mind, increase self-awareness, and promote relaxation. Through various methods such as mindfulness, breathing exercises, and visualization, meditation can help individuals achieve a state of deep relaxation and mental clarity. This definition aligns with the concept of meditation and distinguishes it from the other options such as memory consolidation, somnambulism, and age regression, which do not involve the same techniques or goals as meditation.

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  • 22. 

    Animals: Select one:  

    • A.

      Experience global brain deactivation during sleep and do not dream.

    • B.

      Experience sleep cycles in which REM sleep alternates with slow-wave NREM sleep.

    • C.

      Only experience NREM sleep.

    • D.

      Only experience REM sleep during mating season.

    Correct Answer
    B. Experience sleep cycles in which REM sleep alternates with slow-wave NREM sleep.
    Explanation
    Animals experience sleep cycles in which REM sleep alternates with slow-wave NREM sleep. This means that animals go through different stages of sleep, including both REM (rapid eye movement) sleep and slow-wave NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep. During REM sleep, animals may exhibit behaviors such as dreaming or rapid eye movements. Slow-wave NREM sleep is a deep and restorative sleep stage. The alternating cycles of REM and NREM sleep help animals to get the necessary rest and recovery they need for optimal functioning.

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  • 23. 

    What happens in the brain of a person who is physically addicted to an addictive drug, such as cocaine, heroin, or nicotine? Select one:

    • A.

      The number of dopamine receptors in the brain’s reward system decreases.

    • B.

      The number of endorphin receptors in the brain’s reward system decreases.

    • C.

      The number of dopamine receptors in the brain’s reward system increases but the number of endorphin receptors in the brain’s motivation system drops.

    • D.

      It varies greatly, depending upon the specific addictive drug.

    Correct Answer
    D. It varies greatly, depending upon the specific addictive drug.
  • 24. 

    PET scans of former methamphetamine users showed that even after months of abstinence: Select one:  

    • A.

      They experienced occasional episodes of delirium tremens.

    • B.

      They had an abnormally low number of dopamine receptors and transporters.

    • C.

      They had an abnormally low number of serotonin receptors and transporters.

    • D.

      Withdrawal symptoms of “crashing” and flashbacks were still common.

    Correct Answer
    B. They had an abnormally low number of dopamine receptors and transporters.
    Explanation
    Former methamphetamine users who have been abstinent for months show an abnormally low number of dopamine receptors and transporters in PET scans. This suggests that the drug has had a lasting impact on their brain's dopamine system, which is responsible for reward and pleasure. This could explain why these individuals may continue to experience cravings and difficulties with motivation and pleasure even after quitting methamphetamine use.

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  • 25. 

    The most widely used psychoactive drug in the world is: Select one:  

    • A.

      Heroin.

    • B.

      Marijuana.

    • C.

      Cocaine.

    • D.

      Caffeine.

    Correct Answer
    D. Caffeine.
    Explanation
    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world because it is found in many common beverages such as coffee, tea, and soda. It is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system, providing a temporary boost in energy and alertness. Unlike other drugs like heroin, marijuana, and cocaine, caffeine is legal and socially accepted in most cultures. Its widespread availability and relatively mild effects make it the drug of choice for many people seeking a quick pick-me-up.

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  • 26. 

    If you are like most people, you experience a daily slump in your mental alertness around 3 o'clock each afternoon. This daily fluctuation in mental alertness is an example of: Select one:  

    • A.

      A circadian rhythm.

    • B.

      Delta brain wave activity.

    • C.

      REM rebound.

    • D.

      Narcolepsy.

    Correct Answer
    A. A circadian rhythm.
    Explanation
    The daily slump in mental alertness around 3 o'clock each afternoon is a common experience for most people, indicating a regular pattern or cycle. This pattern is known as a circadian rhythm, which refers to the natural 24-hour cycle that regulates various physiological processes, including sleep-wake cycles and mental alertness. This explanation aligns with the given correct answer of "a circadian rhythm."

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  • 27. 

    Mrs. Wilkinson notices that her middle-aged husband stops breathing in his sleep, awakens slightly to gulp in air, then goes back to sleep. This happens several times a night. Mr. Wilkinson is displaying which of the following sleep disorders? Select one:  

    • A.

      REM sleep behavior disorder

    • B.

      Nocturnal enuresis

    • C.

      Sleep apnea

    • D.

      Narcolepsy

    Correct Answer
    C. Sleep apnea
    Explanation
    Mr. Wilkinson is displaying sleep apnea, which is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or shallow breathing during sleep. This causes the person to awaken slightly to gulp in air before going back to sleep. This pattern of interrupted breathing can occur multiple times throughout the night.

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  • 28. 

    According to the Critical Thinking Box, “Is Hypnosis a Special State of Consciousness?”, studies of hypnosis using brain-imaging techniques tend to support which view of hypnosis? Select one:  

    • A.

      That hypnosis has no effect on brain activity, but people who claim to be hypnotized don't realize that they are faking their responses.

    • B.

      That people who claim to be hypnotized are consciously faking their responses.

    • C.

      That hypnosis is simply role-playing and is probably not a special state of consciousness.

    • D.

      That hypnosis is a distinct mental state, and not merely role-playing.

    Correct Answer
    D. That hypnosis is a distinct mental state, and not merely role-playing.
    Explanation
    The question asks about the view of hypnosis that is supported by studies using brain-imaging techniques. The correct answer states that these studies support the view that hypnosis is a distinct mental state, and not merely role-playing. This implies that the brain activity observed during hypnosis is different from normal consciousness, suggesting that hypnosis is a unique state of mind.

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  • 29. 

    The rhythmic electrical patterns of the brain are called: Select one:  

    • A.

      BRAC, which stand for “brain rest-activity cycle.”

    • B.

      Brain waves.

    • C.

      Circadian rhythms.

    • D.

      Cerebral oscillation.

    Correct Answer
    B. Brain waves.
    Explanation
    Brain waves refer to the rhythmic electrical patterns that are produced by the brain. These patterns can be measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and are associated with different states of consciousness, such as wakefulness, sleep, and meditation. Brain waves are categorized into different frequencies, including delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma waves, each representing different levels of brain activity. Therefore, brain waves are the correct term to describe the rhythmic electrical patterns of the brain.

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  • 30. 

    Long-term methamphetamine use can produce damage to the brain's Select one:  

    • A.

      Visual system, impairing the ability to see fine details.

    • B.

      Dopamine system, which is associated with memory and motor skill problems.

    • C.

      Serotonin system, which is associated with severe depression.

    • D.

      Anandamide system, which is associated with increased pain sensitivity.

    Correct Answer
    B. Dopamine system, which is associated with memory and motor skill problems.
    Explanation
    Long-term methamphetamine use can lead to damage in the brain's dopamine system, which is responsible for regulating memory and motor skills. This damage can result in problems with memory and motor skills, affecting the individual's ability to remember and perform physical movements efficiently.

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  • 31. 

    In recent decades, psychologists have again focused on the study of consciousness. One reason this has occurred is because: Select one:  

    • A.

      Freud's views on the importance of unconscious mental processes have been disregarded.

    • B.

      Psychologists have devised more objective ways to study conscious experience.

    • C.

      Structuralism has become the dominant school in psychology, which has brought with it a return to an emphasis on introspection.

    • D.

      Hypnagogic hallucinations have been discovered.

    Correct Answer
    B. Psychologists have devised more objective ways to study conscious experience.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is psychologists have devised more objective ways to study conscious experience. In recent years, advancements in technology and research methods have allowed psychologists to study consciousness in a more objective and scientific manner. This has led to a renewed interest in the study of consciousness and a shift away from Freud's emphasis on unconscious mental processes.

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  • 32. 

    Dr. Repetti is a sleep researcher who wishes to record the rhythmic electrical patterns of the brain. He is most likely to use which of the following methods? Select one:

    • A.

      The electroencephalograph

    • B.

      Tracking changes in breathing, blood pressure, and body temperature

    • C.

      MRI scans

    • D.

      Monitoring blood levels of melatonin

    Correct Answer
    A. The electroencephalograph
    Explanation
    Dr. Repetti is a sleep researcher who wants to record the rhythmic electrical patterns of the brain. The electroencephalograph (EEG) is a device used to measure and record the electrical activity of the brain. It is commonly used in sleep research to study brain waves and patterns during different stages of sleep. Therefore, it is the most likely method that Dr. Repetti would use to achieve his research goals.

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  • 33. 

    REM sleep is also called: Select one:

    • A.

      Paradoxical sleep.

    • B.

      NREM sleep.

    • C.

      Sleep spindles.

    • D.

      Hypnagogic hallucinations.

    Correct Answer
    A. Paradoxical sleep.
    Explanation
    REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep because during this stage of sleep, the brain is highly active and resembles the waking state, while the body is in a state of paralysis. This paradoxical combination of brain activity and muscle relaxation is what gives REM sleep its name. It is characterized by rapid eye movements, vivid dreaming, and increased brain activity, making it distinct from NREM sleep. Sleep spindles and hypnagogic hallucinations are not terms used to describe REM sleep.

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  • 34. 

    The term ___________ is used to describe the condition in which a person has adapted to a drug and must continue to take it regularly in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Select one:  

    • A.

      Dissociation

    • B.

      Rebound syndrome

    • C.

      Physical dependence

    • D.

      Drug abuse

    Correct Answer
    C. Physical dependence
    Explanation
    Physical dependence is the term used to describe the condition in which a person has adapted to a drug and must continue to take it regularly in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms. This means that their body has become reliant on the drug and needs it to function normally. If they were to suddenly stop taking the drug, they would experience withdrawal symptoms as their body adjusts to the absence of the drug. This is different from drug abuse, which refers to the misuse or excessive use of a drug.

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  • 35. 

    Kenyon was picked up by police after he became extremely violent and aggressive at a street party. After he attacked two of the police officers, they put handcuffs on him but he seemed invulnerable to pain. Even after he was put in the back of the squad car, he was completely disoriented and seemed to have no idea where he was. Kenyon was probably under the influence of which of the following drugs? Select one:  

    • A.

      Marijuana

    • B.

      MDMA (ecstasy)

    • C.

      Heroin

    • D.

      PCP (phencyclidine)

    Correct Answer
    D. PCP (phencyclidine)
    Explanation
    Kenyon's extreme aggression, invulnerability to pain, disorientation, and lack of awareness of his surroundings are consistent with the effects of PCP (phencyclidine). PCP is known to cause aggressive and violent behavior, as well as a dissociative state where individuals may feel detached from reality and experience confusion. It can also cause a numbing effect, making individuals less sensitive to pain. Therefore, based on Kenyon's behavior and symptoms, it is likely that he was under the influence of PCP.

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  • 36. 

    Brandy is fond of attending all-night raves at a dance club near her home. Some of the raves are drug-free, but at one rave she saw a friend who was sweating profusely, chewing ice and a plastic pacifier, drinking large quantities of water, and hugging everyone in reach as he proclaimed his love for all humanity. Brandy suspected that her friend was probably high on _____.

    • A.

      PCP (angel dust)

    • B.

      Cocaine

    • C.

      Alcohol

    • D.

      MDMA (ecstasy)

    Correct Answer
    D. MDMA (ecstasy)
    Explanation
    Based on the given symptoms, such as sweating profusely, chewing ice and a plastic pacifier, drinking large quantities of water, and expressing love for all humanity, it suggests that Brandy's friend is likely high on MDMA (ecstasy). MDMA is a recreational drug that is known to cause increased energy, euphoria, heightened sensory perception, and a desire for physical contact and emotional connection with others.

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  • 37. 

    According to psychologists, the formal meaning of the term drug abuse is: Select one:  

    • A.

      The use of any drug to alter consciousness.

    • B.

      The use of any illegal drug.

    • C.

      Recurrent drug use that results in disrupted academic, social, or occupational functioning, or in legal or psychological problems

    • D.

      A pattern of recurrent drug use that results in physical addiction to an illegal drug.

    Correct Answer
    C. Recurrent drug use that results in disrupted academic, social, or occupational functioning, or in legal or psychological problems
    Explanation
    The formal meaning of the term drug abuse, according to psychologists, is recurrent drug use that leads to negative consequences such as disrupted academic, social, or occupational functioning, or legal or psychological problems. This definition emphasizes the harmful effects of drug use on various aspects of a person's life, beyond just the legality of the drug.

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  • 38. 

    Moderate or heavy use of MDMA (ecstasy) can lead to irreversible damage to the brain's _____ system. Select one:  

    • A.

      Dopamine

    • B.

      Anandamide

    • C.

      Serotonin

    • D.

      Endorphin

    Correct Answer
    C. Serotonin
    Explanation
    Moderate or heavy use of MDMA (ecstasy) can lead to irreversible damage to the brain's serotonin system. MDMA primarily affects the release and reuptake of serotonin in the brain, causing a surge of serotonin levels. However, prolonged and excessive use of MDMA can deplete the brain's serotonin levels, leading to long-term damage to the serotonin system. This can result in various neurological and psychiatric problems, including depression, anxiety, memory impairment, and sleep disturbances.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following statements best explains why consciousness has been viewed as a “stream” or “river”? Select one:  

    • A.

      Even though the contents of consciousness are constantly changing, we subjectively experience consciousness as being continuous and unbroken.

    • B.

      Although we are aware of some of the contents of consciousness, consciousness can only be understood if you look below the “water line” at thought processes of which we are unaware.

    • C.

      Consciousness can only be understood by looking at the environmental forces that shape our conscious thoughts.

    • D.

      Consciousness can only be understood by using introspection.

    Correct Answer
    A. Even though the contents of consciousness are constantly changing, we subjectively experience consciousness as being continuous and unbroken.
    Explanation
    The statement explains that consciousness is viewed as a "stream" or "river" because even though the contents of consciousness are constantly changing, we subjectively experience consciousness as being continuous and unbroken. This suggests that our conscious experience flows seamlessly from one moment to the next, similar to how a stream or river flows continuously.

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  • 40. 

    Dreaming usually takes place during _____ sleep and is typically accompanied by _____. Select one:

    • A.

      NREM; voluntary muscle movements, including thrashing and sleepwalking

    • B.

      Deep; minimal brain activity

    • C.

      REM; voluntary muscle movements, talking, and sleepwalking

    • D.

      REM; physiological arousal, brain activity, and rapid movement of the eyes

    Correct Answer
    D. REM; physiological arousal, brain activity, and rapid movement of the eyes
    Explanation
    During REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, dreaming usually takes place. This stage of sleep is characterized by physiological arousal, increased brain activity, and rapid movement of the eyes.

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  • 41. 

    On Halloween night, Jackie and some friends visited an abandoned house that was said to be haunted. Jackie heard a strange noise and was convinced that she had heard the footsteps of a ghost. But Beth, who also heard the sound, insisted that it was just a broken door rattling in the wind. Jackie's interpretation probably reflects: Select one:

    • A.

      The law of Prägnanz.

    • B.

      Her clairvoyant ability to detect the presence of the ghost.

    • C.

      Her perceptual set that the house was haunted.

    • D.

      An auditory perceptual illusion, called induced sensation.

    Correct Answer
    C. Her perceptual set that the house was haunted.
    Explanation
    Jackie's interpretation probably reflects her perceptual set that the house was haunted. This means that Jackie's prior beliefs and expectations about the house being haunted influenced her perception of the strange noise. Her belief in the haunted nature of the house caused her to interpret the noise as the footsteps of a ghost, while Beth, who did not share the same belief, interpreted it as just a broken door rattling in the wind. This shows how our expectations and beliefs can shape our perception of the world around us.

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  • 42. 

    As you glance at the person sitting next to you in class, light reflected from the person's shirt first passes through which three structures of your eye? Select one:  

    • A.

      Pupil, iris, lens

    • B.

      Cornea, iris, pupil

    • C.

      Cornea, pupil, lens

    • D.

      Fovea, iris, pupil

    Correct Answer
    C. Cornea, pupil, lens
  • 43. 

    The primary function served by the middle ear is to: Select one:

    • A.

      Collect sound waves.

    • B.

      Mute loud sounds.

    • C.

      Amplify the vibration of sound waves.

    • D.

      Help pinpoint the location of sounds.

    Correct Answer
    C. Amplify the vibration of sound waves.
    Explanation
    The middle ear serves the primary function of amplifying the vibration of sound waves. This is achieved through a chain of small bones called the ossicles, which transmit and amplify the sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. This amplification is necessary because the sound waves that reach the middle ear are typically weak, and need to be intensified in order for the inner ear to detect and process them effectively. Amplification in the middle ear allows for better perception and understanding of sounds.

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  • 44. 

    In a carefully conducted study, which of the following therapies was shown to relieve pain and improve function in 500 patients with arthritis of the knee? Select one:  

    • A.

      Magnet therapy

    • B.

      Massage therapy

    • C.

      Biofeedback

    • D.

      Acupuncture

    Correct Answer
    D. Acupuncture
    Explanation
    Acupuncture was shown to relieve pain and improve function in 500 patients with arthritis of the knee. This suggests that acupuncture may be an effective therapy for managing pain and improving function in individuals with knee arthritis.

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  • 45. 

    The _____ thickens or thins to focus incoming light. This process is called _____. Select one:  

    • A.

      Lens; accommodation

    • B.

      Iris; sensory adaptation

    • C.

      Pupil; accommodation

    • D.

      Pupil; sensory adaptation

    Correct Answer
    A. Lens; accommodation
    Explanation
    The lens of the eye is responsible for adjusting its thickness in order to focus incoming light onto the retina. This process is called accommodation.

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  • 46. 

    What happens when rods and cones are exposed to light? Select one:  

    • A.

      They undergo accommodation

    • B.

      They undergo a chemical reaction that results in a neural signal.

    • C.

      They become more light-sensitive and thus cause an increase in visual acuity.

    • D.

      They create problems with dark adaptation in the fovea.

    Correct Answer
    B. They undergo a chemical reaction that results in a neural signal.
    Explanation
    When rods and cones are exposed to light, they undergo a chemical reaction that results in a neural signal. This is the process of phototransduction, where the light energy is converted into an electrical signal that can be transmitted to the brain for visual processing. This reaction involves the activation of photopigments in the rods and cones, which leads to a change in their membrane potential and the release of neurotransmitters, ultimately generating a neural signal that can be interpreted as visual information.

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  • 47. 

    Jill runs a hot bath. She starts to get into the tub but the water feels extremely hot. She stands in the hot water for a few moments, then slowly sits down, easing the rest of her body into the water. After a few minutes, she feels quite comfortable; the water no longer feels too hot to her. Jill has experienced: Select one:

    • A.

      Sensory anesthesia.

    • B.

      Sensory numbing.

    • C.

      Sensory adaptation.

    • D.

      Weber's law.

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensory adaptation.
    Explanation
    Sensory adaptation refers to the process by which our sensory receptors become less responsive to a constant stimulus over time. In this scenario, Jill initially feels the water in the tub as extremely hot, but as she stays in the water, her sensory receptors adapt to the constant temperature, and she starts to feel comfortable. This change in perception of the water's temperature is an example of sensory adaptation.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following represents the correct sequence of events in hearing? Select one:  

    • A.

      Inner ear, middle ear, outer ear

    • B.

      Pinna, ear canal, eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, oval window, cochlea, basilar membrane, hair cells, auditory nerve

    • C.

      Pinna, ear canal, oval window, stirrup, anvil, hammer, cochlea, hair cells, basilar membrane

    • D.

      Pinna, ear canal, basilar membrane, eardrum, cochlea, oval window, anvil, hammer, stirrup, hair cells, auditory nerve

    Correct Answer
    B. Pinna, ear canal, eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, oval window, cochlea, basilar membrane, hair cells, auditory nerve
    Explanation
    The correct sequence of events in hearing starts with the pinna, which collects sound waves and directs them into the ear canal. The sound waves then reach the eardrum, causing it to vibrate. These vibrations are then transmitted to the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, which amplify the vibrations and transmit them to the oval window. The oval window transfers the vibrations to the cochlea, where the basilar membrane and hair cells convert the vibrations into electrical signals. Finally, these electrical signals are transmitted to the auditory nerve, which sends them to the brain for interpretation.

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  • 49. 

    In order to answer this test item, you must read the words on this page. Detecting the black marks on the page relies on the process of _____, and the ability to interpret these black lines and curves as letters and words involves the process of _____. Select one:    

    • A.

      Sensory threshold; sensory receptors

    • B.

      Sensation; perception

    • C.

      Writing; reading

    • D.

      Sensory capacity; sensory adaptation

    Correct Answer
    B. Sensation; perception
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "sensation; perception." Sensation refers to the process of detecting and receiving information from the environment through our sensory organs, such as seeing the black marks on the page. Perception, on the other hand, involves the interpretation and understanding of these sensory inputs, allowing us to recognize the black lines and curves as letters and words.

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  • 50. 

    The inner ear includes which of the following structures? Select one:  

    • A.

      The pinna, cochlea, and stirrup

    • B.

      The cochlea, basilar membrane, and hair cells

    • C.

      The anvil, oval window, and inner window

    • D.

      The eardrum, oval window, and basilar membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. The cochlea, basilar membrane, and hair cells
    Explanation
    The inner ear includes the cochlea, basilar membrane, and hair cells. The cochlea is responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain. The basilar membrane is a structure within the cochlea that vibrates in response to different frequencies of sound, allowing us to perceive different pitches. Hair cells are located on the basilar membrane and help to convert the mechanical vibrations of sound into electrical signals that can be transmitted to the brain for processing.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 11, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Khoey88
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